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California State Library 


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£cG30-S P/ 

'CT 1899 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2014 


Vol. LII. No. I, 



Office. 220 Market Street. 

The University Experi = 
merit Station near 
Paso Robles. 

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niversity of Califor- 
ddition to its central 
ent station at Ber- 
as four well equipped 
stations for field, 
orchard and vine- 
ops and two additional 
for forestry experi- 
This distribution of 
ment stations is under- 
to secure the results of 
I various plants and 
ds in the various cli- 
mates and soils of California, 
which are so diverse that con- 
clusions reached in one place 
may be unwarranted in an- 
other. In the reports which 
are issued from Berkeley, and 
sent free to all who apply for 
them to Professor Howard, 
are given the comparative re- 
sults secured by the whole 
system of investigation and 

The upper engraving on 
this page gives a view of the 
experiment station building 

near Paso Robles. The station is established upon 
twenty acres of land donated to the University for 
this purpose by J. V. Webster. It is situated about 
one and one-half miles northeast of the town of Paso 
Robles. The immediate region receives usually a 
light rainfall and suffers wide extremes of cold and 
heat. It is therefore a good place for experiment to 
determine what can be successfully grown in the 
more trying locations in the Southern Coast Range 
region of California, but especially for the district 
removed from the modifying influences of the imme- 



diate coast. The cut shows the main building, erect- 
ed by local subscriptions, and with the land pre- 
sented to the university. The improvements consist 
of orchard and vineyard planting, experiment plots 
of cereals, grasses and other forage plants, collec- 
tions of shade and ornamental trees, so far as funds 
have allowed their planting, and other interesting 
things which are entertaining and instructive to 
visitors. The foreman at Paso Robles station is 
Arnold V. Stubenrauch, who goes to the work after 
a course of several years' study at the University. 

The lower engraving shows one of the resources of 
the Paso Robles station which is not the least inter- 
esting, and that is the group of Persian fat-tailed 
sheep introduced by the United States Department 
of Agriculture from Asia a few years ago. These 
sheep have mutton points which are highly esteemed 
abroad and some of the California sheep men are try- 
ing the effect of a Persian cross upon the common 
Merino. The results attained so far are promising. 
The State Fair will this year provide a separate 
class for the Persian sheep, so the foreigners are 
gaining recognition in high places. 
The small corner engraving shows 
the distinctive appendage from 
which this breed of sheep takes 
its name. It is said to be a cut 
of the carcass highly esteemed by 
epicures. It has also been claimed 
to act as a sort of storage batterv 
of energy for the animal, for its 
size is increased by plenty and 
reduced by famine — the stored-up 
adipose of the tail being called 
upon to sustain the animal when, 
owing to uncertain seasons in an 
arid country, it might otherwise 

A San Bernardino letter of 
June 26th tells of a new insect 
pest, the beetle Serin fimbriate, 
which is causing destruction by 
eating the foliage of the orchards. 
They are in such numbers that 
the fruit growers fear great losses 
from their ravages. 


...5TATE... *] 

A dispatch from Orange, dated 
June 25, states that the best sale 
of oranges this season in that 
place has been made by Campbell 
Brothers. They sold their Valen- 
cia late oranges at 3£ cents per 
pound on the tree. 


July 4, 1896. 


Office. No. jjo Market St.: Elevator. No. 12 Front xt... San Francisco, Cat. 


AdvertMnu rates made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any suoject to* tto Rural 
Pkkss. with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
■•olumns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 

as promptly as practicable. 

Our latent form* sjn to pre*.* Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mail matter^ 

ALFRED HOLJIAN i"."^""d5f^' 

K. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 4, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Main Building at the University Culture Sta- 
tion near Paso Robles; Persian Fat-Tailed Sheep at Paso Robles 
Culture Experiment Station, I. 

EDITORIAL. — The University Experiment Station near Paso 
Robles. 1. The Week, 2. , _ _ 

HORTICULTURE — Small Fruits in Southern California: The Jona- 
than Apple in New Mexico. 5. 

ARBORICULTURE —American Nut Growing, 5. 

FLORIST AND GARDENER.-Onion Culture, 6. 

TPE DAIRY.— Some Studies in Cattle Feeding, 6-7-8. 

THE POULTRY YARD — Notes from t lie Poultry Keeper. S. 

TRACK AND FARM.— The Horse Product ; To Drive Flies Out of 
Stables, 9. _ . 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— He Is .lust Away: A Severe Experiment: 
Cems of Thought, 10. Fashion Notes : Robin Farmer Boy: About 
the Baby, 11. „ , „ . 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY — Hints to Housekeepers: Recipes, II. 

MARKET REPORT.— The Produce Market: Dried Fruit Market. 13. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From the State Lecturer, 14. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Valley Road Grain Rates; Meets the Cut; 
Pith of the Week's News: Cleanings, 3. Weather and Crops; 
Alfalfa Dodder or Love Vine: Dried Peeled Peaches: American 
Fruits in Germany: Citv and Country, 4. You Cannot See Fire; 
Formula for Purifying Ordinary Water. 18. Coast Industrial 
Notes, 15. 


(New this issue.) /'age. 

Wagons, etc.— Hooker & Co J* 

Home Library and Supply Association 13 

Hay Presses, etc.— I. J. Truman 13 

Cripple Creek Mines— E. B. Myers 13 

Hoitt's School, Burlingame. Cal 12 

Smith's Cash Store • J; 

Horse Liniment— H. H. Moore & Sons, Stockton, Cal 14 

Dried Fruit Brokers— Holcombe Bros 13 

Farmers' Handy Wagon— W. C. Rarig 14 

Cleaning Machinery— M O'Brien 18 

The Week. 

Weather and Crops. 

The long spell of north winds in the interior valleys 
was broken at the close of last week, but not until 
its desiccation had tried the ripening grain severely 
in some localities, and the threshers are turning out 
a good deal of thin wheat. Harvesting is now on 
everywhere except in the late regions. Fruit is 
coming along rapidly and goes out of sight very fast. 
Nothing like the usual preparations for drying are 
oeing made this year, and the product promises to 
be quite as light as prophesied. The weather has 
favored the driers in the interior as quite a high 
temperature range is noted. 

The following data for the week ending 5 A. m. 
Wednesday, July 1, 1896, are from official sources, 
and are furnished by the United States Weather 
Bureau for the Pacific Rural Press : 


Total Rainfall 
for the Week. . . 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall to 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall Last 
Year to Same 

Average Season- 
al Rainfall to 

Maximum Tem- 
perature for the 

Minimum Tem- 
perature for the 



25 17 



Red Bluff 



25 50 







San Francisco 

21 25 


23 66 





14 67 




San Luis Obispo — 






Los Angeles 




, '8 


San Diego 

5 92 


6 73 






3 07 

I 108 


« Indicates no record. 

Experiment in Hemp Culture. 

"Some months ago," says the Gridley llerahl, 
" we announced the inauguration of a new industry 
for Butte county — and in fact California — in the 
growing of hemp by Norman S. Kirk. Mr. Kirk's 
ranch is about two miles east of Gridley and consists 
mainly of rich bottom lands. It has heretofore been 
devoted to grain, but this year Mr. Kirk, who is 
from Illinois, determined to try a more profitable 
crop. Two hundred acres were thoroughly plowed 
and cultivated and planted to hemp. It has made a 
marvelous growth and now stands, on an average, 
nine feet high; and by the time it is ready for cut- 
ting it will reach a height of fifteen feet. Mr. Kirk 
expects to cut the crop by harvesters, the plant 
then being left to cure in the field. When dry it 
will be hauled to the river or to a reservoir and there 
soaked until rotten, when the fiber is separated and 
shipped East for manufacture into hempen products. 
A large lot of machinery has been brought from the 
Kast for the purpose of breaking the hemp and is 
now being placed in position." 

The Atherton Ostrich Ranch. 

While the business of ostrich farming has not 
proved to be largely profitable in California, as was 

once hoped, it has not died out. Mr. Edward Ather- 
ton, whose place is near Anaheim, is still hopeful and 
proposes to pursue the experiment still further. 
Eleven chicks have recently been hatched at the 
ranch, and Mr. Atherton expects to hatch about 
fifty more. The cold weather was hard on the eggs, 
and the increase of chicks was below the normal av- 
erage. Two years ago 130 birds were hatched. 
There are 71 large birds on the farm. 

Kamie on a Large Scale. 

An experiment in ramie culture on a large scale 
is being made in the lake region near Hanford. An 
area of 250 acres is being planted, thirty-five men 
being engaged in the work. For reasons which are 
not explained, this operation has been kept secret 
until recently, and even now it is not known who is 
backing the project. 

The Dixon Experiment. 

Readers of the Rural Press will remember, no 
doubt, that the farmers about Dixon, Solano County, 
undertook last year a systematic experiment in 
sugar beet culture. They sent a committee to in- 
vestigate the conditions of beet growing at Alvarado, 
Watsonville and elsewhere, and as a consequence of 
its report, about 100 farmers undertook to plant and 
cultivate an experimental beet crop, during the 
present season. The Dixon Tribune thus reports 

As was expected, the experiment will be a success with 
some farmers, while with a large number of others it will be 
a comparative failure, due to the varying cultivation and care 
bestowed upon the fields. Our farmers are not yet familiar 
with the methods of cultivation necessary to produce the best 
results, but if they have secured fair samples, which on 
analysis will give an idea of the capabilities of our soil and 
climate, they will have accomplished their object. 

If the test is satisfactory, and we feel safe in predicting 
that it will be, they must then give serious attention and 
close study to the requirements of the beet in the way of cul- 
tivation to the end that quality and quantity shall bo'th be 

In many patches the beets are straggling, showing that care 
was not taken in planting. The tendency of this where the 
soil is in good condition is to develop a beet too large for use 
at the factory. This fault is easily corrected, and after the 
first season there is not likely to be any further complaint on 
this score. 

A more serious fault with the cultivation as it has been done 
in most of the experimental patches, lies in the fact that it is 
not deep enough. The soil should be mellow and loose as far 
down as the body of the beet extends. The most that has 
been done by a majority of the planters is to loosen the soil on 
the surface, leaving it below hard as adamant. The result of 
this is to cramp and dwarf the beet and force it above ground. 
The beet should develop entirely below ground, as there is no 
sugar in the sun-burned tops, and they are rejected by the 

It is probable that many planters will be discouraged and 
think that our section is not adapted for beet culture. This 
is not the case, but it will require time to overcome the 
natural difficulties and obstacles of an entirely new industry 
and it may require several seasons to do it. The sugar beet 
industry promises much for the future of Solano county and it 
must be made a success when it is demonstrated that a proper 
knowledge of cultivation is all that is required to develop it. 

One Good Farmer's Method. 

The Sonoma Farmer thus writes of the farming 
methods of Mr. L. L. Cannon on the old Clark ranch, 
midway between Santa Rosa and Petaluma : 

Mr. L. L. Cannon will have about 340 acres of fine wheat, 
perhaps the best in the county, on the Clark ranch, the site 
of the old halfway house on the east road, between Santa 
Rosa and Petaluma. In filling his silo on the Two Rock 
ranch this year Mr. Cannon used about equal parts of oat and 
barley hay, cutting the latter pretty ripe. To this strong 
feed he will try the experiment of adding a ration of bran. 
After filling the silo he plowed the land and planted corn. 
Two or three rains since and favorable weather have given 
an exceptionally fine stand. Since cutting 80 acres for hay 
the wild oats have come along so nicely that Mr. Cannon will 
allow them to sow themselves for a volunteer crop. He in- 
tends to plant ho acres to corn next year. 

A Crop to Tie To. 

Viewing the industry at close range, the Chino 
('/tampion believes the sugar beet to be a " thing to 
tie to." The Champion says : 

The beet crop has its enemies, to be sure, but they are not, 
as a rule, as devastating or numerous as those of many other 
crops. And, moreover, frosts do not affect the plants, and 
when the frosty nights of the early spring come and the fruit 
grower is trembling for his crop, the beet grower feels per- 
fectly secure. Drought during the early years of the industry 
was a thing to dread : now, however, it is known that, with 
moisture in the soil sufficient to germinate the seed and start 
the plant, they will take care of themselves, so far as moist- 
ure is concerned. The farmer will seek in vain for a crop 
absolutely free from any dangers ; but, all in all, we know of no 
field or orchard crop that is as free from casualities as the 
sugar beet, or upon which the farmer can depend with as 
much assurance for some returns— if not a full crop. He is 
rarely left with nothing to show for his work. 

Dairy Kvhihits at the State Fair. 

On page 388 of the Rural of June 20 we gave the 
list of new awards provided for dairy products and 
appliances at this year's State Fair," so far as then 
determined by the State Board of Agriculture. We 
are now informed by Secretary Smith that, in addi- 
tion to the awards then published, a premium of $25 
is offered for the best display of condensed milk and 
cream and $25 for the best refrigerating machine for 
creamery use. The dairy display will be held under 
the supervision of the California Dairy Association, 
and S. E. Watson, secretary, will be superintendent. 
In this department the milk test of the competing 
dairy cows will be held each evening. Special awards^ 

secured by the Dairy Association, will be added to 
those offered by the State Board already noted. The 
association will also secure an exhibit of dairy grasses 
and millstuffs from the different sections of the State. 
Only California dairy products will be eligible for 
premiums. The butter exhibit must be renewed 
I weekly, at least, the superintendent assuming todis- 
[ pose of the product for exhibitors at market price, 
J thus preventing loss. In judging as to merit of but- 
I ter and cheese, samples will be taken in such a way 
that no information will be given as to the maker. In 
this exhibit the California Dairy Association is in no 
way interested, beyond securing a creditable display 
and in protecting each exhibitor from discrimina- 
tion. The earnest help of butter and cheese makers 
is requested in making a great success of this at- 
tempt to advertise our dairy resources. 

On a Prosperous Hauls. 

The ; ' statistical situation " of the California wine 
industry grows steadily better for the producer, 
and there now seems no doubt that the good prices 
which prevailed last season will be fully maintained 
and possibly exceeded in the coming season. The 
following figures relative to supply and demand are 
believed to be approximately correct : 


Held by dealers May 31, 1893 4,550.000 

Held in country (estimated 1 10.050,000 

Amount on hand May 31. 1893 15.05(1.(100 

Crop of 1893 23.00d,(XX} 

Total Wfl&flOi 

Consumption May 31, 1893, to May 31, 1893 17,0Ud,0UU 

Amount on hand May 31, 1894 21,050,000 

Crop of 1894 13,000.090 

Total 31,050,000 

Consumption May 31, 1894, to May 31, 1895 17,000.000 

Amount on hand May 31, 1895 17.O50.OOU 

Crop of 1895 10,000,000 

Total 27,050,000 

Consumption May 31, 1895. to May 31, 1896 17,000,000 

On hand May 31, 1896 10,050,000 

It is assumed that the cousumption from May 31st 
to November 30th will be 8,500,000 gallons, which 
would leave a surplus of only 1,550,000 gallons of dry 
wines. To this must be added the crop of this sea- 
son, estimated at 7,000,000 gallons, making a total 
of 8,550,000 gallons. " Under these conditions," said 
a well-known wine man last Monday night, " prices 
will advance, and the demand will be checked, but 
even under these conditions it is doubtful if the sup- 
ply will be anything like equal to the demand." The 
minimum price of wine obtained by the makers last 
year was 15 cents a gallon for ordinary aad from 1 7 A 
to 20 cents for extra dry wines. Grapes are now 
selling at from $20 to $25 a ton, which is equivalent 
to 20 cents a gallon for the wine made from them. 

Orange Men to Meet. 

A dispatch from Los Angeles, of Monday (June 

29th), says: 

A majority of the committee of five that was selected last 
Friday at the Orange Growers' Association met this morning 
in the Chamber of Commerce to draft a call for a general con- 
vention of orange growers, which is to be held on July 10th. 
There were three out of the five in attendance, namely, 
Messrs. Briggs and Griffith of Azusa and Young of Duarte. 
They were unanimous in the belief that the coming convention 
would be beneficial, not alone to non-exchange members, but 
to the members of all fruit exchanges in southern California. 
The committee is drafting a call of some length which will 
explain the matter. 

The Coming Orange Crop. 

A dispatch from Los Angeles, written on Satur- 
day last, says : 

According to the statement of several leading fruit and 
commission merchants of this city, the fear that the coming 
year's orange crop will be small has no foundation. In many 
parts of the fruit belt trees are blooming more profusely than 
has been known in the last twelve years. There is always a 
certain percentage of young fruit which drops off at an early 
stage, and if this was not the case the fruit that reaches ma- 
turity would be of a very poor quality. The dropping off is 
natural and inures to the highest perfection of the product. 
The fall of fruit this year is much greater than usual, but the 
percentage that remains on the trees is also larger. One of 
the railway freight agents who investigated the matter 
states that unless something unexpected happens the crop 
will be the largest ever seen in southern California. Another 
agent who made an investigation states that in some sections 
the dropping off of fruit is much greater than in others, and 
that Mediterranean sweets and navels are the greatest suf- 
ferers. The phenomenon is accounted for by the unusual 
weather conditions which have prevailed throughout the past 
six months. During the winter extremes of heat and cold, 
together with light rainfall, conduced to the dropping oft* of 
fruit. The fact, however, that the trees are much fuller than 
usual is aslo attributed to weather conditions. 

A Valuable Plant List. 

We are indebted to Dr. F. Franceschi of Santa 
Barbara for a pamphlet with lists of over 1200 vari- 
eties of trees, shrubs, plants and flowers grown in 
that locality, which has just been issued by the 
Southern California Acclimatizing Association. An 
accurate statement of the native country of each 
plant, and of its degree of hardiness as compared 
with well-known standards, is given. The nomen- 
clature is that adopted at Kew Gardens. One of 
the most valuable features of the catalogue is a list 
of trees and shrubs standing drouth without irriga- 
tion, and those thriving under heavy sea winds. 


July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Valley Road Grain Rates. 

A Substantial Cut as Compared With Southern Pacific Kates. 
The Latter Will Meet the Cut. 

The Valley Railroad Co., through its traffic mana- 
ger, has filed with the Railroad Commissioners a 
schedule of rates on grain and grain bags over the 
82 miles of its line now completed. In his letter to 
the Commissioners the traffic manager explained 
that the company was not yet prepared to open its 
line for general business, but in order to satisfy the 
shippers now inquiring for rates he deemed it advis- 
able to submit rates on grain and grain bags to the 
Railroad Commissioners in advance of the general 
tariffs, which have not yet been completed, and 
which will not be ready for issue until the company 
can approximate the date on which it will be practi- 
cable to announce that the company is properly 
equipped for business as a common carrier. The 
figures are as follows : 

Rates for grain to Stockton, in cents, per ton of 
2000 pounds, to apply to carload shipments not less 
than 24,000 pounds : 

From Burnham, 11 miles $0 60 

From Escalon, 22 miles 90 

From Clauston, 30 miles 1 10 

From Empire, 34 miles 1 15 

From HughsoD, 37 miles 1 25 

From Elmwood, 43 miles 1 40 

From Merced, 67 miles 1 70 

From Geneva, 76 miles* 1 80 

From Le Grand, 82 miles 1 85 

These rates will include switching to all ware- 
houses to which access is provided for the cars of 
this company. 

Rates on grain bags (burlap) from Stockton, in 
cents, per ton of 2000 pounds, applicable to carloads 
not less than 24,000 pounds : 

To Burnham • $0 75 

To Escalon 1 10 

To Clauston 1 20 

To Merced 4 05 

To Geneva 4 50 

To-Le Grand 4 65 

It is stated at the office of the Valley Road that 
these rates are only made- to accommodate such 
traffic as may be offered prior to the formal opening 
of the line for general business, and may or may not 
be the rates which will be fixed in the general tariffs 
of the company. 

The grain rates established by the. Valley Road 
are somewhat less than the rates at present charged 
by the Southern Pacific Company. Traffic Manager 
Moss used the new grain tariff adopted by the Rail- 
road Commission as a basis of the rates he has es- 
tablished. There is only one station on the line of 
the new Valley Railroad, as far as it is now com- 
pleted, where that road touches the line of the 
Southern Pacific, and that point is Merced. The 
rate adopted by the Railroad Commissioners from 
Merced to Stockton is $1.70 a ton. Traffic Manager 
Moss placed that rate in his grain schedule and used 
it as a basis on which to grade the rates from points 
intermediate and bayward. Thus from Merced the 
Valley Road has adopted the eight per cent reduc- 
tion quoted in the tariff which the Southern Pacific 
Company is fighting in court, and from other points 
has fixed rates which are more than eight per cent 
less than the rates charged by the Southern Pacific 
Company for similar distances in the same territory. 
This will be seen by comparing the Valley Railroad's 
rates with the following: 

Rates on grain, in cents, per ton of 2,000 pounds, 
from points on the Southern Pacific Company's line 
in the San Joaquin valley to Stockton: 

Old Rate Rate Fixed 

From. Miles. Still in by Railroad 

Effect. Commission. 

Lathrop 9 $0 75 $0 70 

Morrano 15 85 80 

Ripon 20 95 85 

Salida 23 1 15 1 05 

Modesto 29 1 35 1 25 

Ceres 34 1 45 1 35 

Keyes 37 1 45 1 35 

Turlock 42 1 60 1 45 

Delhi 48 1 65 1 50 

Livingston 52 1 65 I 50 

Arena 55 1 70 1 55 

Atwater 59 1 80 1 65 

Merced 67 1 85 1 70 

Lingard 73 1 85 1 70 

Athlone 77 1 85 1 70 

Minturn 83 1 95 1 80 

The Valley Road announces that the grain rates in- 
clude switching to all warehouses to which access is 
provided for the cars of the company. This conces- 
sion means a still further saving to shippers of 15 
cents per ton, for that is what the Southern Pacific 
Company collects for switching charges in the city of 

The rates on grain bags, as established by the 
Valley road, are considerably less than the rates 
charged by the Southern Pacific. The rate from 
Stockton to Merced, as established by Traffic Mana- 
ger Moss, is $4.05 per ton on carloads. The South- 
ern Pacific Company's rate between the same two 
points in carload lots is 30 cents per 100 pounds, or 
$6 per ton. 

fleets the Cut. 

The Southern Pacific Makes a New Tariff To Meet the New 

The answer of the Southern Pacific to this cut 
came on Tuesday in the form of a new schedule. The 
new charges are to be as follows, the rates being in 
cents per ton of 2000 pounds, in carload lots, 24,000 
pounds, minimum: 


To Stockton, Stockton 
wharf and warehouses 
within Stockton city lim- 
its on S. P. Co.'s lines. . . 

To Nevada Dock, Port 
Costa, Crockett, Benicia 
and South Vallejo, via 
Martinez only 


To Oakland wharf, Oak- 
land (Market street), San 
Francisco, via Martinez 



























































Minturn and McNear's 


























































j 220 




The Southern Pacific Company is also considering 
certain proposed reductions in its rates on grain 
bags to the same points in the San Joaquin valley 
which are affected by the new grain rates. 


Visalia has shipped the first carload of figs this season. 
The working force of the Gridley cannery is to be increased 
to 500 persons. 

The Sonoma County Horticultural Society is agitating the 
project of a new road between Santa Rosa and Petaluma. 

Thirty acres per day is the average run of G. W. Scott's 
"Benicia King" harvester, now operating near Madison, 
Yolo county. 

A Suisun letter says : " Several orchardists here have sold 
their fruit outright in preference to taking the risks con- 
nected with Eastern shipments." 

The barn on D. E. Hershey's ranch, near Woodland, burned 
to the ground last week. A fine stallion, 100 tons of hay and 
a large quantity of horse gear were destroyed. 

It is said that Mr. Charles Carpy, president of the Califor- 
nia Wine Association, is about to retire from active business 
and go abroad for a season of rest and pleasure. His suc- 
cessor will probably be Mr. Percy T. Morgan. 

The Eel Riper Valley Advance has just issued a special num- 
ber, in which the region about Fortuna, Humboldt county, is 
very fully described and beautifully illustrated by engrav- 
ings. An edition of 18,009 vcas printed and the paper will be 
generally circulated. 

Santa Rosa ftcss: " J. A. Kelton has sold 1,200 head of 
sheep, 100 steers and 50 cows, which he drove down from the 
Ukiah ranges to Cotati. The steers fetched $22.50 apiece and 
the cows 117. Mr. Kelton went back Wednesday to Ukiah to 
bring down 30 head of cattle." 

Woodland Democrat : " Colonel Taylor has on his place 
near Winters a walnut tree showing wonderful growth. 
Three years ago the nut was planted. It grew about 15 feet 
high the first two years, when he grafted in the English wal- 
nut. The tree is now about 15 feet high and has eight large 
nuts on it." 

Colusa Sun: " It is reported that grasshoppers are devour- 
ing everything green before them in the vicinity of Orland, 
fruit trees of all kinds, grapevines, vegetables and alfalfa be- 
ing laid to waste. It is thought little damage will be done to 
grain, as it is mostly too ripe. Many kinds of poison have been 
tried for their extermination, but nothing is better than a so- 
lution of concentrated lye or strong soap suds. It is claimed 
they will get fat on Paris green or even strychnine." 

Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of "Uncle Tom's 
Cabin," and for half a century a great figure in American 
literature, died at her home in Hartford, Conn., on Wednes- 
day of this week at the age of 85. Mrs. Stowe came from 
the celebrated Lyman Beecher family and was the fa- 
vorite sister of her famous brother, Henry Ward 
Beecher. She was a school teacher in early life. Later 
she married a college professor with poor capacity for 
business and so turned from necessity to her pen to 
earn a livelihood for her children. All of her writings were 
marked by high intellectual and sympathetic qualities, and 
two of her novels are works of high literary merit ; but her 
fame rests chiefly upon " Uncle Tom's Cabin," which is cred- 
ited with having brought the slavery question home to the 
heart of the civilized world,, and especially to the American 
people. Mrs. Stowe's later life has been almost ideal. Her 
writings yielded not ouly fame, but a comfortable fortune, 
and for many years she has lived with every accompaniment 
that could contribute to her happiness. 

There is nothing in recent times to parallel the cruelties of 
the Cuban war. Arson, murder, rape, maiming — these are 
things of hourly occurrence, and one side is as bad as the 
other. The war has degenerated into the worst sort of bush- 
whacking and man-hunting; and as this sort of thing calls for 
few large losses, there seems no military reason why it should 
not continue indefinitely. 

Pith of the Week's Newb 

The Australian wool clip for 1895 will fall far short of the 
clip of last year. 

A method of photographing colors is reported to have been 
discovered at Chicago. 

Large areas in Marine county, Wisconsin, are being devas- 
tated by grasshoppers. 

San Diego proposes to issue bonds to put in a system of 
water works at a cost of $3,000,000. 

Latest reports from Japan estimate the loss of life by the 
recent earthquakes at thirty thousand. 

Joseph Getz a pioneer merchant of San Francisco long con- 
nected with the dairy produce and provision trade, died at his 
home June 24th. 

The Democratic conventions of Ohio, Indiana and Georgia 
have declared for silver. The New York Democrats stand for 
the gold standard. 

Advices from Honolulu report that on the 5th of June a 
tidal-wave swept the Hawaiian coast, raising at certain ex- 
posed places to the height of eighty feet. 

Senor Matias Romero, for many years the Mexican Min- 
ister at Washington, has resigned because his views on the 
silver question have been condemned by his home Govern- 

Henry M. Stanley, the African explorer, is very sick in 
London. He suffers from a series of troubles due to his life 
of exposure and hardship and his recovery is considered 

The New York Herald reluctantly admits that the rural 
districts of New York are drifting toward free silver at such 
a rapid gait that nobody can tell what the result of the voting 
will be this fall. 

The United States revenue cutter Winona, cruising off 
Florida reef, has during the past week captured two filibus- 
tering ships sailing from American ports, loaded with arms 
and ammunition and destined for Cuba. 

The death of Gen. Wm. Dimond, Chief of the State militia 
leaves a vacancy which Gov. Budd is called upon to fill. There 
are several candidates but as yet there is nothing to indicate 
who the Governor's choice will be. 

At Pittston, near Wilkesbarre, Pa., one hundred miners 
were entombed on Sunday by falling walls, and all hopes of 
rescuing them has been abandoned. About forty men were 
English-speaking miners, while sixty were Polanders and 

On Friday of last week an electric motor on the New York 
& Hartford Railroad attained a speed of eighty miles an hour. 
The experiment was made in the teeth of a fifteen-mile 
breeze and is considered a great achievement by electrical 

A dispatch from Germany says that Emperor William is 
very much interested in the pending financial discussions in 
the United States and that he is devoting some hours daily to 
an elementary study of the financial question. It is under- 
stood that his leanings are toward bimetallism. 

Complications thicken in the Fair case. Another will has 
turned up at Victoria, B. C, and Mrs. Nettie R. Cravens, a 
teacher in the city schools has come forward with an alleged 
marriage contract. All of which makes good times for the 
legal profession. The end will probably not be for many years 
to come. 

It is not creditable to California that the prize fight, which 
has been outlawed in nearly every State in the country, is 
here permitted and encouraged. It is said that 15,000 men 
attended the "meet" between Corbett and Sharkey last 
week which was held in the Mechanics' Pavilion. It was a 
farce, as it was no doubt planned to be. 

Lyman Trumbull, ex-United States Senator from Illinois 
and a statesman of the highest rank in his time, died at Chi- 
cago, June 25th. Mr. Trumbull was contemporaneous with 
Lincoln and was associated with him for many years in public 
life. In later years Mr. Trumbull abandoned the Republican 
party and after a few years of independent political life be- 
came a Democrat. 

A dispatch from Constantinople (June 25th) reports another 
massacre at Van, Armenia, in which 400 Christians were 
slain. An eye witness (Capt. Vialar, a French officer) tele- 
graphs: "I have witnessed hideous enormit es. Armenian 
girls and women were publicly sold at auction. A mother 
threw her two daughters into a well before my eyes to save 
them from the Turks. The evidences of Turkish official com- 
plicity have been obtained by me. The foreign press should 
be ashamed to remain indifferent." 

The week has been a very busy one at the home of Mr. Mc- 
Kinley. Each day has witnessed the visitation of numerous 
delegations from all over the country and the population of 
the town seems nearly double in consequence of the visiting 
crowds. By far the most important incident of Mr. Mc- 
Kinley's week has been his formal notification by a committee 
of the Republican National Convention, headed by Chairman 
Thurston, of his nomination as the Republican candidate for 
the Presidency. Replying to a formal address Mr. McKinley 
spoke with great dignity and propriety, declaring his entire 
accord with the platform adopted at St. Louis, and expressing 
conviction of his election in November. It was a very notice- 
able fact, in connection with this reply, that while the finan- 
cial question was treated very briefly, the tariff question was 
made a great deal of. It is clearly Mr. McKinley's policy to 
put forward the tariff as the main issue in his campaign and 
to subordinate as far as may be the more vexing and mis- 
chievous question of silver. It is understood that in the 
Western States at least it would be the policy of the Repub- 
lican campaign managers to pitch the fight, so far as it can be 
done, upon the tariff issue. 

No political gathering since the Democratic convention 
which preceded the war has ever been regarded with so 
much interest as that which is to come together at Chicago 
next week. It is conceded that the silver men will have a 
majority, and it is generally believed that they will have the 
two-thirds required by the standing rule of Democratic con- 
ventions. On the other hand, New York and the Eastern 
States will send very strong and earnest delegations favor- 
able to gold. That this last named element is bound to meet 
defeat is almost beyond question, and interest centers on 
what the Eastern gold standardites will do about it. That 
Messrs. Cleveland, Whitney, Russell and those who stand 
with them will accept either a silver platform or a silver can- 
didate is, in view of all that has been said, past belief; but 
just what their plan will be there is nothing now to indicate. 
The names most prominently mentioned in connection with 
the Democratic nomination for President are those of ex- 
Governor Boies of Iowa, ex-Congressman Bland of Missouri, 
Senator Ben Tillman of South Carolina and Senator Teller of 
Colorado, whose recent revolt from the Republican party on 
the financial issue has made him the hero of the silver men. 
In the event of Teller's nomination it is believed that all 
other issues besides the tariff will be ignored, and that an 
effort will be made to combine the forces friendly to silver in 
all parties in his support. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 4, 1896. 

American Fruits in Germany. 

ousul- General Mason Outline* the Conditions under Which 
the Trade May He Developed. 

Wjllowulen, Cal., June 26, '96. 

To the Editor:— I most earnestly wish that every 
fruit grower in California would read the report of 
Consul General Mason of Frankfort in a dispatch 
dated Jan. 23, '96. I wrote to him requesting him 
to name some reliable firm in Hamburg or Bremen, 
and the following is his reply: 

Consulate General of the U. S. I_ 
Frankfort on-the-Main, May 30, '96. ) 

a W Worthen, Esq., WTBowjIen, Cal.— Deak Sir: Your 
letter of April 17th came several days ago. The special ob- 
ject of mv report to which you refer was to explain to the 
fruit growers of California how they can best organize their 
business to build up a large export trade to Germany. Your 
questions seem to indicate that you either have not read the 
entire report or, if vou have, that you do not believe it. 

I can therefore onlv repeat again that there is no use in try- 
ing to increase the trade by the old way. No German im- 
porter will come to California to buy your fruits and import 
them here Sooner than do that he will either go without 
them or buy what little he actually needs at New York, 
where prices are high. What I have tried to make your 
people understand is that they have got to brace up and show 
some energy; and instead of waiting for European buyers to 
come to vou, send vour fruits over here, land them and sell 
them If you can get a good live German firm at one of the 
great seaports— Hamburg or Bremen— to handle your goods, 
all right; but some one ha* got to come and *ee these people and 
make definite arrangement*. It cannot be done by circulars or 
correspondence, and, as both cities are far from Frankfort, I 
cannot hunt up such a firm 

l ( l^i 11 V WttV 111 nuivu vawj ' '"1 » — — o — 

York, they have to be sold here at from 2o to 28 cents per 
pound, and that puts them beyond the means of the great 
mass of the people. 

Unless the California fruit men themselves have enough 
energv to cut out all expensive commission business and re- 
peated handlings by middlemen, and send their fruit straight 
from California to Europe, then I see nothing but to let the 
business drag along in the old way. 

There are two importers here— Mr. Erwin Roelker of No. 
dtl Hochstrasse and J. Numberg of No. 69 Mainzer Land- 
strasse— who import considerable dried and preserved fruit 
from the United States; but you will understand that Frank- 
fort is a city far inland, where all such freight has to come by 
rail, and no' one here is in a position to do a large business. 
That, as already said, must be done at a seaport city like 
Bremen or Hamburg. There is no use in quoting what your 
fruit can be sold for in California. The point is, What can it 
be sold for in Germany at the seaport where it is landed? Of 
ixmrse your commission men will discourage any plan that will 
take your business out of their hands and make the fruit 
growers independent of them. Hoping that some of your as- 
sociations will have the nerve and energy to attack this 
problem on the lines indicated, I remain, sir, very respect- 
fully yours, Frank H. Mason, Consul-General. 

City and Country. 

Yuba City, June 28th, '96. 

To the Editor: — There appears to be an unfortu- 
nate antagonism between San Francisco and the in- 
terior. The great and expanding agricultural inter- 
ests should have a warm friend and co-worker in the 
city by the sea, and, doubtless, she has, yet the be- 
lief is "well nigh general that the California metropo- 
lis takes an undue proportion of toll off the trade that 
is compelled to pass through her gates. This is done 
in a variety of ways and not always observable until 
the game is over. The city's conduct toward the in- 
terior is largely due to the habit formed in her early 
history, when she was master of the Pacific coast 
and there was no appeal from her rule. She is slowly 
and regretfully acknowledging the existence of back- 
door lines of commerce in whose hopper she cannot 
dip her toll-measure. Coast cities to the north and 
to the south are disputing her progress, and are 
doing it through the exercise of a more liberal policy 
toward their customers. These considerations have 
vastly curtailed the city's field of operations, and 
which can only be enlarged by the exercise of a more 
liberal policy toward her immediate dependencies 
and a more persevering commercial attitude toward 
the peoples bordering on the limitless shores of the 
Pacific ocean. The heavier products of our farms 
must enter or pass the great city, and it would seem 
to be her business and duty to prevent a clog at her 
gates and to pass double, thribble or even quadruple 
of the commerce that could be created at the price 
she exacts now. Instead of opening the innumerable 
ports of the Pacific, to enlarge her opportunities, she 
is believed to favor another twist on her remaining 
customers to accomplish the same ends. 

In the memory of the living the rising young cities 
of the old West — Pittsburg, Cleveland, Detroit, 
Toledo, Cincinnati, Louisville, Chicago and St. 
Louis — were constructing artificial arteries of com- 
merce into the frontiers to aid in their development, 
which proved to them the throwing of their bread 
upon the waters, to be returned a thousand fold. A 
similar story will not be written of San Francisco 
until she experiences a change of heart that will for- 
bid the killing of the goose that lays the golden egg. 

The city should know, if she does not, that trade 
can be increased from the same territory, just as 
fertility is enhanced by deeper and better cultiva- 
tion. Such a course would allay ill feeling and an- 
tagonism between town and country, to the great 
advantage of both. On the other hand, the breach 
must widen while it is thought that the city refuses 
to carry her just proportion of the cost of govern- 
ment, or that her business men combine with foreign 
ship owners to squeeze the life out of our wheat 

growers and producers generally. Many years ago it 
was said that a combination of San Francisco capi- 
talists paid interest on millions of dollars, to prevent 
its use among farmers, thus forcing the sale of his 
wares at a price fixed by the ring. Incoming neces- 
sities were similarly controlled by the combination 
until the producer looked for a highwayman behind 
every bush. 

Is it any wonder that the farmers became jealous 
of a city that permitted and fostered such practices ; 
and, while the command seems modified in tone it is 
believed the barb remains concealed beneath the 
bait. Let the city and her press seek to allay this 
suspicion and antagonism ; help the country on to a 
plane of greater prosperity, to be reflected many 
fold on the sunset metropolis. 

George Ohleyer. 

Alfalfa Dodder, or Love Vine. 

To the Editor :— I am sending by mail one root of alfalfa, 
alive, on which a growth, commonly called '• love vine," can 
be seen ; one root of alfalfa, dead, on which the dead vine is 
seen, the vine supposed to have killed the alfalfa. I send 
also a weed to which the vine is also fastened. What is the 
vine, how can it be gotten rid of, and will it cause serious 
loss? These specimens were taken from the same field at 
El Monte, Los Angeles county, a drained field, where it is 
7 or 8 feet to water. It does not seem to make any difference 
to the vine on what kind of soil it grows. It comes in spots, 
and wherever it gets a start, there it kills the alfalfa. It 
does not seem to take whole fields. 

Alhambra, Cal. Mrs. Theresa C. Keys. 

The common name of this pest is, as our corre- 
respondent gives it, "dodder," or " love vine." It 
has been a common weed in California alfalfa fields 
for many years. Where it only occurs in spots it is 
often stamped out by mowing the spot, covering it 
with straw and burning it off. The dry straw then 
burns the dodder before it dries and has a chance to 
cast seed. If the dodder has pretty generally spread 
over the field, as it will do if left alone, there is no 
satisfactory treatment except to plow up, covering 
under everything well and reseeding with clean seed ; 
but it may be destroyed by burning earth in the sea- 
son, as described below. The botanical name of 
dodder is cuscuta — a genus of which there are several 
species in this State. 

Of the general characteristics of dodder the fol- 
lowing from a recent bulletin of the Division of 
Agrostology, United States Department of Agricul- 
ture, has an interesting statement : The worst weed 
which growers of alfalfa will have to conquer, and 
the one which causes the greatest damage, is dodder 
or love vine. This weed, or at least the species 
which does the greatest damage, is an importation 
from Europe. It was brought to this country in 
flax and alfalfa seed, and has spread throughout all 
sections of the United States where alfalfa is grown. 
Dodder belongs to the morning glory family, but, 
unlike the common weedy morning glories of the 
fields, it is parasitic. The stems are leafless, and 
look like orange or reddish-yellow threads. When 
the seed of the dodder germinates the young plant 
is able to grow for a short time upon the supply of 
food which has been laid up for it in the seed, but 
unless its stem can come in contact with that of 
some plant upon which it can feed it will die. As 
soon as the young dodder plant touches a leaf, stem, 
or stalk of the alfalfa it twines around it and becomes 
closely fastened to the stalk by means of numerous 
suckers, which enter the tissues of the host plant. 
These suckers draw out from the alfalfa all the sol- 
uble food materials, such as the sugars and oils. 

The dodder grows very rapidly, forming tangled 
masses with its yellow stems, and the alfalfa soon 
becomes completely choked out. The only practi- 
cable remedy after the pest has become established 
is to mow the alfalfa in early summer, before the 
dodder begins to bloom, and to burn it where it lies. 
This will completely kill the dodder without injuring 
the alfalfa. Dodder can be kept down by mowing, 
because it is usually attached to the alfalfa stalks 
just above the surface of the ground. The flowers of 
the dodder are produced very low down, and even if 
the upper portions of the parasite were cut off, they 
would ripen seed. Sheep are said to clean out dod- 
der from the field, but this statement is not very well 
substantiated. The best method of fighting dodder 
is the preventive one ; that is, sowing nothing but 
pure seed. The seed of this parasite is only about 
one twenty-fifth of an inch long, or not over half as 
large as the alfalfa ; so that if the seed is run through 
a screen, say with a mesh about as large as that 
used for an ordinary screen door, the minute dodder 
seed will be easily separated from that of the alfalfa. 

Dried Peeled Peaches. 

To the Editor: — I notice J. A. R.'s questions 
about drying peeled peaches. I dried peaches last 
year for the first time and found that all peaches 
should be fully ripe when picked; if not, they make 
inferior looking fruit and will not peel. After they 
are sulphured, if fully ripe, they peel very quickly 
and easily before they begin to dry around the 
edges. It cost me the same to peel as it did to pit. 
In the Newhall variety I found it took b'A fresh to 1 
unpeeled dried and very nearly 9J to 1 peeled. I 
found no trouble in any freestone varieties that were 
fully ripe. The clings would not peel that way, and 

I tried lye dipping on them with very poor results. 
I do not think peeling them would pay. 

From our little experience we conclude that, for 
making peeled peaches, we must have fully ripe fruit 
of good size. All small and inferior fruit should be 
sorted out and dried separately. All trays should 
be thoroughly cleaned and brushed. I think it would 
pay to put tressels in the field to lay the trays on. 
You must have careful, painstaking hands to do the 
peeling, as a poor peeler makes the fruit very mussy. 
It should be scraped from the trays before it gets 
thoroughly dry. I used a wide shingle for scraping. 

Hollister. F. H. Boynton. 

Weather and Crops. 

Report of the State Weather Service up to Monday, li 

The following synopsis of the weather and crop 
conditions during the week ending Monday, June 29, 
is issued by the State Agricultural Society in co- 
operation with the U. S. Climate and Crop Service, 
James A. Barwick, Section Director : 

Sacramento Valley Counties. 

Butte County (Chicol. — Apricots this year are better than 
usual, being large and finely colored. Peach crop light in 
many sections, but the fruit was never better. lYankee 
Hill). — Hay is a good crop. (Honcut). — Oats are headed, bar- 
ley is now being harvested. 

Glenn County (Elk Creek). — North winds did some slight 
damage to ripe grain. (Germantown).— Harvest in full blast ; 
grain somewhat damaged by winds. 

Colusa County (Grand Island). — Haying about completed 
and the crop is good ; wheat ripening fast ; highest and lowest 
temperatures 100° and 62°. 

Sutter County (Kent).— Harvesters are running. (S. W. 
Sutter).— The north wind is doing considerable damage to 
early wheat and barley. 

Yuba County (Wheatland).— Wheat is considerably shrunk, 
but may recover; hops making a fine growth; highest and 
lowest temperatures 105° and 57°. 

Placer County. — Harvesting is in full blast. 

Sacramento County (Arno). — Next week grain cutting will 
be general. Wheat is somewhat shrunken. (Clay). — Winds 
have shrunk the grain some; haying is over and harvesting 
has commenced on barley. (Orangevale). — Highest and low- 
est temperatures 103° and 58°. (Gait). — The hot north winds 
during the week have injured the wheat crop to some extent. 

Yolo County (Woodland). — The hot north winds in northern 
part of the county did considerable damage. 

Solano County (Briggs Vineyard). — Have heard of much 
damage being done by the north winds, some grain that was 
over ripe shelled out, but a good crop is assured. The wind 
shook off a lot of tree fruit not ripe enough to dry. Highest 
and lowest temperatures 102° and 55°. (Dixon). — Next week 
harvesting will be in full blast. North gale has inconven- 
ienced farmers by ripening grain all at once. (Tremont).-- 
Severe north wind is not healthy for the ripe barley. Har- 
vesting is nearly a month later than last year. (Vacaville). — 
Fruit men busy drying and shipping their apricots, the crop 
being a light one this year and the eastern shipments are 

Napa, Sonoma and Santa Clara Valleys. 

Nai'a County (Calistoga). — All fruit is doing well. Hay ex- 
cellent quality and the grain fine. (Napa City)— The very 
small fruit crop is a grievous disappointment not only to the 
producer, but to many persons who annually look to the fruit 
harvest as the time for earning good wages. There are not a 
few orchards in which there is not fruit enough to pay run- 
ning expenses. 

Sonoma County (Peachland).— Early varieties of peaches 
are yielding their first fruit. Peaches and apples will be 
scarce. Highest and lowest temperatures, 92° and 54°. 
(Healdsburg)— In the past few days grapes have been drop- 
ping badly; and should this continue, the crop will be almost 
a total failure. (Santa Kosa)— Wheat is light. The fly has 
affected the crop. Oats are fine and barley fair for all the 
early sown crops. Apples, which set the best of any fruit, 
have fallen very badly, and they have not stopped dropping 
yet. Prunes and peaches will be short crops. The season is 
generally backward for fruit. While grapes promise to be the 
best all-round crop this season, it is useless to deny that se- 
vere frosts worked a serious injury that will not only affect 
Sonoma county vintage this year, but in 1897 also. 

Alameda County (Livermorel.— The grape crop is coming 
on better than was expected. The crop will be an excellent 

Santa Clara County (Miliken). — Fruit growers now real- 
ize that the spring frosts did not do as much damage as sup- 
posed. The apricot crop, with the exception of the Moorparks, 
is fairly good. Pears heavy; prunes better than usual. A 
few peach orchards were badly hit by the frost, but most of 
them have a full crop. 

San Benito County (Hollister).— Early peaches light ; good 
crop of Bartlett pears. Codlin moth doing damage to apples 
and pears. Highest and lowest temperatures, 84° and 38°. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

San JOAO.U1N County (Lodi). — Fruit is well. Melons will 
be very late, and acreage is smaller than usual. Highest and 
lowest temperatures, 100° and 51°. 

Merced Countt (Livingston).— Rye crop has turned out 
better than expected. Wheat will be a fair crop. 

Madera County (Madera). — Grain turning out well. 

Fresno County (Fresno).— Grain and fruit maturing rapidly. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 104° and 63°. 

Tulare County (Tulare City).— Grape vines promise a fair 
crop; peaches and other fruit short and not of as tine quality 
as usual, but the pear crop is a good one. Highest and lowest 
temperature, 112° and 60°. (Lindsay)— Wheat crop short. 
(Poplar)— What little grain there is is of the best. There will 
be considerable Egyptian corn planted in this part of the 

Southern California. 

Ventura County (Santa Paula).— Beans are doing fairly 
well. Walnut growers will have an unusually large crop this 
year. Highest and lowest temperatures, 90° and 48°. (Sati- 
coy) -Lima beans are looking well. Apricot drying has begun 
and the crop is small. (Ventura)— The bean crop never looked 

Los Anoeles County (Los Angeles).— Deciduous fruits are 
ripening fast, but the crop generally will be a short one. 
Oranges continue to drop. Highest and lowest temperatures, 

93° and 58°. 

Coast Comities. 

Humboldt County (Eureka).— Crops are maturing; feed is 
drying up. Highest and lowest temperatures, 6!>° and 45°. 

Monterey County (Pajaro).— Thinning the apple crop Is 
now in progress in many of the large orchards. 

July 4, 1896. 


Small Fruits in Southern California. 

Byron O. Clark of Pasadena gives some sugges- 
tions in the Cultivator which are pertinent and 

Blackberries. — Blackberry vines will require fre- 
quent attention to keep the young canes that are to 
bear next year's fruit crop in shape. As soon as 
they reach the height of 3 feet pinch or cut off the 
ends of the young growth, and thus cause them to 
make side branches. These also should be cut back 
when they have grown 12 to 18 inches in length. 
The more thoroughly the young growth is kept con- 
trolled the more bearing surface you will have next 
year. Remove all surplus suckers, allowing only 
those to remain that are to supply bearing wood for 
the coming year. 

The soil should be kept moist by proper irrigation 
if you wish large, luscious berries. The intervals 
between irrigations should not be so long as to allow 
the soil to become dry and thus check the develop- 
ment of the fruit, for it is liable to be hard and 
"seedy" and lack the tender lusciousness that 
makes the blackberry the healthful and favorite 
among berries that it is. The other extreme of giv- 
ing too frequent irrigations must be avoided. Too 
much water, while it may make the fruit grow large, 
will cause it to be soft and insipid in flavor. I have 
seen berries grown on very wet land that would not 
keep till morning, even when picked after 4 p. m. of 
the previous day, while those grown on the same 
kind of soil, with just sufficient moisture, held up 
well for twenty-four to thirty-six hours. This is a 
very important point for the market man as well as 
the producer, even if the flavor and eating qualities 
did not enter into consideration. 

Raspberries. — The raspberry will require much the 
same treatment as blackberries. It is especially 
important that the red varieties should have the 
surplus suckers which sprout from the roots kept 
down, as they take the vitality away from the 
parent plant even more than is the case with the 

Strawberries. — The above remarks as to irrigation 
apply to strawberries even in a more marked degree 
as to flavor. Excessive irrigation is responsible for 
so many soft, flavorless berries found on our market. 
Too much water spoils both flavor and keeping quali- 
ties of a large percentage of the market fruit, and 
until our growers learn to discriminate as to how 
much water can be used without sacrifice of quality 
we cannot successfully refute the charge that much 
of our small fruit does not have the flavor of the 
Eastern berry. 

Soak the ground thoroughly while the fruit is set- 
ting, and water only lightly while the crop is ripen- 
ing. No set rule as to exact time to irrigate can 
be laid down, as so much depends on the nature of 
your soil and local conditions. These each individual 
grower will have to work out for himself if he wishes 
to grow only the best. Give your plants as little 
water as posssible to keep them in good growing 
condition while the fruit is ripening. 

Remove all runners from such varieties as do best 
grown in stools, notably the Arizona. Belmont, 
Monarch of the West and many others will produce 
more early fruit (which is most profitable) if a por- 
tion of the young plants, after the main crop of fruit 
is taken off, are allowed to remain and take root. 
You will get stronger sets by allowing a limited 
number of runners only to each stool, and only one 
or two plants to each runner. If these are allowed 
to root and then properly thinned for new planta- 
tions, leaving the balance undisturbed, you will get 
earlier fruit from these plants next winter and 
spring than from the old ones. 

More attention should be given to grading berries 
for market. If a few fine large berries align the 
top of the package, and small or inferior fruit under- 
neath, you cannot expect to have pleased customers. 
Grade your berries same as other fruit. It will pay, 
and such fruit will soon have a preference on the 
market that will be decidedly to your benefit. 

The Jonathan Apple in New riexico. 

Parker Earle, the well-known horticulturist, who 
is now a resident of Pecos valley, writes of the Jon- 
athan apple in a new paper, Practical Irrigation, in 
a way which interests California growers of this 
variety. He says there is no apple produced now 
in any quantity in the United States that sells for 
as much money when handled well as the Jonathan. 

Old Sorts Failing.— The old Newtown or Albe- 
marle Pippin always outsold all other apples when- 
ever it could be grown. It is the finest apple in the 
world. But it has long failed in all the States, ex- 
cept in limited districts along the Hudson and at the 
foot of the Blue Ridge. It is practically out of the 
market. So with most of the high flavored popular 
apples of the East, like Rhode Island Greening, 
Spitzenberg, King, Canada Red, etc. They cannot 
be grown in the West, and they are failing in the 
East, where they were once the glory of the orchards. 

me pacinc Kurai Press. 

The commercial apples of to-day are on a distinctly 
lower level of quality. 

The one apple of all the high class sorts that 
meets the approval of the most critical tastes, that 
has been widely and successfully grown in the West, 
is this admirable prince among fruits. 

The Jonathan is a seedling of Esopus Spitzenberg, 
with all the high quality and more than the beauty 
of that famous apple. But the Spitzenberg was fas- 
tidious about soil and climate. It never succeeded 
in a general way. The Jonathan is more cosmopoli- 
tan. It does well in New York, Ohio, Michigan, 
Iowa and Kansas — or did so until the hosts of apple 
enemies which have taken possession of the old 
States overcame it, with all others, in a common 
ruin. Whenever you can find a barrel of fairly good 
ones in any market you will always find it held for a 
fancy price. 

The Jonathan is not only a most beautiful fruit, 
there being nothing handsomer ever grown in any 
orchard, or gracing any table ; it is also of the high- 
est quality. It has the most delicate flesh and the 
most refined flavor. But these fine qualities unfit it 
for rough handling, and generally for long keeping. 
Its ripening season is also too early to make it keep 
safely all winter under usual conditions. It has the 
fault also of not hanging well to the tree. When its 
time comes it must be harvested, or there will be 
waste. It is especially liable to this trouble at the 
East, where the humid climate generates diseases of 
the leaves. If the leaves blight and drop prema- 
turely the fruit will drop much too soon. 

Ripens Early and Keeps Late. — Right here comes 
in the important point I wish to make. In the 
neighborhood of Roswell the Jonathan seems per- 
fectly suited with its environment. The tree is 
healthy, the leaves remain green, and the fruit 
hangs well — for a Jonathan. Its beauty and excel- 
lence are beyond comparison. Yet it must be gath- 
ered early in September. This would seem to indi- 
cate a short keeper — but it does not prove so. With 
me the past winter it has outkept all other kinds, 
under the most trying conditions. I have in my' 
room to-day several specimens of Jonathan that I 
gathered seven and one-half months ago — the 10th 
of September. They have been wrapped in paper 
and lain in a box in my room, which has had a fire 
in it all the cold days. This drying air has caused a 
good deal of shriveling, which is inevitable for all 
fruit exposed to the air at all in this climate. But 
the apples are sound, and they look and taste like 
Johnathans still. It seems to me wonderful. With 
proper storage — cold, but not too dry — we can keep 
this elegant fruit, perfectly, for marketing all 
through the winter months. It is handsomer here 
than in Iowa or New York, and of equal quality and 
a better keeper. 


American Nut Growing. 


Location of Walnut Orchards. — It is evident from 
all that has been written that the Persian walnut, 
even in regions where it succeeds best, has proved 
to be a very capricious and fastidious ward of the 
horticulturist. Whatever may be the capabilities of 
the new varietiesj the Los Angeles walnut, which 
constitutes by far the -larger part of the trees 
planted, is regarded as profitable only in the coun- 
ties of Ventura, Santa Barbara, Orange and Los 
Angeles. And within those counties the localities of 
profitable production are relatively small. The con- 
densed replies received from most of our correspond- 
ents on this subject will read: "Plant walnuts only 
on rich, moist, well-drained lands in valleys within 
thirty miles of the coast, where there is water with- 
in ten or fifteen feet of the surface." In this connec- 
tion the experience of Russell Heath of Carpenteria 
may be of value to intending planters. He regards 
the selection of a suitable locality of the utmost im- 
portance. His first effort was in Ventura county, 
where, after a trial of one and one-half years, he 
found he had made a mistake in his selection and re- 
moved to his present location. He selected ground 
covered with a dense jungle, of which 180 acres 
were cleared at an expense of over $100 per acre 
and planted it to the Persian walnut. These trees 
are reported to have grown luxuriantly and to have 
made a fine and profitable orchard. It is a point of 
some interest to know that the timber which origin- 
ally covered the ground was oak, as it is commonly 
believed in California that the walnut will not suc- 
ceed on oak land. 

This practice of planting on none but exceedingly 
rich land, if found to be the only successful one, will 
necessarily limit the acreage planted, and probably 
make impossible the production of enough nuts to 
supply the demands of our home markets, because of 
the comparative scarcity of such land and its value 
for other purposes. Experience has shown that to 
prevent crowding on such land the trees must not be 
closer than fifty feet each way, which allows but 
seventeen trees to the acre — too small a number, 
considering the risk of crop failures on some trees — i 
to make safe the investment of so much capital for I 


so long a time as is required to bring tl 
profitable bearing. Certain experiments wi 
varieties newly introduced seem to indicate th ae 
possible range of profitable culture is much broader 
than has been found true in the case of the Los An- 
geles nut, or Mission nut, which has been planted al- 
most to the exclusion of all others. Felix Gillet, to 
whose enterprise the introduction of the late bloom- 
ing and hardy French varieties is due, writes that he 
feels warranted by his experience in saying that 
walnut culture can be carried on successfully on the 
whole Pacific coast by planting " none but the hardy 
kinds, and planting them on plateaus, hillsides, roll- 
ing land, alongside roadways, around large fields and 
vineyards, in cordons and avenues, on soils not well 
adapted to other crops, and where the walnut in the 
course of time will grow to gigantic dimensions." 


Stocks. — The Persian walnut is grown both in this 
country and Europe, mostly on its own roots. In 
fact, the larger part of the orchards consists of seed- 
ling trees. In Europe budding and grafting have 
long been practiced, and in some cases the black- 
walnut (Juglans nigra) has been used as a stock. 
Michaux recommended to European growers that it 
be budded on the black walnut because of the greater 
value of that wood, and Baltet states that he has 
been successful in cleft grafting on the black walnut 
as a tall standard, thus securing " a twofold profit 
from the timber of the stem and the fruit produced 
by the graft." In California it was long ago found 
that the California black walnut could be used as a 
stock for the Persian walnut. Wickson's "Cali- 
fornia Fruits " mentions a tree on the grounds of 
John R. Wolfskill, in Solano county, budded in 1875, 
which had attained a height of fifty feet and spread 
sixty feet in 1888. Its aouual yield of nuts is stated 
to be 200 pounds. B. M. Lelong, secretary of State 
Board of Horticulture, reports having some years 
ago budded 500 trees of the wild California stock, 
growing in the mountains east of Los Angeles. He 
used the prong method, and met with good success. 
Mr. Lelong states that, contrary to the common be- 
lief that fruit grown on such stocks would have 
darker, thicker shells, an examination of fruits thus 
grown showed no observable difference in either 
flavor or color. From the fact that the tree is hardy 
farther north than it is fruitful, the question of 
stocks is not an important one except for the South, 
where its roots are damaged by root knot. 

Selection of Seed. — If seedlings are to be depended 
on for fruit without the intervention of budding or 
grafting, it is important that proper care be taken 
to select such nuts for planting as are likely to pro- 
duce a marketable product. The tendency among 
those growers who have given the matter of seed 
selection special attention is to select for seed the 
largest nuts with the thinnest shells, and that is now 
the prevailing practice. It may well be questioned, 
however, whether a thinner shelled nut than many 
of those now marketed from California is desirable. 
A firm shell of medium thickness seems desirable in 
the walnut, both to prevent breakage in shipment 
and premature rancidity of the meat. In the matter 
of size it may be said that if the kernel is plump and 
fills the shell, then the larger the nut the better, 
from a market standpoint. It is desirable, also, 
that the nuts selected be from trees that combine 
productiveness, hardiness and the habit of starting 
growth late in the spring. These qualities should 
be sought even in selecting seed for growing the 
stocks on which to propagate improved varieties. 

Seed Beds. — In Europe nuts that are intended for 
planting are kept through the winter in a "rot 
heap," made by piling up the nuts as soon as gath- 
ered without removing the hull. This heap must be 
turned over frequently in the course of the fall and 
winter to prevent heating. A better plan than this 
is that of stratification, using sand as the medium iu 
which to bed the nuts. As practiced by California 
growers, it is thus described: " A frame consisting 
of ten-inch boards is placed on the surface of the 
ground and half filled with sand. The nuts are then 
spread thickly (a layer of nuts six inches deep) and 
covered with about three or four inches of sand. An 
embankment of earth is laid all around the frame to 
prevent the nuts from drying. The nuts are exam- 
ined from time to time; and, as soon as they show 
signs of germination, are planted in nursery rows." 
The sand is kept constantly moist, and in case of 
lack of sufficient rain is watered. To insure uniform 
germination it will probably be found helpful to 
grade the nuts according to size, bedding those of 
uniform size together. Large nuts generally ger- 
minate earlier than small ones of the same species. 

Nursery Treatment. — The soil should be deep and 
rich, well drained and thoroughly pulverized. The 
sprouted nuts should be carefully planted one foot 
apart, in rows four feet apart and covered well with 
fine soil well firmed down over the seed. Cultiva- 
tion should be frequent enough to keep the surface 
fine and should be supplemented by use of the hoe 
whenever weeds appear in the rows. If the soil is 
good and the season favorable, the young trees make 
a rapid growth, and in California ordinarily make 
stocks suitable for budding the first season. If they 
i are to be planted in orchards without budding or 
I grafting, they are usually left in the nursery row 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 4, 1896. 

until two or three years of age. This is the common 
practice among California growers. O. N. Caldwell 
of Carpenteria, who has had an experience of twenty 
years in the business, writes: " I have raised trees 
from seed and transplanted all the way from a year 
old up to six, and they have grown and done well; 
but as far as my experience goes, I prefer to move 
them at three years of age or about that time. The 
best trees I have were planted at three years old. 
A part of my orchard stands where the tree,s were 
not replanted, and I can see very little difference be- 
tween these and those that were transplanted at two 
or three years old." Very different from this is the 
practice of Russell Heath, a successful walnut grower 
at the same place. He pursues a method similar to 
that quite commonly followed in Eastern New York 
some forty years ago for keeping up a supply of 
cherry and apple trees for planting in home or- 
chards—that is, of leaving the trees in nursery rows 
until they reach bearing age. He says: "I leave 
the trees in the nursery rows until they have at- 
tained the age of bearing, say the eighth or ninth 
year. Of course nurserymen cannot afford to raise 
trees of that description, but a man who stakes his 
money and his time upon an orchard can afford to 
wait. I would rather give $10 for a tree that is nine 
years old than to give one cent for a tree that is four 
years old. There is money in it, because they cost 
me no time to cultivate in the nursery. One man 
will go through a nursery and cultivate 1000 trees in 
half a day ; but if you place those trees in an orchard 
you are at great expense. You can buy teams and 
hire men, but I tell you that even in California, with 
all its fruitfulness, you can't buy brains to drive 
those teams." 

Inasmuch as Mr. Heath's plan involves the neces- 
sity of removing all or most of the side branches and 
the formation of a new head for the tree, as well as 
considerable injury to the root system, it demands 
more than passing notice. It will be remembered 
that his orchard site is an exceptionally good one 
and that his soil is very rich. These two facts, 
taken in connection with thorough and systematic 
cultivation, should be duly considered bv intending 
planters, and proper allowance should be made for 
them. In ordinary situations and soils it is not 
likely that a practice that involves so severe a shock 
to a tree which has reached fruiting age would re- 
sult in the establishment of orchards uniformly 
thrifty, productive or lasting. It will in all prob- 
ability be successful only in rich soil and sheltered 
locations. Mr. Heath's method necessitates the cut- 
ting of the taproot, and we therefore give his ex- 
perience in regard to that point, quoting from the 
discussions of the California Horticultural Society: 
"Some wiseacre, who thought he knew more con- 
cerning the cultivating of nuts than any other man 
in California, discovered in Los Angeles that if you 
cut the taproot your tree would never bear, and 
that was published in the papers throughout the 
State. I said, 'Here is a pretty kettle of fish 
again. I have cut all the taproots in my orchard, 
and I don't know whether I am going to have any 
fruit. I will see about this thing.' They said that 
where the taproot is cut, there the decay would com- 
mence, and an insect would attack the root and eat 
the life out of the walnut tree, and it would finally 
die. I determined not to be fooled much longer in 
spending more money, and took two men and went 
right down into my orchard. I could not make any 
mistake, because I had cut off every taproot in the 
orchard. We dug down carefully by the side of a 
tree — I was going to be very careful about it — and 
after they got down below where the taproot was 
cut, I got my magnifying glass and said: 'Boys, 
you needn't use your shovels any more.' I wanted 
to get at this thing with my hands, and took my 
glass and went down iu the hole. I commenced dig- 
ging like a gopher, and when I got down to where 
the root was cut, to my surprise there were two 
taproots, beautiful as could be, sent out from the 
same place where the taproot was cut. I examined 
five trees in that way, and each had two taproots, 
and I made up my mind that the Los Angeles man 
that had been writing about taproots was in a 


Onion Culture. 


Iln cresting. — Onions should be promply harvested 
at maturity. Harvesting should begin when most of 
the necks have turned yellow and are considerably 
withered. Although there is generally still quite a 
number of green tops when the main crop is ready 
for harvesting, the bulbs of these will thoroughly 
ripen if pulled along with the others. It is not safe 
to postpone the harvesting on account of a few green 
tops. If left too long in the ground, the bulbs are 
liable to reroot, especially if there are frequent 
showers, and the quality of bulbs is in jured. Prompt- 
ness in harvesting is not quite so important if the 
transplanting system is followed, as in this case the 
crop usually matures at a dry season. 

The pulling of the crop is not au expensive opera 

tion if the bulbs are.large and do not set too deep in 
the ground. Boys may be most economically em- 
ployed in this work. The plants are simply pulled 
by the hand and deposited in windrows until fully 
cured, which will require from a week to ten or more 
days. On bright days the curing will be hastened 
by stirring with a wooden rake. The bulbs must be 
raked very gently to prevent bruising, which causes 
them to decay rapidly, special precautions being 
necessary in this respect with foreign varieties. If 
there is danger of a rainy season the crop may be 
cured in open sheds or on a barn floor. The bulbs 
of white varieties must be handled with grater care 
than those of the red and yellow sorts. If the rays 
of the sun are very hot the onions should be gathered 
in piles, each containing enough onions to make 
about a barrel, and then protected by thin layers of 
straw. This will prevent the sun from turning ex- 
posed portions of the onions green. After the crop 
is cured the bulbs are sorted, topped if desired, and 
properly sorted. 

Winter Storing. — The winter storing of onions is 
always attended with more or less loss. If not 
thoroughly cured when sorted many of the bulbs will 
sprout, and others will decay if they have sustained 
even slight bruises in harvesting. There will be 
more or less shrinkage, and a large percentage of 
the onions will be lost if the proper care is not given 
to ventilation and maintaining the desired tempera- 
ture. For these and other reasons most growers 
prefer to dispose of the crop as soon as possible, 
and are willing to accept low prices rather than run 
the risk of loss by storage. 

It is absolutely essential for successful winter 
storing that the bulbs should be well matured, 
thoroughly cured, not bruised, and in a perfectly 
dormant state. Most growers perfer topping the 
onions before storing. Sheep shears can be used to 
advantage in this work, leaving about an inch of 
the onion top extending above the bulb. The sorting 
may also be done by hand or by means of a screen, 
the rods or salts of which diverge, letting the bulbs 
fall into three hoppers, separating the onions into 
three grades. 

The Production of Onion Seed. — It should be the 
aim of every grower of onion seed to produce only 
seed of the highest quality. The characteristics of 
the ideal bulb should be carefully considered by the 
producer of seed. The bulbs from which the seed is 
to be grown should be selected with care, rejecting 
those which do not approach as near as possible to 
the grower's ideal. Culls or unsalable onions are too 
frequently used for this purpose, and although the 
seed therefrom in good seasons may be heavy and 
may germinate readily, they will not produce a sat- 
isfactory crop. By careful selection and judicious 
cultivation through a series of years, it is possible 
to greatly raise the standard of excelfence. By this 
method the flat-formed bulbs, which are not so 
productive nor salable, may be ultimately changed 
to those of a perfect globular form After the soil 
has been properly prepared, cover the onions in 
trenches 4 or 5 inches deep, allowing about 6 inches 
between the bulbs. The rows, if to be worked by a 
hand wheel hoe, should be from 14 to 18 inches 
apart; if a horse is to be used in cultivating, about 24 
feet apart. It is important to plant the onions as 
early as the spring weather will permit. Where 
the winters are not too severe, fall planting is 

After the seed stalks are well started the soil 
should be drawn about them to give the plants nec- 
essary support. This should be done three or four 
times during the season, finally leaving a ridge 7 or 
8 inches high. Some growers prefer supporting the 
plants by means of twine stretched on either side of 
the rows. 

After the last cultivation the plants should be 
disturbed as little as possible until the time for 
harvesting. Promptness in harvesting is very im- 
portant, for if delayed too long the seed receptacles 
crack open and part of the crop will be lost in hand- 
ling. When the tops assume a yellowish appearance 
remove them with 5 or 6 inches of the stem, and if 
overripe, deposit in tight vessels or in baskets with 
papers spread over the bottoms and sides to prevent 
loss. The entire crop does not mature at the same 
date, hence it is necessary to examine the plants 
three or four times in order to remove the seed at 
the proper stage of ripening. The tops should be 
stored in a well-ventilated room with a tight floor 
until dry enough for threshing. Frequent turning 
of the tops will hasten their drying and shake out 
more than half the seed. The remaining seed may 
be removed by flailing. Cleaning is done by re- 
peated winnowing, and by washing in buckets or 
tubs to separate the light seed and chaff that the 
winnowing fails to remove. The seed must be 
thoroughly dried and stored in a location free from 
excessive moisture. 

/{milking Onions, Sets, and Picklers. — Several meth- 
ods are employed in the production of bunching 
onions. In the South, the Potato onion is largely 
used, the bulbs being planted in the fall. They are 
set in trenches 4 or 5 inches deep and placed 3 to 6 
inches apart in the row. The bulbs increase and 
divide during the growing season, and may be 
pulled and bunched very early in the spring. Small 
sets of white or yellow varieties are extensively used 

by some market gardeners in the production of 
bunching onions. Either fall or spring planting may 
be practiced. The sets should be planted 1J or 2 
inches apart, allowing a foot between the rows. 
Seed is also largely used in raising bunch onions. 

The earliest crop can be secured by sowing in Sep- 
tember or October, or sufficiently early for the seed- 
ing to become firmly established before the advent 
of cold weather. Fall sowing is best adapted to 
the warmer sections of the country. Seven or eight 
pounds per acre should be sown, making the drills 
10 or 12 inches apart. The Barletta variety may be 
sown for early use. 

The soil should be only moderately Tertile for grow- 
ing sets, but free from little stones and weed seeds. 
Seed is drilled in at the rate of from 50 to 60 pounds 
per acre. It is desirable to defer sowing in the 
spring until most of the weed seeds which may be 
present in the soil have germinated. The aim of the 
grower should be to secure a crop of very small bulbs 
as nearly uniform in size of the sets. Of course, a 
bushel of the smallest sets will plant a greater area 
than the same quantity of the larger ones, hence 
they command a higher price. When mature, the 
sets are lifted by a trowel and deposited with the 
surrounding soil in a sieve with meshes small enough 
to hold the smallest bulbs. A crib or dry, well-ven- 
tilated apartment may be used to cure the onions, 
spreading them in thin layers. It is extremely im- 
portant to dry the sets thoroughly, so that they will 
remain in an entirely dormant condition until sold or 
planted. Before the final storing a fanning mill is 
used to remove the loose skins or other light refuse. 
White sets command the highest price. 

In the production of pickling onions about 25 or 30 
pounds of seed per acre should be sown. No variety 
is better adapted to this purpose than the Barletta. 
The bulbs when harvested should be as uniform in 
size as possible. Onions measuring from three- 
fourths of an inch to 1£ inches in diameter are the 
proper size for this purpose. 


Some Studies in Cattle Feeding. 

By Prof. M. E. Jaffa, or the State University, at the meetings of 
the Dairymen's Association in Humboldt County last week. 

It is a recognized fact that the feeding of the cat- 
tle is one of the most important branches of the dairy 
industry. What is best and, at the same time, 
the most economical feed for the animals is, or ought 
to be, the first point of consideration of he who 
wishes to rank as a progressive dairyman. 

There is a certain amount of waste and loss going 
on all the time in the animal body, which must be as 
constantly replaced. The secretion of the milk is 
the cause of one kind of loss; the involuntary work 
necessary for the carrying on of the normal func- 
tions of the body brings about waste. The breaking 
down and wearing out of the tissues and depletion 
of the fluids of the body can only be replenished by 
the food taken into the body. 

If the food is to furnish material necessary for the 
building up of the body and also to repair the waste 
of the tissues, etc., it must necessarily contain ele- 
ments which, directly or indirectly, can be converted 
into tissue substance. Now these tissues and fluids 
of the body vary in their composition, such as fatty 
tissue, muscle, tendons, etc.; similarly as regards the 
fluids of the animal organism. Hence we can readily 
see the reason for and the necessity of the food being 
varied to some extent in its character. We must 
understand from the outset that certain ingredients 
cannot replace, be transformed into, or act as a sub- 
stitute for others. For instance, fat can never form 
muscle, therefore if we want to replace muscle we 
must in the food have some muscle-forming elements. 
We thus have proved to us that it is of the utmost 
importance to be conversant with the composition of 
the food. It is a very simple matter to fill a cow's 
stomach with food. But if there is not enough 
nourishment in the quantity fed to keep the animal 
in a normal healthy condition, not only will it suffer 
but the milk yield will rapidly fall and the quality be 

Elements of Food. — The main constituents of the 
foods are protein, fat and carbohydrates, the pro- 
tein being transformed into muscle and the fat and 
carbohydrates being used as heat producers. The 
contents of these different elements in any feedstuff 
determines its character; the ones containing a high 
percentage of protein or albuminoids being termed 
nitrogenous, while those with considerable carbo- 
hydrates are classed as starchy foods. 

A certain amount of nutriment is needed by the 
cow every day. This is a point which has been the 
subject of much investigation among scientific men 
in all parts of the world, and the conclusions they 
have arrived at are not merely idle guesses but the 
results of innumerable experiments, many of which 
were far from being successful. Science in this, as 
in many other matters, has had uphill work. But at 
present almost all feeders are availing themselves of 
the facts brought out by the scientists, and most of 
them appreciate what inestimable advantage it is to 

July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

have at their command the data which has been 
worked out by the experiment stations and colleges. 

The quantity of food daily consumed by an animal 
is designated as a ration. Rations are essentially 
well balanced or poorly balanced. The former is one 
where the ingredients are present in the proper 
proportions, that is, where the protein or flesh- 
forming constituents and fat or heat producers exist 
in such quantities as to bring about the desired re- 
sults. A poorly balanced ration is just the reverse; 
it is one which contains too much of any constituent, 
be it protein, fat, or carbohydrates. Just what the 
best ration should be for California has not been 
thoroughly worked out as yet. We try to follow the 
standard set down by the Germans and also by some 
scientific feeders in the various parts of the East. 
The ration corresponding to this standard is as fol- 
lows: For 1000 pounds live weight, about 24 pounds 
of dry matter, containing about 2.5 pounds digestible 
protein or nitrogenous food, about .4 pound digest- 
ible fat (heat producers), and about 12.5 pounds di- 
gestible carbohydrates (starch, etc.). The fuel value 
of this ration amounts to 29,100 calories with a nutri- 
tive ratio of 1: 5.4. 

These figures are not by any means an absolute 
standard, but they are the average of many hundreds 
of trials by those deeply and scientifically interested 
in the cause. They are meant to act as guides, and 
do so serve the intelligent feeder. It would be im- 
possible to announce a formula that would cover all 

Prof. Woll of Wisconsin, in order to ascertain how 
the ration fed by the prosperous and practical dairy- 
men of this country compared with the standard just 
mentioned, sent letters to over 100 such people, and, 
from the replies he received, calculated a ration, 
which amounts to 24.5 pounds total dry matter, in 
which there are 2.2 pounds digestible protein, .70 
pounds digestible fat and 13. 3 pounds of digestible 
carbohydrates, or starchy material, with a fuel value 
of 31,250 calories and a nutritive ratio of 1:6.9. This 
ratio does not differ materially from the German fig- 
ures, excepting in the case of fat content, which is 
in the latter case a little more than one-half that 
noted by Prof. Woll. 

The Ration. — Having now the amount necessary 
per cow of a given weight, the next question that 
comes before us is how to supply the necessary 
amounts of the different nutrients, or, to return to 
our original proposition, what shall we feed ? In 
other words, what is a proper ration for a milch cow 
and what are its component parts ? 

Feeds may be divided into two main classes, green 
and dry. Green feeds may be subdivided into: Green 
feeds (1) by pasture alone ; (2) by pasture, with grain 
ration in addition ; (3) by soiling alone ; (4) by soil- 
ing, with grain ration added ; (5) by soiling, with sil- 
age and grain added. 

Dry feed generally consists of hay with a grain ra- 

Let us first discuss feeding by pasture only and as- 
certain about how much would be required per cow 
to correspond with our standard ration. 

Pasturage is par excellence the food for a dairy 
cow. It is nature's food, and where such nourish- 
ment exists in sufficient quantity and of high quality, 
there would be no financial gain by supplementing 
the grass with a grain ration. This has been shown 
by extended trials made at Cornell University and 
other experiment stations. At the same time another 
important fact has been brought out by these inves- 
tigations, which is, that, excepting where the pasture 
is very luxuriant, while there was no pecuniary ad- 
vantage in giving the animals grain while at pasture, 
there was in hardly any instance a monetary loss. 

In nearly every case where grain supplemented pas- 
ture feeding there was an accompanying increase in 
yield of milk, and hence of butter fat. But it was found 
that the increased return from the sale of the milk 
or butter rarely, if ever, more than compensated the 
feeder for the extra outlay entailed by the purchase 
of grain. 

More Cows to the Ranch. — There is one consideration 
that must not be lost sight of, viz: if a dairyman has 
only limited pasture, and that is by no means an un- 
common occurrence, he can accommodate more cows 
in the same pasture when using grain as part of the 
ration than is possible when he relies solely on the 
grass ration. It is much better and more in the line 
of advanced dairying to give the animals pasture 
with some other food in addition, and thus have all 
the animals properly nourished, than to have the 
cows only sparingly fed by not having sufficient 
pasture. If the animal did not derive any other 
benefit from the grain, except in the way of increased 
weight or strength, then it would be hardly worth 
while for a feeder to experiment with the grain, 
where the pasture was first-class. 

In one of the tests made at the Cornell University 
Experiment Station one lot of Jerseys were fed grain 
and another lot no grain. The former yielded during 
the period of the experiment 22,628.5 pounds of milk, 
while the output of the latter was 17,697 pounds of 
milk, or 4,930 pounds of milk more for the grain-fed 
lot, which amounted to about 3* pounds per cow per 
day. The cows of the herd were thin in flesh at the 
commencement of the trial, but gained as it pro- 
ceeded. The grain-fed lot gained 166 pounds per 
cow and the other lot 113 pounds, or an increase of 

53 pounds per cow in favor of the grain-fed lot (from 
May 22d to October 23d— 154 days). Still the increase 
of milk would hardly seem to warrant the buying of 
grain, and it is not generally considered profitable to 
feed cows for a gain in live weight only. 

This was the view of the Cornell station ; but, on 
further investigations, they ascertained that the 
grain-fed cows during the next year, without any 
grain, gave larger yields of milk to the extent of 16 
per cent than did the cows which had received only 
pasture feed — thus showing that the effects of the 
grain ration was felt in the season following its use. 

This would seem to indicate that the grain ration 
in addition to pasture was a source of lasting bene- 
fit to the animal ; especially in the case of 
the younger ones, for it was noticed at the 
station that the grain-fed two-year-olds and the 
three-year-olds developed into better animals than 
the ones having had no grain. 

The grain ration fed per cow during the trial was 
composed of 2 pounds corn meal and one each of 
cottonseed meal and bran. The pasture consisted 
entirely of blue grass. 

It would be a somewhat difficult matter to make a 
comparison of the amounts consumed by each lot of 
cows during the investigation. It is of interest, 
though, to note how much blue grass the four pounds 
of grain is equivalent to in nutritive effect. The 
amount of nutriment in the grain ration is shown 
by the following little table : 







2 ftis. Corn Meal 

1 lb. Cottonseed Meal 
1 lb. Bran 















By referring to the analysis of blue grass, below, 
we find that 10 pounds of it contain about the same 
amount of total dry matter and carbohydrates as 
does the grain ration, but practically has only one- 
half the protein and fat contents. In order that the 
same amount of protein should be fed by means of 
grass one would have to use a little more than 20 
pounds, in which case the carbohydrates would be 
greatly in excess. 

To balance this ration would necessitate the addi- 
tion of 65 pounds of grass to the 4 pounds of grain. 
The showing would then be : 

Grain Ration 

65 lbs. Blue Grass. 







i !arbo- 

22 75 







.68 1 14 49 


The protein content of the ration thus completed 
is identical with that of our standard, while the re- 
maining figures show no material difference in this 

A balanced ration consisting entirely of blue grass 
would require about 85 pounds. Now let us deter- 
mine how much will be correspondingly required of 
the grasses and forage plants of this section, viz., 
red clover, alfalfa, rye grass and orchard grass. The 
analyses of these feedstuffs are given herewith : 


• W 














Clover. . . 

Grass. . 

ard Gras 

erage. . . . 

Grass. . 
















Crude Protein 




2 60 

3 80 


Crude Fiber 


4 70 





Nitrogen Free Ex'ct. 

























3 60 


Nitrogen Free Ex'ct. 

10 50 




9 20 









Nutritive Ratio 

1: 5.1 






Fuel Value Calories. 







* Of clover, alfalfa, rye and orchard grass. 

A study of the data here presented shows that the 
clover and alfalfa are richer in protein or muscle- 
forming ingredients than the grasses. The digest- 
ible content of this part of the food and of fat also in 
the average are identical respectively with those of 
blue grass, which, on the other hand, contains a 
much higher percentage of carbohydrates noted for 
the other foods represented in the table. 

The blue grass is, then, a more carbonaceous food 
than would be a mixture of the other fodders men- 
tioned. If a dairyman has at his disposal all these 
feedstuffs, he would not be feeding to the best ad- 
vantage in using equal amounts of each. In fact, it 
would be impossible to so produce a balanced ration. 
A good proportion would have about one-half to five- 
eighths of clover, and with the remaining fodders 
balance the ration. 

A change from barn to pasture will, in the major- 
ity of cases, result in the improvement of the milk, 

and to a slight extent the quantity also. This fact 
only tends to corroborate the statement previously 
made that luxuriant pasture is the natural food for 
dairy cows. 

Additional Foods. — There are not many places 
where the pasturage is such as to admit of its 
constituting the sole food of the animals. In some 
cases the pasture leaves nothing to be desired as re- 
gards quality, but it is too small to accommodate all 
the cows of the dairy. It is then that the feeder, in 
order that all the animals may have some green 
feed, has resource to what is termed soiling, that is, 
cutting the fodders green and feeding them as such. 
This is a much more economical method of feeding 
than pasturing, in that, from the same area more 
animals can derive nourishment; but the cost of la- 
bor of cutting and feeding must be taken into ac- 
count. Soiling is generally supplemented by a grain 
ration, more particularly if the quantity of the soil- 
ing crop is limited. 

Professor Phelps of the Storrs Agr. Exp't. Sta- 
tion (Conn.) has conducted experiments in this line of 
investigation during the last three or four years, 
and he summarizes thus: Under the soiling system 
more stock can be kept on a given acreage than by 
pasturing; much of the expense of fencing is saved; 
nearly all of the fodder given is available for the 
formation of products, as there is no waste of energy 
in searching for food, and the manure can be pre- 
served free from waste. 

Forage Crops. — The best crops for soiling are 
those rich in nitrogenous matter. Although smaller 
crops are usually obtained with the legumes (clover, 
peas, etc.,) than with fodder corn, the fodder from 
the legumes is much richer in nitrogen and hence 
of more value in the production of milk, cheese, 
butter and beef. The legumes, being nitrogen col- 
lectors, are able to obtain much of their food supply 
from the air and subsoil. They add to the fertility 
of the soil by the decay of their roots, stubble and 
leaves, which are left in and upon the soil when the 
crop is harvested. 

The more extended use of fodder crops like the 
clovers, field pea, cow pea, vetch and alfalfa is a 
matter which should receive the thoughtful attention 
of farmers. 

The object of the feeding experiment was to com- 
pare fodders containing relatively large proportions 
of protein with those containing relatively small 
quantities, in their effects on butter and milk pro- 
duction. Those high in protein were mainly leg- 
uminous fodders and consisted of oats and peas, 
clover, soy beans, cow peas, rowen, and barley and 
peas. Those lower in protein belong to the cereal 
fodders and consisted of oat fodder, Hungarian 
grass and corn fodder. Seventy pounds of most of 
these crops were fed per cow daily, although eighty 
pounds of the corn fodders were used. Two pounds 
of wheat bran and one pound of cornmeal were fed 
per cow daily, in connection with the green fodders. 

The green fodders were usually cut and hauled to 
the stable every other day, two days' supply being 
weighed at one time. The animals were stabled at 
night, and fed in the mangers night and morning, 
and had the "run " of a small yard through the day. 

The best results on quantity and quality of the 
products were obtained where rations with rela- 
tively large amounts of protein were fed. The ex- 
periments seem to indicate that rations containing 
a larger proportion of digestible protein than that 
called for by the commonly accepted standards are 
to be preferred. Large nitrogenous rations are es- 
pecially important early in the period of lactation, 
when the productive capacity of the cow is most 
heavily taxed. The quantity and quality of the 
products may be improved by the use of foods rich 
in protein, and the manure is more valuable than 
where starchy foods are fed. 

Dry Feeding. — If the farmer or dairyman practices 
dry feeding he can vary the composition of the ration 
in a number of ways, being limited by the adaptable 
crops of his region and also by the prices of the dif- 
ferent concentrated foods at his command. 

Probably no better ration could be made up, where 
dry feed is used, than one consisting of alfalfa and the 
grain hays, for the coarse part of the feed, and bran or 
middlings, with a small amount of one of the oilcake 
meals for the concentrated portion of the ration. 

Caution must be observed when such foods as the 
oilcake meals form part of the ration, as too great 
an amount of the meals would in a measure have a 
tendency to taint the milk and butter. 

Feeding Fat to Cows. — Many experiments have been 
made along this line of work, both in our own coun- 
try and abroad. In the United States the New 
Hampshire Agricultural Experiment Station has 
made some extended trials, in which cotton-seed oil, 
palm oil, cocoanut oil, oleo and stearine were added 
to a ration composed of hay and ensilage and a grain 
ration of 8 pounds of equal parts ground oats and mid- 
dlings. The oils were fed in turn to the three differ- 
ent cows in periods of two weeks each. The conclu- 
sions noted were: That the first effect of an increase 
of fat in the cows' ration was to increase the percent 
of fat in the milk. That with the continuance of such 
a ration the tendency was for the milk to return to 
its normal condition. That the increase of fat is not 
due to the oils, but to the unusual character of the 
rations. That the result of feeding oils tends to con- 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 4, 1896. 

firm the conclusions that the composition of cow's 
milk is determined by the individuality of the cow, 
and that, although an unusual food may disturb for 
a time the composition of the milk, its effect is not 

In Scotland similar trials were made by Prof. 
Spier, who summarizes them in stating the propor- 
tion of butter fat is very little influenced by the foods 
containing a large percentage of oil, such as linseed 
or cottonseed cake, nor yet by albuminous food, such 
as the bean or pea meals, etc. 

Prof. Wing of the Cornell station also pursued in- 
vestigation in this direction and presents the results 
of his labors in Bulletin 92 of the Cornell station. He 
fouDd that there were no very marked changes in 
the percentage of fat and yield of milk in the period ! 
when the cows were on a full feed of tallow (two 
pounds). "While there are slight variations in the 
per cent of fat, they rarely reach one-half of one per 
cent, and, what is of more significance, they are not 
uniform. Some of the cows gave richer milk and 
some poorer on a full feed of tallow than they did be- 
fore or after. There was no appreciable gain in 
weight. It is of interest to note that the average 
daily yield of milk and the per cent of fat for each 
cow, two months after the close of the experiment, 
was practically the same as at its close. These results 
were obtained with ten different cows, of various 
ages and periods of lactation, extending over a i 
period of ten weeks, for at least six of which they 
ate two pounds per day per head of tallow. 

Sugar Beets as Stock Feed. — An experiment was j 
made at Cornell with the view of determining the 
value as a stock food of sugar beets, compared with 
that of mangels. Five different varieties of sugar 
beets were used in the tests — one row for each vari- J 
ety— and three rows of mangels. The yield was as 
follows : 

Five varieties of sugar beets averaged 23 tons per J 
acre ; three rows of long red mangel averaged 31 
tons per acre ; a difference of 36 per cent in favor of | 
mangels, though one variety of sugar beet yielded 
considerably more than the mangels. Moreover, it | 
is twice the labor to harvest sugar beet, so that it i 
would seem clear that if the roots are to be raised 
for stock, so far as yield is concerned, mangels are 
muob to be preferred to sugar beets. Below is j 
shown the average composition in food constituents I 
of two analyses each of mangels and sugar beets : 

Sugar Beets. Mangels. 

Water 88.18 90.32 

Ash 78 .72 

Crude Protein 1.12 1.10 

Ether Extract (fat) 10 .12 

Crude Fiber 95 .67 

Nitrogen-free Extract 10.87 7.07 

Total 100.00 100.00 

Nutritive Ratio 1 : 10.8 7.3 

It will be seen that the main difference in the two 
is in the less amount of water and the greater 

amount of nitrogen-free extract (sugar) in the sugar 


The figures for the total dry matter in the beets 
and mangels, as shown by the analyses, indicate that 
the yield per acre of dry matter is practically the 
same in both, the amounts being 3.19 and 3.04 tons, 

Steer Feeding. — Almost every dairyman will at 
times have some cows which are not profitable as 
milkers and which he wishes to fatten for the butcher. 
He will find it more to his advantage in such cases to 
use a well-balanced ration. 

This point was tested at the Maryland station with 
the following conclusions : 

That a well balanced ration produced more gain 
and more profit than a poorly balanced ration. 

Steers fed a well balanced ration had a higher 
value per pound than those fed the poorly balanced 

That the ordinary corn and cob meal used by the 
farmers are unprofitable and need the addition of 
some highly nitrogenous food, such as wheat bran 
and cottonseed meal, to make it profitable. 


Notes From the Poultry Keeper. 

About Breeds. — The breed that succeeds in finding 
a place in the affections of the farmer is the one that 
possesses hardiness, egg production and market 
quality. Ornamental breeds may do for the show 
room, but they will exist in limited numbers only, 
while the less gaudy but useful breeds will be scat- 
tered far and wide over the country as producers of 
eggs and chicks. There is no reason why the useful 
bird should not be beautiful also, but its beauty 
should not take the precedence. Some of our estab- 
lished breeds have stood the test of years, and are as 
popular to-day as ever, while each year witnesses 
something new added to the list, as there is no limit 
to improvement and advancement. 

Tonics. — It may be stated that a healthy fowl 
needs no tonics. The best way to use a tonic, if it 
must be given (and some persons use them whether 
necessary or not) is in the drinking water. A tea- 
spoonful of red pepper in a peck of food is sufficient, 
should it be used, but a better substance is a tea- 
spoonful of tincture of iron in a gallon of drinking 
water. If any of the birds are sick, use a teaspoon- 
ful of a solution of permanganate of potash to each 
half gallon of water until the whole flock is healthy 
again, as it will at least assist in preventing the 
spread of disease. 

To Keep Eggs. — When eggs are placed in an incu- 

bator, those that contain no germs of chicks, al- 
though kept at a temperature of 103° for two weeks, 
will be nearly as good in appearance as when they 
were placed in the incubator. When eggs are to be 
kept for higher prices, therefore, remove the males, 
and use only eggs from hens not with males. That is 
the great secret of keeping eggs. Put them in a cool 
place and turn them half over twice a week. They 
may be in boxes or on racks, or arranged in any 
manner that permits of turning them easily. They 
should be good and nice looking until Christmas, if 
kept sufficiently cool — say. about 60°. 

Feeding. — Feeding too often is a serious mistake. 
If the hens are in good condition for laying, they will 
thrive much better if compelled to come off the roost 
in the morning and scratch for their breakfast than 
if they walk up to a feed trough and fill their crops. 
The morning feed of grain and seeds may be scat- 
tered in the litter after they are on the roost at 
night, so that they can begin as early in the morning 
as they desire. Before going to roost at night they 
may be given all they can eat. They will digest all 
that the crop will hold before morning. 

The Best Dust Bath. — During the summer season 
the best mode of providing a dust bath is to dig out 
a space in the poultry yard, 3 feet square and about 
6 or 8 inches deep. When the dirt is dry, sift it back 
into the place from which it was taken, and when so 
doing, sprinkle a little carbolic acid over it, to give 
it the characteristic odor. After each rain, stir the 
dirt and make it fine, but it need not again be sifted. 
The hens will resort to it and rid themselves of lice. 
If the poultry house is kept clean and a dust bath is 
provided, the hens can keep their bodies free from 
lice with its use. 

Large or Small Hens. — Two Brahma or Cochin hens, 
weighing nine pounds each (eighteen pounds for the 
pair), will require fully as much room on the roost as 
three small hens weighing six pounds each, and if the 
tables of food equivalents and amounts to sustain life 
according to live weight are correct, the three hens 
will consume no more food than two large ones. But 
they will do more, however, as they will lay three 
eggs, while only two eggs can be secured from the 
large hens. Here, then, is a gain of 50 per cent in 
eggs in favor of small breeds, because they cost no 
more than the same weight of large fowls, but being 
more numerous, they consequently produce more 

Meat for a Flock. — It is not advisable to feed meat 
alone to fowls, unless they have a forage where grain 
and grass may be plentiful ; but as we have been 
asked how much meat or bone should be given daily, 
we will state that one ounce of lean meat a day for 
each fowl is considered about the quantity, but if for- 
age is good and plentiful, an allowance of one pound 
of meat to twenty hens or half a pound of pounded 
green bone will answer. 


Manufacturing Co. 

Successors to 
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Builders of all kinds 
of Pumping; Machinery 
for Irrigation and 
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Triple Acting Pomps, Deep Well Pumps 
Windmills, Tanks for Water and Wine, Link 
Kelt Elevators and Conveyors, Link Chain and 
Sprocket Wheels, Wine Presses (hydraulic or 
screw). Grape Crushers and Stemmers. I'ipe 
and Fittings. 


51 Beale and 9 to ir Stevenson, 

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School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
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Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
7:23 ftlARKET STREET, 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAN DER NAILLEH, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, *25; Bullion and Chloriaation 
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assaying. »50. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 

For deep or shallow wells; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
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UP TO D/\TE ! 



' ' Hay. Grain, Wood, Stamps^ 8 ton en, : 

Apples from the orchard. Silage corn 
from the field— Oh ! anything? 




need a 

tirely of Steel. 
Light and V' / \W That makes it cheap, 
STRONC. V£J»^isu't that what you 
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wagon— It v, mi last a lifetime. 

Sold by ail reputable Jobbers and lni|>ie. 
merit dealers, Write for circulars, FREE 
Bettendorf Axle Co.. Davenport, 


Standard \ 




Will furnish power for one-tenth of » cent per horse pan er per hour. It Is the cheapest 
power ever produced, as shown in the following table, and which Is based upon a test of ten 
hours' run with one of our live-horse power Gasoline Engines, using gasoline (74°), coal gas, com- 
mon domestic coal oil, crude petroleum, asphaltum base, crude petroleum, parafflne base, as follows: 

Coal Gas, ten hours' run. 1000 feet w ?i 00 

Gasoline ("4 dee.), ten hours' run. 8% gallons <s> 14c. . 125 

Coal OH, ten hours' run. "ii gallons & 10c T5 

Crude Petroleum, asphaltum base. 16 gallons <3 3c 48 

Crude Petroleum (3« deg.), parafflne base. 13 gallons @ 5c H 

On the crude petroleum with asphaltum base we had an over-product of 7 gallons of asphaltum; the 
market price is 3 cents per gallon— 21 cents. This deducted from the first cost of the crude petroleum 
for ten hours' run leaves a net balance of 27 cents. And from the crude oil with a parafflne base we 
had an over-producj of 3 gallons of good lubricating oil, which we consider equal to any we have ever 
used, but will estimate its value conservatively at 20 cents per gallon, making 60 cents; this deducted 
from the first cost of the crude oil leaves a balance of a cents, total cost of running ten hours. 

It will be readily seen that the operation of these Engines with crude petroleum reduces the cost 
of operation to aminimum. Crude petroleum with parafflne base at l-10c per horse power per hour; on 
crude petroleum, asphaltum base, Mc per horse power per hour; on domestic coal oil, lWc per horse 
power per hour: and on gasoline, 2V4c per horse power per hour. 



San Leandro, Cal. 

Hay Rake. \ 

Stanton, Thomson* Co., 

Sacramknto. Cal., 

For Catalogue 
and Prices. 



STANDARD of the 

World— the 
Model for others to 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

T. \AJ . JACKSON <fe CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. 226 Market Street, 


5000 Green Gage Seedlings 

For piece grafting; one bushel Green Gage seed. 

July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


The Horse Product. 

The breeding and rearing of horses 
as an ordinary farm industry on farms 
where there is no special skill em 
ployed is, says the Southern Farmer, go 
ing by. The common term " any mare 
is good enough to bring a colt," means 
failure to-day. 

The report of the statistician of the 
Agricultural Department for January 
of this year gives the average value of 
horses at the following figures: Under 
one year old, $13.49; under two years 
old, $20.20: under three years old, 
old, $29.30; over three years old, $42. 80. 
These figures, of course, include such 
horses as bring hundreds of dollars 
each, good stock, and in demand for 
luxurious purposes. If this class were 
excluded the average value, of course, 
would be considerably lower, and, in 
fact, it is the case that colts of the 
common run under one year old are 
now quite unsalable, while $30 is a fair 
average price for the ordinary farm 
horse. At the same time the well- 
bred saddle animal or roadster will 
bring very nearly the same value as 
formerly, and the best draft animals 
have scarcely felt the depression in the 
values, as shown by the figures of the 
report. Doubtless this low value of 
the common run of horses is due to the 
discharge of many thousands of them 
from service on the town and city 
horse railroads, which have been sup- 
plemented by the use of steam, either 
directly in the case of the cable trac- 
tion roads, or indirectly by the trolley 
and the electric force. Necessarily, 
when a demand is fully supplied for any 
needed commodity and this demand is 
suddenly decreased, the condition pre- 
sented to the breeder of common 
horses demands thought and action. 
Beyond a question, there will be a 
great number of mares go unbred this 
spring, for the colt will hardly pay the 
service fee. Thus the stock will begin 
to lessen immediately, and it will be 
but a short time until some recovery of 
value will take place by this disap- 
pearance of the poor stock. 

How Will Values Advance ? — This re- 
covery will be greatly helped by the 
better breeding in the future. It is to 
be remembered that not every farmer 
can breed a good colt, and this for 
want of the right knowledge of the 
principles of breeding. So that, while 
the poorest class of horses will soon 
disappear, the better kind will not at 
once fill the vacancy, and some time 
will elapse before the supply will over- 
take the demand, and, while this sup- 
ply will doubtless be decreased for 
some years to come, the demand will 
be always increasing. 

The Horse Will Stay, —It is not to be 
thought that the "passing of the 
horse "is about to be accomplished, 
and that this useful servant of our race 
is to be wholly done away with. There 
is, and always will be, work for horses 
to do, and history has once proved this 
in regard to the railroads, once thought 
to indicate this abolition of the horse 
years ago; for, instead of this, these 
railroads made a necessity for more 
horses, and so it will doubtless be again 
that the great mechanical improve- 
ments made available for horse work 
will really find employment for still 
more horses in time, as indispensable 
helps to the greatly increased traffic. 

A Higher Level. — Thus the breeding 
of horses will be put on a higher basis. 
Good horses will be wanted to minister 
to the service of the luxurious, as well 
as to become a medium between the 
steam carriage and roads and the 
crowds of producers and consumers for 
the purposes of collection and distribu- 
tion. For this service large animals 
will be needed, and for other uses the 
more showy and fleet ones, all of which 
will bring far better prices than the 
common farm-bred horses they have 
displaced. Farmers must thus spend 
time occurring between the intervals 
in studying this new business. They 
must themselves improve their own 
stock, and while the values are low 
this opportunity should not be missed. 
The blind, the halt, and the unthrifty 

are to be got rid of as of no further 
use to anyone as breeders. Indeed 
they are of little value as workers, for 
the better horse will cost no more to 
feed than the castaway, discarded 
scrub, while it will easily be twice the 
value for work and more than twice 
again as the dam of a good colt. 

Joint Ownership of Sires. — More at- 
tention is to be given to the choice of 
sires. The cost of the service of a 
good sire will always be made up twice 
over in the value of a colt, and the 
European fashion of associated owner- 
ship or employment of sires for the 
real improvement of stock will become 
a necessity of the care. Our personal 
sense of ability to manage such affairs 
for ourselves will forbid the interfer- 
ence of the Governmnnt in this matter, 
and the public Government studs of 
Europe will be imitated here by asso- 
ciated establishments by the farmers 
themselves, who will purchase or hire 
some acceptable sire. It will be, in 
fact, the entering wedge, perhaps, of 
a general system of associated effort by 
farmers for the improvement of their 
condition and the protection of them- 
selves from competition of other indus- 
tries carried on cheaply and profitably 
by a similar combination. Even this 
instance, one among many, points to 
this inevitable result in the end soon to 
come for the relief of agriculture. For 
this is only one of numerous disabilities 
that are due to the isolation of farmers 
and their inability to compete on equal 
terms with other industries fortified 
and strengthened by business combina- 

Every farmer who must keep horses 
should make it a part of his system to 
keep good breeders from henceforth; 
large draft animals will never want for 
purchasers in the cities; good saddle 
animals and drivers will always be 
equally in demand, and the farmers 
who will turn their attention to this 
part of their industry will unquestion- 
ably find an early reward for their en- 

To Drive Flies Out of Stables. 

A correspondent gives to the Rural 
New Yorker the following method of 
driving flies from the stable: Take one 
ounce of camphor gum, one ounce of 
corrosive sublimate, one pint of oil of 
turpentine; grind the sublimate thor- 
oughly, put into a strong bottle, and 
add the camphor gum. Pour on the 
turpentine, and shake occasionally. It 
should be fit for use in thirty-six hours. 
Heat a piece of iron and drop a few 
drops on it in the stable. Flies may 
be driven out of the house in the same 
manner by dropping a few drops on a 
hot stove lid. By following these di- 
rections every other day, I think any- 
one will soon be rid of flies. 

A Novelty in Sweet Peas. 

The Sunset Seed and Plant Co. of 227-9 
Sansome street, which has already done so 
much for the development of California floral 
interests, is introducing a new sweet pea, 
the "Red Riding Hood," which promises to 
be a great favorite. It is a new departure in 
form, is very rich in color and unsurpassed in 
fragrance. Its stems are very long, it is very 
hardy and it flowers early. 

— The Redlands Orange Growers' Associa- 
tion shipped this year 6,000,000 pounds of 
oranges of which about two-thirds were 
navels. The total number of boxes shipped 
was 83,728, or 279 cars of 300 boxes each. The 
last shipment for the season was made last 
week and consisted of two cars of Valencia 
lates, which were sold at $3 per box f. o. b. 

SSIOO Reward, $100. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreadful disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical fra- 
ternity. Catarrh being a constitutional disease, 
requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's Ca- 
tarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon 
the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease 
and giving the patient strength by building up 
the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers that they offer one hundred dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 
testimonials. Address. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 
as-Sold by Druggists,75c. 

—The Corral Hollow Railway is in active 
operation, trains running between Stockton 
and the mine. Jos. Treadwell says he will 
begin taking out coal August 15th, and will 
employ 2,000 men. The present thirty-six 
miles of railway will, he says, be ultimately 
extended to San Francisco. 

The Pace that Kills. 


Work and Fast Eating Make Three 
Score Years and Ten a Ripe Old 
Age These Days. 

From the Cincinnati Enquirer. 

The American people live too fast, eat too 
fast and drink too fast. This has brought 
upon many of us a train of nervous and stom- 
ach disorders that are very difficult to man 
age. Investigation and chemical analysis to 
discover such compounds as will help those 
suffering from such ills has resulted in the 
discovery of Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale 
People, which has taken very high rank as a 
specific remedy. 

H. P. Owens, a traveling man thirty years 
of age, who is well known in this community 
and generally liked because he is a bright 
energetic young fellow, resides with his 
mother at 335 Central avenue, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. He has been a victim of dyspepsia 
which took the form of continuous constipa- 
tion, and, strangely enough, his mother suf- 
fered from the same trouble. Mr. Owens 
testified to the merits of Pink Pills in a most 
enthusiastic way, and said to the Enquirer 
reporter : 

"lam glad to say anything I can for Dr 
Williams' Pink Pills, because they did me 
great good and other people ought to know of 
their virtues as a medicine in stomach 
troubles. It was some time ago when I felt a 
heavy feeling in my stomach and I grew very 
constipated. I did not consult a doctor, but 
having heard of the Pink Pills I bought a box 
of them. In two or three days the heavy 
feeling in my stomach disappeared and my 
bowels were regular. I did not have to use 
more than a box of them before I was well. 
Since that time I have only occasionally been 
troubled with constipation, and I never get 
worried because I know just what to do. 
Mother was also troubled with indigestion 
and the Pink Pills did the same for her they 
did for me— cured her, didn't they, mother?" 

When appealed to Mrs. Owens answered : 
" That is right. I found that it was a great 
medicine, so easy to take and so quick and 
lasting in its results." 

Mr. Owens continued : " I believe that 
these pills are also good for nervousness. 
When I had my stomach trouble I was also 
quite nervous, and that disappeared with the 
dyspepsia. The Pink Pills were all that is 
claimed for them. You can make any use of 
this testimonial that you see fit." 

H. P. Owens has occupied several positions 
of trust in this city. He was for a time an 
employe of the Commercial dinette. He will 
go on the road in a few days for a prominent 
business house here. Mrs. Owens is quite as 
enthusiastic as her son about the Pink Pills, 
and her host of lady friends can verify her 
good opinion of his wonderful remedy if' they 
feel disposed to do so at any time. Where 
the testimony is so general and unanimous as 
to the excellencies of Pink Pills as the En- 
quirer has found it to be there is certainlv 
good reason to believe all the good things 
said— about the safe and simple remedy. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale "People 
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shattered nerves. They may be had of all 
druggists or direct by mail from the Dr. Wil- 
liams Medicine Company, Schenectady, N. Y., 
at 50c per box or six boxes for $2.50. 

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The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 4, 1806 


He is Just Away. 

I can not say, and I will not say 
That he is dead— he is just away. 

With a cheery smile and a wave of the hand 
He has wandered into an unknown land, 

And left us dreaming how very fair 

It needs must be, since he lingers there. 

And you— oh, you— who the wildest yearn 
For the old-time step and the glad return- 
Think of him as faring on, as dear 
In the love of there as the love of here. 

Mild and gentle as he was brave 

When the sweetest love of his life he gave 

To simpler things, where the violets grew, 
Pure as the eyes they were likened to. 

The touches of his hands have stayed 
As reverently as the lips have prayed ; 

When the little brown thrush that harshly 

Was dear to him as the mockingbird ; 

And he pitied as much as a man in pain 
A writhing honey-bee wet with rain. 

Think of him still the same, I say; 
He is not dead— he is just away ! 

—James Whitcomb Riley. 

A Severe Experiment. 

It was an ill-tempered day, with a 
tine, penetrating mist and a raw east 
wind. Every one who came into the 
store shivered as the warm air struck 
them, and the east wind seemed to 
have possession of all their tempers. 

Caleb Wilson, the proprietor of the 
store, was at best a gnarly old gentle- 
man with an uncertain disposition, 
which was growing more uncertain as 
the day progressed and his trials ac- 
cumulated. Mrs. Jones could get 
everything she priced " a mite cheaper 
over to Harmon's." Mrs. Austin, his 
best customer and butter-maker, 
brought in doubtful butter; and he 
dared not tell her so, but meekly took 
it at his highest price. Mrs. Sampson 
returned a dress because she found a 
"damaged spot right in the middle of 
the piece." So it had gone all day. 

Just at nightfall Bruce, his only son, 
a boy of fifteen, came in. and stood by 
the show-case, talking to a mate in the 
vicinity of Mr. Wilson, who was marking 
goods behind a stack of muslins. 

"I feel awful bad about their chang- 
ing our arithmetics," the boy was 
saying. " Pa just can't afford to get 
me one, I know." 

" Yes, 'tis bad for some of you 
fellows," Bruce answered in a lofty 
tone. " Of course, with me it is differ- 
ent. Father can get whatever I want." 

The old man's face grew grimmer, 
and his thin lips set in a displeased 
line. "So, so, young man," he mut- 
tered: "you are crowing pretty loud." 
Bruce went on: "I tell you I am glad 
my father's rich. I'd most rather die 
than go dressed as some of the fellows 
have to, and dig into all kinds of work." 

" Guess you could work if you had 
to," the boy replied rather tartly. 

" Yes; but I don't have to," Bruce 
retorted with a laugh. 

"You don't, sonny ? Well, we'll 
see," Mr. Wilson muttered again, peer- 
ing round the muslins at the spruce, 
rather supercilious-looking boy. Then 
his gaze wandered down the length of 
the long, well-filled store. It was the 
largest in the county; and the honest, 
energetic old man had the patronage 
of the entire country-side, in spite of 
his surly ways. He gazed long down 
into the dim interior, until his clerks 
commenced lighting up. 

" I am tired of keeping store, anv- 
way," he said, half aloud. Then, roused 
sharply, "Never mind lighting up," 
he called to the two young men. "Come 
here." He moved to the desk, and 
they followed him. " I shan't need you 
any more. Here's a month's wages 
that will last you while you are hunt- 
ing another job," he said, shoving the 
money toward them. 

" Why," they both began in astonish- 
ment. ' have we done anything ?" 

" No, no, boys: you are all right. I 
will give you good recommends. Hope 
you will have luck getting a place." 

He turned from them and commenced 
to pile up the books on his desk. They 
stood an instant in blank amazement. 

" Shan't we come back for the even- 
ing ? " oue of them ventured. "No, no: 
you can go now," he answered impa- 

"Why, father, what does this 
mean ? questioned Bruce, who had 
been an interested auditor to these 
proceedings. His father, vouchsafing 
no answer, went around carefully, clos- 
ing the great shutters, setting the 
burglar-trap shotgun, and double 
bolting the doors. He put the front 
door key in his pocket. 

" Bring the account books from the 
desk," he said to Bruce. The boy 
obeyed. Then he extinguished the 
light, and they groped their way in the 
darkness to the back door. "Take 
the books to the house: then come with 
me," was the next command. 

He carried them to the big white 
house just across the alley. Then down 
the long village street they went 
rapidly, with coat collars turned up in 
slight protection against the driving 
mist. Finally, they stood on the bridge 
over the river just above the dam. 
The fall rains had swollen it into quite 
a torrent. Mr. Wilson took the two 
big store keys from his pocket, and 
handed them to Bruce. " Throw them 
in," he said. 

" Into the water ? " the boy gasped. 
He was very white; but, knowing his 
father, he said no more, only obeyed. 

"Now, young man," — Mr. Wilson 
faced him with a keen gaze on the boy's 
startled countenance, — "that store 
will stay shut until I see fit it should 
be opened. It may be five years. It 
may be fifty. Meantime, I calculate 
I've got about income enough from 
other things to keep us off the town. 
So, after this, if you get anything bet- 
ter than blue jeans, you'll flax around 
for it." 

Such a mystery had never befallen 
the people. The whole country went 
wild over it. But the blank, wooden 
front of the big store and Mr. Wilson's 
grim face were alike imperturbable. 
Mrs. Wilson and the two married 
daughters, after vain questioning and 
many tears, dropped it meekly. Bruce, 
who alone held the key of the problem, 
was naturally silent; but a bitter desire 
to shame his father grew in his heart. 

"Guess when he sees me in rags, 
he'll find some way to fix it up. I'd 
like to know what work he expects me 
to do, anyway," he thought, sullenly. 

As the months went by, in spite of 
his mother's care, his clothes grew 
shabbier and shabbier. His shoes were 
actually ragged, but his father seemed 
not to notice it. Bruce had always 
been unpopular among the boys for 
his " bossy way " and his "airs." So 
in his adversity he had no friends to 
turn to. The mysterious closing of the 
store and the pinched way in which the 
family appeared to live was " good 
enough for him " in their eyes; and the 
boy's school life was sometimes almost 
a purgatory. 

'Most die if you had to go like some 


in a 
in an- 

of us fellows, wouldn't you 
one of them one day. 

"You'll have to stay home 
blanket pretty soon," chimed 

" Mr. Jenkins wants a boy up in his 
tanyard. Better try for the place," 
suggested a third. 

"When you see me in Jenkins's tan- 
yard, you'll know it," shouted Bruce, 
boiling with passion. " My father's 
got money enough " — 

"Oh, bother money, Bruce Wilson ! " 
broke in one of the other older boys. 
" You make me sick ! You weren't any 
good with it, and you ain't any good 
without it. There's one thing money 
can't buy and you haven't got, and 
that's sense." 

He slunk away from the laughter of 
the boys, with black rage in his heart. 
" 'Twas all his father. He'd make him 
sorry," was the whole thought of his 
life. Daily the neat, gentlemanly boy 
grew more careless and worthless. 

"He looks and acts like a tramp," 
his sister said one day to his mother. 
"Can't father fix him up some? It 
might give him a little self-respect." 

Mr. Wilson coming in, heard her. 
" No, he can't, he answered." " A self- 
respect made out of clothes isn't going 
to stand by a fellow. I'll own that I'm 

disappointed in the boy. I thought he 
was worth saving; but I guess he ain't, 
I guess be ain't." His voice quivered, 
and he turned to the window. 

I think just that break in his father's 
voice went a long way toward saving 
Bruce Wilson, for he was in the next 
room and heard it all. 

" Why, I believe he cares for me. 
He honestly cares, and isn't doing it 
for meanness," he thought, with a soft- 
ening throb in his heart. He lay on 
the lounge a long time with his head 
buried in the pillows. Whenhegotup, 
there was a look of grim determina- 
tion on his face, very much like his 

That night he announced at the tea- 
table: " I've been up to see Mr. Jen- 
kins. He will give me my board and 
fifty cents a week while school lasts. 
In vacation he will give me two dollars. " 

Mrs. Wilson dropped her fork in 
dismay. "Why, Bruce, that's the 
dirtiest, awfullest-smelling place; and 
Mrs. Jenkins has the name of being a 
dreadful housekeeper." 

"Yes, it's a pretty tough place; but 
'twas all the job I could get. I'll have 
to ask you, father, to advance me 
money enough for a pair of overalls 
and a wamus. You know you promised 
me blue jeans." Mr. Wilson, without 
a word handed him a dollar and a half. 

Monday morning Bruce commenced 
work. The horrible smells sickened 
him. Mrs. Jenkin's cooking spoiled 
even his appetite; but there was a 
good deal of his father in him, after all, 
so he went on without a thought of 
giving it up. 

"Yes, I am 'Jenkins's boy'; and I 
expect I do smell of the tan-yard," 
he remarked, cheerfully, to the boys. 
"And, if any of you fellows object, 
I'll fight it out with you." 

Somehow, though, " Jenkins's boy " 
grew in popularity with the " fellows," 
in spite of his hands, and sometimes 
even his rather objectionable smell. 

All the long summer he lived and 
worked at the tan-yard. Mrs. Wilson 
missed him sorely, and shed many 
tears in secret; while Mr. Wilson con- 
tracted a habit of strolling up to the 
yard, and from behind the safe shelter 
of the big piles of bark watching the 
boy with an anxious countenance. 

"I'm afraid he's working too hard 
this hot weather," he said to his wife. 
"It seems sort of unnatural, anyway, 
to have the only boy we've got board- 
ing away from home." 

" Everything has been unnatural for 
'most a year back, ever since you took 
that notion to shut up the store," she 
she answered tearfully. 

" Well, we'll see, we'll see. I ain't 
over the notion yet," was the discour- 
aging rejoinder. 

In the fall Bruce obtained a situation 
in the rival store of the village, which 
was doing a flourishing business now 
its formidable opponent was out of the 
way. His terms this time were his 
board and ten dollars per month. The 
winter dragged slowly and lonesomely 
along for the old couple. Still Mr. 
Wilson bided his time. 

One morning in the spring every bill- 
board in town and every fence the 
country over held big posters announc- 
ing, in large, impressive letters: — 
I, Caleb Wilson, having rested until I 
am tired, 

Will open my store as suddenly as I 
closed it. 

Old goods sold at cost. New ones, 

some over. 
Hoping my friends will be as glad to 
see me as I am to see them, I am, 
Your obedient servant, 

Caleb Wilson. 
"Ah! This is like living again !" 
he said to himself, as he felt the old, 
familiar floor under his feet, and the 
old, familiar piles of goods confronted 
him. He drew long breaths of delight 
as he bustled about, directing his help 
in the "redding up." 

It was growing a little late when he 
put on his hat and went slowly down 
the street. Rather hesitatingly he 
opened the door and went into the 
other store. Bruce was alone; the 
proprietor had gone to tea. Some way 
he looked unfamiliar to Mr. Wilson. 
He had grown so, and the boyish look 
had left his face, It seemed, as he 

looked at him, that he had lost his boy 
forever. He could have gathered him 
to his heart in a strange excess of 
tenderness. The sudden tears welled 
to his unaccustomed eyes. He walked 
briskly up to the boy. 

"Well, Bruce, does your board suit 
you ? " he interrogated brusquely. 

"Fairly," answered Bruce, with a 

" Good as mother's ? " 

"Well, no; it don't seem so to me. 
May be I am prejudiced." 

Get pretty good clothes ? " 

Bruce looked down at the plain 
home-spun. "Better than blue jeans," 
he answered, laconically. 

" Well, you've flaxed around for 
them, haven't you ? " 

There was a silence. Then Mr. Wil- 
son commenced again. 

" I never could abide that man Har- 
mon getting ahead of me. So, Bruce, 
if you will come over and work in my 
store, I'll give you your board and fif- 
teen dollars a month this year and I'll 
send you to college next year. But 
you'll have to keep on flaxing." He 
came nearer to the boy and said, in a 
low voice, almost appealingly: "Say, 
Bruce, you have got more sense, haven't 
you ? And you've got over the notion 
that good clothes and a rich old father 
will make a man ? Say, sonny, you 
don't think I was too hard on you, do 
you ? " 

"Well," the boy said, rather hesi- 
tatingly, "you did jump on a fellow 
pretty heavy; but — I guess it was 
worth it." 

Then his heart fairly leaped from his 
mouth, for his father, his hard, un- 
yielding old father, suddenly leaned 
over and kissed him full on his mouth, 
as he was kissed when he was a little 
child. — Jeanette Scott Benton. 

Gems of Thought. 

The perfection of conversation is not 
to play a regular sonata, but, like the 
teolian harp, to await the inspiration of 
the passing breeze. — Burke. 

To be patient under a heavy cross is 
no small praise ; to be contented is 
more ; but to be cheerful is the highest 
pitch of Christian fortitude. — Bishop 

He that bath truth on his side is a 
fool, as well as a coward, if he is afraid 
to own it because of the currency or 
multitude of other men's opinions. — De 

Anxiety and worry are the friction of 
the soul, irritating, disorganizing and 
wearing out the delicate machinery of 
life. They dim the brightness and sour 
the sweetness of what might otherwise 
be the happiest life. They repel sym- 
pathy, alienate friendship and destroy 
love. They are productive of no good, 
and work only evil, both to self and 

The universe rises into solemn gran- 
deur and commands our reverence, not 
when we think of it as a theater of blind 
forces, or a vortex of whirling atoms — 
not when we regard it merely as a spec- 
tacle for eyes that open and wink a few 
times, then close in eternal sleep — but 
as a nursery, a home and a school for 
rational beings and as a temple in 
which they meet and commune with the 

iighest Honors— World's Fait 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 



Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard- 

July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


infinite Wisdom, Goodness and Beauty. 
Hence the nobleness of man consists 
not so much in what he now is as in 
what he can become and in what he is 
made for. — Charles G. Ames. 

Above all stands Jesus Christ, the 
great reality. His spirit has entered 
into all our history and is indissolubly 
a part of it. His law is at the heart of 
all that is noblest in our civilization. 
His influence has swayed and sways 
what is purest in our society. His 
character is the mark set for the nature 
of man to reach. History and contem- 
porary life are as full of this real, living 
Christ as the earth and the air and the 
sea are full of the substances and forces 
with which the intellect of man is called 
upon to deal. To as many as receive 
him, to as many as buy the truth of his 
supreme revelation of God's will — to 
them does he give the power to become 
the sons of God. He is the light that 
lighteth every man that cometh into 
the world. — Rev. E. Winchester Don- 

Fashion Notes. 

A particularly dainty costume is 
composed of a white serge skirt — or, if 
it be preferred, white alpaca — the 
seams buttoned over at either side, 
about half way down, with large tabs 
and buttons of the new-old variety in 
white enamel and fine paste. 

Hosiery in bright plaids is a novelty, 
and one that promises very well. These 
hose are worn with summer dresses 
and with dark or black shoes. There 
are some handsome styles in boot hose. 
These have either dark feet and light 
tops or light and dark tops, the for- 
mer, however, being preferred. 

As much as the Frenchwoman de- 
lights to indulge in a tailor-made gown, 
it never in Paris has the severe sim- 
plicity of London or New York. The 
Parisienne can no more help softening 
the rigid look of these mannish cos- 
tumes than any woman can help 
screaming at a spider or a mouse. A 
bit of lace, a soft roll of silk or a twist 
of ribbon somewhere about the other- 
wise strictly tailor-made costume ef- 
fectually does away with its stiffness, 
and, though madame or mademoiselle 
thinks she is quite tailor-made, she has 
slipped in a graceful touch that does 
not belong to these severe costumes. 

The craze for wearing white kid 
gloves on all occasions is now over, and 
people of good taste and style now 
wear the pale shades of straw, pearl 
gray or mastic. White gloves make 
the hand look large, and give the effect 
of those worn at a village wedding. 

Hairdressing is changing, and the 
French style, wide and rather low, is 
rapidly gaining ground. The hair is 
crepe, and loosely drawn together, 
then tied tightly and coiled round. 
Small side combs are much used on 
each side of the coil. 

Ribbon is immensely used now, espe- 
cially satin, shot silk and the delicate 
chine crepon and soft silk, with misty 
flowers. Pretty fronts for wearing 
with the open coats are arranged Vvith 
two lengths of ribbon, from 3 to 5 
inches wide, fastened to the neckband, 
and again at the waist, forming a sim- 
ulated coat, with full lace or chiffon 
filling in between. Another and nar- 
rower ribbon forms the waistband, and 
is finished off in one central or two 
smaller bows. This is easily managed 
by any one, and the front constantly 

Never was lace so profusely used or 
so varied in design. From narrow 
guipure insertions to wide flouncings 
in cream, ecru or butter color is it to 
be seen on every article of fashionable 
dress. It is now made in grass cloth, 
to trim the grass cloth gowns and 
blouses that are to be in the acme of 
popularity in the hot days. It can be 
had in insertions, edgings and piece 
lengths, and has a color beneath. This 
is not strictly lace, but it goes in the 
same category. 

Robin Farmer Boy. 

Robin is a merry lad ; Robin is a rover; 

He drives the cows afield at dawn, knee-deep 

amongst the clover; 
He shakes the hay fall'n in the swath, and 

holds the pail o' drink; 
He helps the dog hunt meadow-holes, and 

mocks the bobolink ; 
He takes the ten-quart pail and laughs, and 

deep amongst the woods, 
He finds the berries big and black, and starts 

the partridge broods ; 
He knows where delves the bumble-bee, to 

hide his honey hoard, 
And where the squirrels' granary is, beneath 

the loosened board. 
Oh ! Robin is a merry lad, and a sleepy little 


When he drives the cattle home at night, and 
the cowbell's clank is mellow. 

— Journal'of Education. 

About the Baby. 

Lady (who has a sick husband) — 
Don't you think, doctor, that you 
ought to bleed my husband ? 

Doctor (absent-minded) — No, madam. 
Not until he gets well. 

Here are a few important matters 
that every mother ought to know: 

That during the first year the aver- 
age gain in the weight of a healthy 
baby is rather more than twelve pounds, 
and in height eight or nine inches. 

That in the case of delicate children, 
they derive great benefit from being 
gently and thoroughly rubbed all over 
— particular attention should, however, 
be given to the spine — directly after 
the morning bath. 

That a child is impressed by and 
unconsciously imitates the individual 
who has charge of him; hence the great 
importance of selecting a suitable per- 
son as nurse. 

That children should from an early 
age be. taught to walk properly, so that 
they may not only grow up graceful, 
but derive the utmost amount of good 
from this most valuable form of ex- 

That the temperature of the nursery 
should be regulated by a thermometer, 
so that it does not exceed sixty-eight 
degrees, and never goes below fifty-five 

That the leavings of baby's bottle 
should never be warmed up; when 
more food is required, have it made 

That children should not be allowed 
to wear shrunken woolen garments, for 
they are too close to be really warm; 
loosely woven wool is warmer than a 
closely woven fabric and loose-fitting 
garments are warmer than tight ones. 

That the tubing of a baby's bottle 
should never be cleaned with a brush, 
as the bristles are very liable to come 
out. An efficient substitute is a piece 
of white tape with a bodkin at the end. 

That audible laughter is seldom heard 
in an infant under five or six months 
old, although it smiles at a much 
earlier age. 

That tidiness should be insisted on in 
the nursery, so that it may come nat- 
urally, to the girl occupants at least, 
to love order and neatness. 

That it is most important to teach 
children to eat slowly and masticate 
their food well. 

That swimming is an excellent exer- 
cise for girls and boys, and helps to ex- 
pand the chest and develop the muscles 
the body. 

That no child can be healthy or happy 
if it is cold; therefore, summer and 
winter woolen clothing — of different 
texture, of course — should be equally 
distributed over the entire body. 

Give the baby and each child" a bed 
to himself. Have the sleeping room 
cool and clean, and as bare of furniture 
as a cell. See that the clothing of the 
little sleeper is loose at the neck, waist 
and arms, and keep his head uncovered. 

If there is anything young animals 
cannot do without, it is fresh air, and 
babies get less than any other class. 

Through the pores of the skin the 
body is continually throwing off poison- 
ous vapors. If the head is covered 
with the bed clothing the unfortunate 
infant will be breathing bad air. 

Fashion or no fashion, it is a cruel 
shame to trim or starch babies' cloth- 

The average child suffers from over 
feeding and over dressing. Let him 
learn to be a trifle hungry. 

Half the time the child cries he wants 
fresh air or fresh water. Wiping the 
lips of a crying baby with cool water 
will often sooth and refresh him. — The 


Hints to Housekeepers. 

A handful of carpet tacks will clean 
fruit jars or bottles readily. Half fill 
the jars with hot soap suds, put in the 
tacks, cover, give vigorous shaking and 
rinse well. 

Rain water will keep the skin soft and 
smooth and should best be used for the 
face ; but, if it cannot be had, a hand- 
ful of oatmeal thrown into hard water 
or a little powdered borax dissolved in 
the water is the best substitute. 

A convenience designed for country 
houses, where no ice is to be had, is a 
large covered pail lined with charcoal. 
In this pail, if kept in a cool place, 
water is said to remain as fresh and 
cool as if just taken from the well. 

If matches have been scratched on 
bare walls by careless hands, cut a 
lemon in two, rub the marks off with 
the cut end, wash the acid off with clear 
water, and, when dry, rub with a little 
whiting till the faintest mark is re- 

Table linen to look well should al- 
ways be sprinkled and rolled at least ten 
hours before it is ironed. If good linen, 
it will not need any starch. A cloth to 
look well should not be folded with too 
many creases. One through the cen- 
ter lengthwise and then folded once 
again the same way will leave the cloth 
without any cross creases. When dry, 
roll the cloths, but do not fold. 

The prejudice against cut flowers in 
the sick room is probably a groundless 
one. Flowers with a strong perfume, 
like hyacinths, lilies of the valley and 
others, might nauseate the patient by 
their strong odor, but a few simple 
blossoms are cheering in their effect, 
and especially so when the patient is 
fond of flowers. Do not allow flowers 
to stand more than a day in the same 
water unless there is charcoal in it. 

A good way to prepare short stories 
for the use of invalids is to cut them 
from magazines for which you have no 
further use and mount them on strips 
of white muslin or cheese cloth with a 
good paste or mucilage. Cut the mus- 
lin wide enough for one or two columns. 
The story can then be rolled or unrolled 
without the fatigue of lifting a heavy 
book. Tie with a rubber band, or band 
of ribbon," and print the name of the 
story on the outside of* the rolls. 


Vanilla Custard Pie. — The whites 
of four eggs beaten to a stiff froth, 
two-thirds of a cupful of sugar, one 
tablespoonful of cornstarch, a little 
salt, one teaspoonful of vanilla, one pint 
of sweet milk. 

Cocoanut Custard Pie. — Scald one 
pint of sweet milk, and turn it while 
hot on one-half cupful of cocoanut. 
Beat two eggs, two-thirds of a cupful 
of sugar and a little salt together. Add 
this to the milk and cocoanut. Bake 
in a deep plate. 

Frosted Custard Pie. — Two-thirds 
of a cupful of sugar, a little salt, yelks 
of two eggs and one whole egg, a gen- 
erous pint of rich milk. Bake in a 
deep plate. Frost the pie with the 
whites of two eggs, and flavor both the 
custard and frosting with lemon or 
vanilla. It is nice to flavor the custard 
with lemon and the frosting with 

Snow Eggs. — For five persons — ten 
eggs, eight tablespoonfuls sugar, one 
quart milk, a little vanilla; time, one- 
half hour ; break the eggs one at a 
time (by doing this you will recognize 
a bad egg, and it will not spoil the 
others) slip the yolks in a saucepan and 
beat the whites apart ; second, poach 
whites, spoonful after spoonful, in boil- 
ing milk (one quart of milk with four 
tablespoonfuls of sugar, a little va- 
nilla), boiling quickly in a some- 
what flat saucepan ; third, let them 
drip and dispose in a hollow dish ; 
fourth, mix the yolks with four table- 
spoonfuls of sugar and pour into the 
saucepan while stirring the warm milk 
where you have poached the eggs. 
Pour this sauce over the whites and 
cool whole in ice box ; serve cold. 

• ■ 



Not too much when bought right. 
We've anticipated the big demand 
for Fruit Season. Bought heavily, 
and offer to sell for CASH only, BE- 

Our own brands of XXXXX (5X) and 
XXXX (4X) are manufactured especi- 
ally for us, and are guaranteed pure 
cane sugar of superior sweetening 
quality. HERE WE ARE; 


XXXXX Finely Crushed Preserv- 
ing Sugar— Beautiful, pure white, Cr> 
dry, in 1001b bags only, per lb 

XXXX Fine Dry Granulated Sugar 

Any desired amount, from 1 pound 
to a ton, packed ready for quick de- 
livery in5-lb, 10-lb and 20-lb strong 
paper bags, 50-lb boxes, y, bbls, 
bbls or 100-lb double sacks (the Cn 
latter ship best) per-lb 3^ 

We also supply the Refinery brand 
under their name at the Refinery 
prices in barrels, sacks or bulk, at 5J^C 

The following continue to be "Trade 


Pearl, Flake or Sago, new and fresh, 
in any quantity, lb 3c 


Rex or Libby, new Mb tins, each 20c 


In 16-oz tins, Far West 20c 

Price's, 30c. Royal 39c 

Royal (limited quantity only),4-oz, 

10c ;6-oz,15c;8-oz, 30c; 3-lb, 981.05; 



The regular Adamantine, or 10-oz 
Electric, 25 for 25c, or each lc 


No. 1, per can 5c 

Limit, 12 cans. 


New Domestic, 3 tins for lOc 


To make glad the heart of any woman 
who desires to lessen the labor of 
ironing. Carries a small tin tank 
to contain alcohol, which burns 
slowly inside the iron; keeps it con- 
stantly heated by revolving, thus 
doing away with the necessity of 
building a flre for a small ironing; 
always convenient and ready; made 
to sell for !$5; our price SI. 50 


Fresh and Good, in bulk, lb 2y,c 


Best Table, in any quantity, from 1 

pound to 1 ton, lb 4c 

Good Eastern, broken, lb 3c 


Regular House, good for money, well 
made, each lOc 


50-lb bags, S. C. S. (our brand), guar- 
anteed best flour in California, per 
bag 89c 


For Washing, 25 lbs for 25c 


Per jar, large, best 30c 


New, made from the pure fruit juice 
and pure granulated sugar, and 
fresh guavas grown in the Sand- 
wich Islands; possesses the natu- 
ral wild flavor, glass 1254c 

Why does any sensible person trade 
anywhere else than at 



No. 414, 416 and 418 Front Street, 


Largest, Cheapest and Promptest Mail 
Order House on the Coast. 


Order Your Flags, Lanterns and Bunt- 
ing of Us. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 4, 1896. 

You Cannot See Fire. 

It is a general idea that visible flame 
is fire in its most notable form. But in 
fact it is not fire at all. You look into 
a grate in which soft coal is burning. 
The flame is leaping in strange fantas- 
tic form 15 or 20 inches upward from 
the coal, and with it a good deal of 
black, sooty smoke. The sooty smoke 
and the flame are one and the same, 
with only a difference of temperature. 
The soot which forms the flame is red 
hot. It is soot half burned, or, rather, 
heated to incandescence, but not yet 
burned — not vet reallv burned at all. 
Every particle of the flame is a red-hot 
coal or particle of carbon. The real fire 
we do not see ; no eye has ever seen 
real fire. The instant that the carbon 
atoms become really burned, eaten up 
by the oxygen of combustion, they are 
invisible. A particle of the red-hot 
soot which forms flame contains very 
m&ny atoms of carbon, and the oxygen 
eats at them atom by atom, and this 
atom-by-atom seizure by the oxygen is 
the real burning, for which the red-hot 
state is only the preparation. 

A soft-coal fire which has died down 
and apparently gone out may be found 
twenty-four hours later with red-hot 
coals "kept," we say, but in fact still 
burning. The soft ashes closely wrap- 
ping them do not keep them alive or 
burning ; they keep them hot enough to 
let the oxygen go on nibbling furiously 
at them. The oxygen works inside of 
the ashes without any trouble, provided 
only that the red lumps do not get too 
cold. It, of course, makes fresh heat 
all the time, and the close wrap of fine 
ashes keeps the heat right there. The 
process of such burning is a slow one, 
but it answers to keep the coal burn- 

In burning three pounds of carbon, 
the heated state of which gives us 
flame, the fire work is done by eight 
pounds of oxygen. The oxygen we do 
not see. The carbon we see only just 
before it is burned ; and the result of 
the burning is eleven pounds of the 
compound of oxygen and carbon, which 
the eye cannot see. When a monster 
steamship burns 300 tons of carbon in 
coal every twenty-four hours, that 
means that the 300 tons of carbon are 
made red hot for burning, and are then 
consumed by 800 tons of oxygen, with 
the passing off up the chimneys of 1,100 
tons of the compound of carbon and 
oxygen. The heated carbon not yet 
burned is intensely visible, but as it 
burns, atom by atom, it ceases to be 
visible, and the compound of carbon and 
oxygen is no less invisible, being a gas, 
each molecule of which consists of a 
molecule of oxygen (composed of two 
atoms locked together) into which one 
atom of cerbon has been swallowed, 
making a three-atom molecule. 

The first belongs wholly to the oxy- 
gen. An atom of oxygen is in a state 
of motion, of spin or whirl like a buzz- 
saw, only many thousand times faster. 
These atoms unite in pairs, forming 
molecules, which have the same spin, 
only somewhat less swift. It is this 
lightning spin of the oxygen molecules 
by which each one devours an atom of 
carbon, with the effect which we cali 
fire ; only the real fire is back of what 
we see. 

The oxygen of the air is a solid cloud 
of fire ; it is essential fire which we 
breathe ; a terrific conflagration only 
means that this universal fire has found 
stuff of some kind heated to the degree 
which prepares it to be consumed. In 
every case of fire the operation is that 
of oxygen consuming the atoms of com- 
bustibles through that intensity of 
whirl or spin which all oxygen has, and 
which is the essence of fire. But the 
oxygen atom is not a solid atom. It is 
rather a whirlpool of electric substance 
or fluid, composed of inconceivably fine 
atoms in a state of inconceivably rapid 
whirl. We see a fire start, but in fact 
there is no start. All the motion that 
may make to-morrow a conflagration, 
eating up a thousand square miles of 
forest, is going on to-day with an inten- 
sity very much greater than that of a 
conflagration. In the conflagration 
every fiery motion is checked by what- 
ever combustible it may devour. The 

essential fire of the universal air is 
greater while it gives no sign than it is 
when it gets at work on combustible 
materials. We cannot too carefully re- 
flect that there never anywhere occurs 
any new start of motion. What seems 
a start is only motion, which had ex- 
isted all along, taking effect as the cur- 
rent of Niagara takes effect on any- 
thing thrown into it or launched upon 
it. _^ 

The following simple formula will 
purify ordinary water, especially in 
reservoirs and filtering basins : Calcium 
permanganate, one part, aluminum 
sulphate, ten parts; fine clay, thirty 
parts. These are thoroughly mixed 
and one part is added to about 10,000 
parts of water. It is said that even 
sewer drainage is almost completely 
purified by this mixture. It precipi- 
tates all of the impurities and living 
organisms, and the clear portion may 
be drawn off and used with perfect 




Certain in its effects and never blisters. 
Read proofs belu 


Is an excellent institution, beautifully located 
at Burlingame, San Mateo County, California. 
Nowhere do boys receive more careful super- 
vision or more thorough training and instruc- 
tion. The school is accredited at both of our 
universities, and prepares boys equally well 
for business. The mention of the name of 
Ex-State Superintendent Ira G. Hoitt as its 
master is a guarantee that it is a first-class 
home school. 









































J 5! 










— r 










Shelby, Mich., Dec. 16, '93. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co. 

Sirs ; — I have used your Kendall's 
jj Spavin Cure with good success for 
)( flirbs on two horses and it is the best 
H Liniment I have ever used. 
|! Yours truly, August Fredrick. 




are heavy feeders of Potash. 
Potash exerts a marked influ- 
ence on the quality and quan- 
tity of the fruit. As many 
soils are largely deficient in 
Potash, a heavy application of 
a fertilizer containing not less 
than 12 "„ of 

KENDALL'S SPAVIN cure? Actual Potash 

For Sale by all Druggists, or address 



A foreman in a large prune orchard with nine 
years' California experience wishes a situation 
during the coming drying season. Is an expert 
on curing and packing the French Prune, either by 
pricking or dipping. The fruit in the orchard In 
which he is regularly employed has been destroyed 
by frost. Address A. B., care this office. 

should be made. The best 
groves in the state will bear 
testimony to these facts. 

Our pamphlets arc not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain- 
ing latest researches on the subject of fertilization, and 
are really helpful to farmers. They are sent free for 
the asking. 


Ql Nassau St., New York 
flEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco., Cal. 
are our Agents for the Pacific Coast. 




16-18 DRUMM STREET, S. F. 


The Ten Year Test 

This is attracting considerable attention among 
fence buyers. They realize that all wire lences are 
nice when first put up, but that very few are presenta- 
ble after two or three years. After ten years service 
there is but one able to answer roll call — 
The Page Woven Wire Fence, made at Adrian, Mich. 


P. & B. Manilla Roofing 

For Covering Poultry Houses, Sheds and Like Structures. 

250 Square Feet, with Nails and Paint Complete 


A user in Hollistar says: We bought a High 
Grade belt of you last season, 160 ft. long, 8 ins. 
wide, 4-ply, lacing it with Kerr's Wire Lacing, and 
it run on our machine without interruption during 
the season, without stretching or breaking, and 
apparently it is good for another season's run. 

Genuine budge Wood Split l'ulleys; 
tinuit Corundum and Detroit Emery Wheels. 

Simondx Saws. Simonris Genuine liabbitt. 

Only (he Best. 


31 Main Street, San Francisco. 


© Battery St., San Francisco, 
S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 



Almond Hulling and Shelling 




Used and|endorsed by Adams 
Express Co. 


This remedy very highly. We have thousands of testimonials. It 
is the only standard remedy in the market. If your horse is lame 
you need this remedy, for it will cure more speedily than any other 
remedy in the world. 


Is a positive, safe and speedy cure for Colic, Curbs, Splints. Con- 
tracted and Knotted Cords, Callous of all kinds, etc. Brings speedy 
relief in case of Spavins, Ringbone, and Cockle Joints. 

Tuttle's Family Klixlr is the best for all pains, bruises, aches. 
Rheumatism, etc., etc. 

Samples of either Elixir sent for 3 two-cent stamps to pay post- 
age. 50 cents buys full sized bottle of either Elixir at any druggist 
or will be sent direct upon receipt of price. 


No Noise. . . . 
No Vibration. . 
No Lost Power. 

< No Backing 

to Start 
in the 


Jones Ail-Steel Hay Rakes. . . 
Morgan Spading Harrows. . . . 

Morgan Grape Hoes 

Avery Chilled and Steel Plows. 
Napoleon Gang Plows 


Powell Derricks and Nets. 

The Jones Chain flower. 

Stockton Reversible Gang Plows. 




Owing to old age and inability to work. I would 
now sell a half intcreBt In two or three Navel 
Orange Groves, near town, at much less than 
their vauie and on very easy terms to the rlirht 
kind of a younger man, to work and manage them. 
An unequaled opportunity for an Industrious mau 
to secure a competence without risk. Address 

GEN. J. H. FOUNTAIN, Klverslde, Cal. 

July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Produce Market. 

San Francisco, July 1,1896. 

SULPHUR.— There has been an advance in 
the market price of sulphur of about twenty 
per cent. The higher prices asked for all 
grades is due to a report that a 8000- ton vessel 
from Sicily with a full cargo had been lost at 
sea, and the recent earthquake in Japan would 
stop the output from there, for from four to 
five months. 

WHEAT. — Owing to active harvesting 
farmers are offering sparingly. With this 
well out of the way deliveries will increase 
and more business result. The stock held in 
Call Board warehouses was 138,020 tons July 1, 
against 56,509 tons June 1, a reduction of 18,- 
489 tons. The markets at the East fluctuated 
to lower figures up to and including Monday, 
but yesterday there was an advance owing to 
bad crop reports, increasing exports and a 
decrease of over 3,800,000 bushels in the quan- 
tity afloat for Europe. New York advices 
continue to report an active export movement 
to South Africa. For the first six months of 
the calender year they aggregate over 750,000 
bushels. Phis is independent of what has 
gone from the Pacific coast. The cause of 
this demand was the failure of the last wheat 
crop in Australia, together with a light crop 
in the Argentine, from which country South 
Africa has usually secured her requirements. 
Exporters believe that from now on shipments 
to that colony will fall off. This opinion is 
based on the stock there and the quantity on 
the way being sufficient to meet all wants up 
to December when harvesting will begin. 
The requirements of Europe will not show 
any material falling off this month and conse- 
quently considerable will go forward from 
Atlantic sea ports for immediate consumption. 

The local market has been sluggish. Both 
shippers and millers only entered the market 
to meet urgent wants. There has been an 
unusual free movement of flour to the Orient 
which has caused a large reduction in the 
stock of flour and also made millers buy more 
freely of wheat. No. 1 shipping is quoted on 
the basis of $1.00, the better grades selling 
higher and poorer grades selling lower, club 
fl.05@1.07% and milling $1.05 to 1.12%. 

Speculative Wheat Markets.— The local 
Eastern and European speculative markets 
fluctuated downwards up to yesterday, when 
there was quite an advance. This morning 
the markets at the East opened strong and 
higher, but weakened off again. The up- 
move was largely due to short sellers enter- 
ing the market to fill, together with a 
stronger bull feeling with longs. This feel- 
ing was brought about by adverse crop ad- 
vices at home and abroad. It looks very much 
as if one or more of the largest operators at 
Chicago had succeeded in securing quite a 
short interest for July delivery. If this opin- 
ion is correct, it will be quite difficult to get 
enough cash wheat to make deliveries with- 
out going to the elevator men, and the latter 
have always been known to run prices up as 
high as possible on the shorts, and, on the 
other hand, to send them down on the bulls 
whenever an opportunity presented itself. 

The closing prices per bushel at Chicago and 
San Francisco, per cental, were as follows : 

^-Chicago— , San Francisco- 
July. Sept. Dec. Seller '96 

Thursday 02% 62'g 98 

Friday 55 50H S)7'4 <.)4% 

Saturday 54H 55 \ 96% 

Monday 55% 55M 96 

Tuesday 55»/ B 56% *97% 

*May, 1897, sold at $1.02. 

Charters.— Rates show another decline. 
The last charter reported was at 2tis 3d for 
the most favorable option for the shipper. At 
the close the market is dull, with vessels 
under charter receiving slow dispatch, while 
the disengaged tonnage in port does not de- 
crease much. 

The tonnage situation compares as follows 
in registered tons : 

ISM. w)5. 

In port engaged 44,180 39,646 

In port disengaged 38,725 

On the way 231,679 353,154 

Totals 304.524 392,800 

Crop Prospects. -Harvesting in this State 
is well under way. The outturn will aggre- 
gate more than early estimates had placed it. 
The grade will also average better. Oregon 
and Washington advices state that farmers 
are harvesting and the outturn is spotted. In 
some sections it is large, while in others it is 
light. Telegraphicadvices are to the effect that 
Thoman's crop reports were less favorable, as 
were the Illinois Agricultural Bureau state- 
ments regarding the crop in that State. It is 
now the accepted opinion that Europe will not 
have much more of a crop than was harvested 
in 1895. Some countries will have more, while 
others less — so that the difference will not be 
very much. 

BARLEY.— There has been very little bus- 
iness the past week. Farmers' deliveries are 
light, but they will soon begin to increase 
them. The stock in call board warehouses in 
this city was 3775 tons on July 1, against 
5198 tons on June 1. Trading on call for 
future delivery has been light and confined to 
the month of December. 

The closing prices for No. 1 feed at San 
Francisco were as follows : 


Thursday 71 

Friday 68% 

Saturday 68Ji 

Monday 68H 

Tuesday 6Sy, 

For spot the market is quoted as follows: 
Feed, 62%(@70c; brewing, 75@80c. 

OATS. — The stock in Call Board city ware- 
houses on July 1 was 2239 tons against 300t> 
tons on June 1. The market has been quiet 
but with no particular changes in prices. Re- 

ceipts have been moderately fair for the sea- 

The market is quoted firm at the fol- 
lowing prices : Milling, 85 @ 92%c ; feed, 75 
@92%c; gray, 80@85c ; Surprise, 92%c@$1.02%. 

CORN. — Trading has been quiet, but not- 
withstanding while there has been a slight 
appreciation in the market value of yellow. 
The stock held in city warehouses was 2462 
tons on June 1 and 1566 on July 1. New 
York advices report unusual heavy shipments 
to South Africa. In June they aggregate 
fully 1,250,000 bushels, and for the first six 
months of the year 1896 over 2,000,000 bushels 
with considerable to still go forward. The 
South African demand is due to its last two 
crops having been practically ruined by 
locusts. The new crop harvesting vvill begin 

Our market is quoted as follows : Large 
yellow, 90^95c; small round, 96%c@$l,00; 
white, 77%@82%c. 

FEEDSTUFF.— There is a steadily enlarg- 
ing demand, but receipts are fully up to re- 

Quotations are as follows : Bran, $15. OOf?! 
16.50 per ton ; middlings, $17.50@20 per ton ; roll 
barley, $15.00@16.00 per ton ; feed corn, $20@21 
ton; oilcake meal, $21@22 per ton. 

HAY. —Receipts have been lighter, but the 
market is weak, owing to the cutting being 
larger than expected. It has been secured in 
good condition. 

We quote as follows: Wheat, $7.50r§)10 
per ton ; oat, $6^8 ; wheat and oat, $7(Q9 ; bar- 
ley, $5@7. 50; alfalfa, $0730.50; clover, $6ftg8; 
stock, $6ro)7. Old hay: Wheat and oat, $7f<fi 
11.50; compressed wheat, $8(8)10. 

STRAW.— Market is quoted at 20@40c per 

BEANS.— The demand continues to be con- 
fined to small jobbing parcels. 

The market is quoted as follows for con- 
signment lots: Bayos, 95c@$1.07%; Small 
Whites, $1.15fS)1.30; Pea, $1.15^)1.35; Large 
Whites, 90c<a$1.05 ; Pink, 85@92%c: Reds, 
$1.25; Limas, |2.35@2.70; Butter, $1.20@1.55. 

POTATOES.— Receipts are freer, which 
causes an easier tone. 

The market is quoted as follows: Early 
Rose, 75cf?«$1.00 in sacks; 75c@$1.25 in boxes; 
Garnet Chiles, 90c(W$l in sacks ; Burbanks, 
$1@1.40 in boxes. 

ONIONS.— Dealers quote Silverskins at 
35r§l50c per 100 tt>s. and Reds at 15r?825c. 

VEGETABLES.— The market is well sup- 
plied with all kinds of seasonable varieties. 

The market is quoted as follows: Aspara- 
gus, 50c@$2.00 per box; rhubarb, 25@50c 
per box;' green peas, 50c@$l per sack for 
common, $1.00@1. 10 for sweet; string beans, 
V/stdjGc per tt). ; green pepper, 10^15c per lb; 
summer squash, 25W50c per box; tomatoes, 
$1.50fa)2.50 per box; cucumbers, $lftol.75 per 
box; new cabbage, 40(8i50o per 100; garlic, 
2@3c per tti ; green corn, 50cfa!$l per sack ; 
Alameda, $1. 50@2 per crate ; eggplant, 8(fi)10c 
per It.. 

BUTTER.— Offerings continue in excess of 
the demand, which cause an easy market, al- 
though quotations are nominally unchanged. 

The market is quoted as follows : Creamerv, 
14@15c ; dairy, ll@13%c. 

CHEESE— The market is barely steady. 

The market is quoted as follows according to 
quality, at 5 @ 6%c for new, and 7fn38c for 
Young America ; cream cheddar, 8%@9c. 

EGGS. — The market is weak, but not quoted 
below prices ruling a week ago. 

The market is quoted as follows: Store, 
10@12c; Oregon, 10@12c; Eastern, 10@12c; 
ranch, 18@15o; duck, 12%@14c. 

POULTRY.— The market is firmer for tur- 
keys and fairly steady for well-conditioned 
hens, roosters, etc. Scrubby stock is hard to 

Live Turkeys, gobblers, per pound 13 <@ IS 

hens 12 @ 11 

Dressed Turkeys ffl 

Roosters, old, per dozen 4 00(<i>4 B0 

; ' young 6 00<£8 00 

Broilers 2 00@4 00 

Fryers 5 00(a5 511 

Hens 3 50(ft 5 00 

Ducks 3 00(S'5 00 

Geese, per pair 75f« 1 00 

Pigeons, per doz 1 00@1 50 

HOPS. — Crop advices are conflicting. There 
is no doubt of the acreage being less and that 
growers will have trouble in getting advances 
for harvest purposes. Some sales have been 
made at an advance on 7 cents as a basis for 
new crop. A New York exchange reports that 
market as follows : "Interior holders appear 
firm at prices relatively higher than those at 
which orders from brewers are solicited by 
dealers; but there seems to be enough stock 
in dealers' hands to permit of deliveries on old 
contracts being made promptly, and the local 
market, therefore, gains nothing in tone. 
Crop prospects generally are favorable. New- 
crop 1896 Pacific coast hops have been offered 
to brewers quite freely at 11c for future de- 
livery, and 10c has been quoted in remote in- 
stances in a manner indicating that some or- 
ders would be booked at that price." 

WOOL.— There seems to be a better feel- 
ing in the market, with sales reported at a 
slight advance for desirable grades. 

We quote : San Joaquin and southern coast, 
6 months' growth, 4@6c; San Joaquin, foot- 
hill, good to choice, 7@9c; San Joaquin, year's 
growth, 4%@7c; Nevada, 6©9%e; Oregon, 
Valley, 8ft)llc; Mendocino and Humboldt, 

MEAT MARKET.— Hogs are stronger, but 
other kinds are about the same as reported 
last week. 

Wholesale rates for dressed stock from 
slaughterers are as follows: 

Beef— First quality, 5@5%c; second quality, 
4%(3l4%c; third quality, 3%@4c. 

Veal— Large, 4@5c; small, 5@6c. 

Mutton— Wethers, 5@5%c; ewe, 4@4%c. 

Lamb— Spring, 5@5%c. 

Pork— Live hogs, 3%@3%c for large, :i%© 
3%c for small. 

Dried Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, July 1, 1896. 
New York mail advices to June 26th are as 
follows : 

There were no particularly interesting develop- 
ments in the market to-day. The wants of con- 
sumers are light as usual at this time of the year, 
but the number of small orders received indicates 
that distributers are poorly supplied. A gener- 
ally firm feeling is noted, but price changes in 
either direction are infrequent. California loose 
Muscatel raisins are receiving some attention, 
but as a rule buyers are satisfied with small lots. 
When it comes to larger quantities holders do not 
seem willing to accept the quoted figures. In fact, 
a number of lots, none of them very large, are held 
above the market. A bid of 4y s v was declined for 
3-crown, but at the same time there are several 
sellers at this figure, and some stock that does not 
fully meet the requirement of this grade, but 
which is yet held to be good goods, may be had at 
4>4c, and possibly at a shade less on a firm offer. 
Other grades of California raisins are steady and 
unchanged, there seeming to be no pressure to 
sell. Sultana raisins are not so strong as they 
were, owing to the late reports that the crop was 
less damaged by frost than early statements had 
it, and that the crop is likely to be a good one. 
The demand is rather light at the moment. Prunes 
are selling unusually well for this time of the 
year, although the market is firm and some of the 
large sizes show a tendency to advance. Apricots 
remain quiet on the spot, and as there is little in- 
terest shown in new goods holders at the other 
end manifest a disposition to make concessions. 
Goods for prompt shipment, said to be fancy, are 
offered at 7 l 4u f. o. b. Peaches attract little atten- 
tion, but stocks being light and concentrated are 
firmly held. 

There is very little doing in new crop. 
Some sales of apricots are reported at 7@8c 
f. o. b. For new crop peaches and prunes we 
do not hear of any sales. Dealers say they 
are watching events at the East ; also crop 
prospects there and the probable demand. 
Old stocks of all kinds are scarce, with quota- 
tions entirely nominal and misleading. 

Fresh Fruit. 

Eastern mail advices continue to report 
good crops. A leading Eastern exchange re- 
ports from Maryland as follows: The June 
drop is over, and now the peninsula fruit 
grower, debarring unusual accidents, such as 
hail or storms, can safely estimate his crop 
and figure in regard to facilities for handling. 
Kent county fruit growers are preparing to 
market at the lowest estimate a crop aggre- 
gating 921,550 packages, while just across 
Chester river from Chestertown, in Queen 
Anne's county, are fully 200,000 baskets more. 
Whether or not any arrangements will be 
made to can any portion of the crop in the 
county is not yet fully determined. One 
large Chestertown grower will can exten- 
sively. Smock peaches are scarce and the 
yellow varieties are not so heavily loaded as 
are the trees of white fruit. The sale of 
peach baskets has been almost without prece- 
dent. There are now two large factories run- 
ning on full time and hundreds of thousands 
have been shipped or will be shipped here 
from lower peninsular mills and from Dela- 

TREE FRUITS.— Cherries are coming in 
sparingly. The receipts of apricots and 
peaches are quite free. Canners buy the 
former at from $12.50(820 a ton, but are not in 
the market for the latter. So far as we can 
learn, large canners in this city are not con- 
tracting to any extent, preferring to await 
further developments. 

The market is quoted as follows: Apricots, 
per box, Royal, 20<<£35c ; per box in bulk, $12.50 
(ft'20 ; plums, 2.S0i 50c per box; pears, 25@50c; 
figs, single layer, 2b(aAQu\ double layer, 50® 
75c ; apples, 40cfffi$l for large boxes. 

BERRIES.— The market is oversupplied 
and consequently, under forced sales, prices 
have declined. m 

The market is quoted as follows: Straw- 
berries, per chest, $2.50@3.50 for Longworth, 
$150(912.50 for large; raspberries, $2®4 per 
chest ; currants, $2@4 per chest; blackberries, 
$2fa)3 per chest. 


PRICE Traction Engine — 80 Horse. 
HAY PRESS — 30 Ton Day Capacity, 

6 Horse Power, Sold Low. 




BICYCLES, New H a a n n d d. Second 

I. J. Truman & Co., 

Office. Mills Building. SAN FRANCISCO. 

You Can Get $'s for Cents. 


Is producing $1,0(I0,IKX) per month and the output is 
steadily increasing and making fortunes for in- 
vestors in Mines and Stocks. The Cripple 
Creek and California Gold Mining and Milling 
Company of San Francisco are rapidly developing 
their group of Mities located on Little Hull Moun- 
tain, near the city of Victor, in the gold-bearing belt 
of the greatest Gold Camp in the world. A limited 
number of the Shares of the Treasury Stock will 
be sold for Hie purpose of development at the 
price of 10 cents per Share. The Par Value is $1.00, 
and under the laws of Colorado are absolutely 
non-assessable. For prospectus and full particu- 
lars call or address 

William McKinley 

Is the Republican standard bearer and the 
champion for protection. If he is elected we 
hope it be for the country's welfare. This, 
however, is a matter of conjecture ; but it is a 
dead, sure tiling that if you buy your supplies 
through the Home Library and Supply As- 
sociation you will save from 10 to 40 per cent. 
We furnish everything at deeply cut prices: 
but some of our specialties are Buggies, 
Bicycles, Barb Wire, Clothing, Furniture, 
Groceries, Musical Instruments, Shoes, Sew- 
ing Machines, Watches, etc. 

Write for terms of membership and get our 
prices before buying elsewhere. Address 

J. H. WOOD & CO., Managers, 

14 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Send for Catalogue. 


116 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Consignments Solicited. 

Advances Made. 




4« General Commission Merchants, 

Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

W Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 






For the half year ending June 30, 1896, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four and thirty- 
two one hundredths (4 32-100) per cent per annum 
on term deposits and three and sixty one hun- 
dredths (3 60-100) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
Wednesday, July 1, 1896. Dividends not called for 
added to and bear the same rate of dividends as 
the principal from and after July 1, 1896. 



E B MYERS, Sec. 

Koom 30. 189 I'oHt St. 

San FranclHco. 

The German Savings and Loan Society, 

For the half year ending June 30, 1896, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four and twenty 
six hundredths (4.26) per cent per annum on Term 
deposits, and three and fifty-five hundredths (3.65) 
per cent per annum on Ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Wednesday, July t, 
1896. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 

Mutual Savings Bank of San Francisco, 


For the half year ending June 30, 1896, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four (4) per cent 
per annum on term deposits and three and one- 
third (3^) per cent per annum on ordinary 
deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
Wednesday. July 1, 1896. 

GEO. A. STORY, Cashier. 



532 California St., Cor. Webb. 
For the half year ending with the 30th of June, 
1896, a dividend has been declared at the rate per 
annum of Four and thirty-two one hundredths 
(4.32) percent on Term Deposits, and Three and 
sixty one hundredths (3.60) per cent on Ordinary 
Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after 
Wednesday, the 1st of July, 1896. 


patents! J 

!20 MARKET ST.S.F.^S^ 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 4, 1896. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

From the State Lecturer. 

In no State in the Union are the Pa- 
trons of Husbandry better organized 
than they are in Pennsylvania. There 
are so many subordinate and Pomona 
Granges within the State and the 
membership is so numerous and influ- 
ential that they very largely control 
legislation in the interest of agricul- 
ture. They care for the Grange some- 
what like the Methodists do for their 
church members. The officers of the 
State Grange are kept constantly in 
the field like the presiding elders, to cul- 
tivate the field and promote the cause. 
The State Lecturer, Brother W. F. 
Hill, is kept busily in the field, ready 
to respond to every call. He has filled 
the office most acceptably for several 
terms, and, though small in stature, 
the Worthy Master of the National 
Grange calls him a large-sized "Hill." 
Brother Hill writes interesting weekly 
letters to the Grange press of his 
State, giving an account of his travels 
and work. The writer has followed 
him closely and has gained much valu- 
able information concerning his work 
and the State. 


The awful calamity that befell San 
Jose Grange has no parallel in the his- 
tory of the world. Three brothers and 
three sisters being swept away in the 
dead hours of the night by the hand 
of an assassin is the most appalling 
occurrence on record, when no motive 
appears except the wanton taking of 
human life. The sorrowing sympathy 
of the fraternal world goes to the re- 
maining members. On Saturday, June 
20th, writes the Worthy Lecturer, 
after a short business meeting the 
time was given to memorial services 
for our lamented Brother and Sis- 
ter McGlincy and family. What a 
sad hour for the members it must 
have been, and also for their many 
friends, who assembled to take part in 
the mournful exercises. 

The writer feels himself under last- 
ing obligations to the Worthy Lec- 
turer of San Jose Grange for a very 
interesting letter under date of June 
22nd. It came too late, however, for 
comment in this week's Press, since 
contributions should arrive early in 
the week. The compliment is duly ap- 
preciated and no effort shall be spared 
to merit its continuance. The ques- 
tion, "Should farmers' wives and 
daughters have a general knowledge 
of the farm ? " was discussed June 18th, 
and it was conceded that a general 
knowledge gave a woman larger sym- 
pathy and interest in her husband's 
work ; that it broadens her ideas and 
elevates her mind, and if a time should 
ever come when she must stand alone, 
then it was that this knowledge would 
serve her. A paper was read on the 
subject by the Worthy Lecturer. Hav- 
ing been a widow for six years and the 
manager of a thirty-acre fruit farm, 
it was thought she might impart some 
practical experience on the subject. 
The Lecturer adds : " You might 
think this was a one-sided affair, but 
our Worthy Secretary declared that 
she believed there were some things a 
woman would be better off not to know, 
milking a cow, for instance. You can 
imagine how earnestly she would dis- 
cuss such a theme. Saturday, June 
6th, was Young Ladies' Day. There 
was an interesting programme, but it 
was quite an effort to appear mirthful, 
such a sadness seemed to pervade 
everything we did." 

A very interesting discussion took 
place May 23rd concerning dead tips 
of branches on fruit trees, the sub- 
stance of which appeared in the fol- 
lowing issue of the Press. The writer 
is requested to suggest Lecturer's 
themes, but in the presence of such 
lecture ability he feels more at home as 
a student than as an instructor. How- 
ever, we shall all soon have the new 
"Quarterly Bulletin" from National 
Lecturer Messer, when we will be in- 
structed from headquarters. 

All men of genius are said to have 

eyes clear, slow-moving and bright. 
This is the eye which indicates mental 
ability of some kind, it does not matter 

" It is said," said one girl, " that so 
many men nowadays have a great deal 
more money than brains." "Yes," 
sighed another, "and so little money 
at that.'' 

"I was so disappointed 1 was out the 
other day when you called, Miss Per- 
cival." "So was I. I felt sure I'd 
find you, because as I turned the 
corner I saw you go in." 

Hardly a week passes that the forma- 
tion of some new trust is not an- 
nounced, and it means that in a short 
time the price of almost every conceiv- 
able article which is purchased by the 
people will be regulated by a few men, 
and what are the farmers going to do 
about it ? 

A mother, commending her daughter 
for a situation, was asked if she was an 
early riser. "An early riser!'' she 
exclaimed. "Well, I should think so ! 
Why, she's up in the morning and has 
breakfast ready and makes all the beds 
before any one else is up in the house." 

One of the best means for saving soil 
moisture from evaporation is by shallow 
cultivation after every rain, but 
farmers usually limit this to the period 
of crop growth and permit waste of 
moisture after the crop matures. 

Mother— Children ! children ! Don't 
make such a frightful noise ! Mattie — 
We're playin' horse-car, mamma. 
Mother — Yes, I know, dear; but it 
isn't necessary to make such a terrible 
noise. Mattie — Yes, it is, mamma; 
we've got to where Hattie insists on 
payin' the fare, and so do I. 

It has been decided, after an im- 
mense amount of figuring, that if a 
boulder weighing a ton should fall from 
the sun, it would take 9f years, 9 
months, 7 days and 2 hours to reach 
the earth. The same boulder could 
make the trip from the moon to the 
earth in four and one-half days. 

Some soils are liable to a very pecu- 
liar formation in the subsoil, which 
soon renders them totally unfit for 
profitable cultivation. It is found that, 
at a depth varying from eight or nine 
inches to a foot or more, there has been 
formed a layer of substance as hard as 
stone, quite impervious to water and 
to the roots of plants, and entirely cut- 
ting off the topsoil from communica- 
tion with the subsoil. The layer is 
called a pan. Before the soil can be 
properly worked the pan must be 
broken up, an operation not by any 
means always performed, but if once 
performed never reform. 

The business woman must take time 
to keep well. If social pleasures en- 
croach on her resting time, she must 
give them up. On the other hand, her 
anxiety to keep up with the fashions or 
to keep up to date in other matters 
ought not to induce her to make twins 
of herself. It is much better to do one 
woman's work well than to make a 
failure in two lines. Only in exceed- 
ingly rare instances can a woman be at 
the same time a successful business 
woman and her own dressmaker, mil- 
liner and housekeeper. Business wo- 
men ought to take a few leaves from 
the experience of men, who have been 
longer in business and therefore know 
more about it. They take innumer- 
able little recreations, and do not at- 
tempt to crowd all of life into one day. 
| They get more pay, largely because 
they have a higher standard of com- 
fort. — Lippincott's. 

If the farmers of the country waut 
to free themselves from the domina- 
tion of political bosses they must begin 
at the primaries. Thousands of farm- 
ers never attend caucus and thousands 
more do not attend unless they are 
specially urged to come out. It isn't 
necessary to tease a village politician 
to attend the caucus. He is interested 
and is there every time. The farmer 
should be equally interested and be 
there, too, as a matter of patriotism 
and duty, if for nothing else. The 
Grange has a lesson for farmers along 
these lines. Some have learned it — 
others must learn it. 

Our World's Fair fledals. 

People who use cream separators do not appreciate the 
wonderful victory of the Russian Cream Separator won at 
the Chicago World's Fair, neither do they appreciate the 
fact that the Russian won the same victory at both the 
world's fairs held since that time. These victories are based 
on the fact that the Russian makes the finest quality of 
butter the world ever saw ; that it does it with great econ- 
omy, and that the machine is so easily operated that any 

farmer of average intelli- 
gence may run it success- 
fully. Here is a picture 
of the steam pressure reg- 
ulator. No matter whether 
the pressure is forty pounds 
or one hundred, on the 
boiler, it is always the 
same on the machine in 
which the bowl alone revolves. Keep the separator clean 
in all its parts and it will do the rest of the work. Send 

for circulars. P. M. SHARPLES, 

West Chester, Pa., 
Elgin, 111., 
Rutland, Vt. 

ment and not enough of our destiny- 
Wealth has very little to do with hap- 
piness. Money gives nothing to the 
heart, can purchase neither a moral 
principle nor an aspiration. Strip the 
millions from one man, take away the 
poverty from another, pull off every- 
thing until you get down to the naked 
soul, and you will find that the only 
real difference is a difference of char- 
acter. Environment counts for noth- 
ing, but character counts for every- 
thing. — New York Herald. 

J. H. Brigham, Master of the Na- 
tional Grange, says: "The ballot in 
the hands of intelligent, courageous 
voters will drive vice and corruption 
from public life and secure forever the 
' jewel of liberty in the family of free- 
dom.' No order or association of men 
in this broad land has done so much to 
enlighten and instill a spirit of patriot- 
ism and independence into the masses 
of the people as has the Order of Pat- 
rons of Husbandry, and while our 
Order, in its associate capacity, is and 
will be kept free from partisan entan- 
glement, we have it distinctly under- 
stood that the farmers are henct'forth 
to be a very important factor in shap- 
ing the legislation and in securing its 
enforcement in this country. We shall 
seek to know our rights and the man 
or party neglecting or betraying the 
interests of agriculture will speedily 
ascertain that the farmers have the 
courage to administer au appropriate 
and effectual rebuke." 






Horse Medicine, 

D. D. T. 1868, 

Ik Certainly the Best Preparation of Its Kind 
in the Market. Ranchers, Stock Raisers and 
Horse Owners of Kvery Description Will Tell 
You That It Ooes liood Work Kvery Time. 

Messks. H. H. Mooke & Sons, Scockton, Cal.— 
Gentlemen: In answer to your inquiry, would 
state that 1 used your H. H. H. Liniment on my 
Holland prize-winning cow. "Lena Menlo," for a 
j wrenched shoulder, and it relieved her very much. 

She calved the next day, and while suffering from 
I the sprain gave the largest authenticated quan- 
I tity of milk ever given on this coast (10^4 gallons 
j per day), showing conclusively the great relief re- 
j ceived from your remedy. I consider it a necessity 
' in my stable's, and when away from home feel per- 
j fectly safe, as inexperienced men can do no harm 
with" it as they can with the more powerful blis- 
| ters. Respectfully yours, Fkank H. Burke, 
Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshires. 
Menlo Park, Cal., January 38, 1889. 

Manufactured hy 


Cor. Sutter St. and Miner Ave., 




Width of tire, ti in. ; height of bolster, 3t> in. Car- 
ries any size platform or bed. Wheels turn under 
the load. Nothing equal to it for Farm. Orchard 
and Vineyard. Four sizes, one horse to six horses. 
Fully guaranteed. Write for Catalogue. Agents 
wanted. W. V. RARIG. tieneral Agent. 157 
New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

"California Fruits and How to Grow Them." 

Practical, Explicit, Comprehensive. 

^/Patent Agents,>^ 

220 MARKET ST., 



We think too much of our environ- I pacific rural press, *») Market St., s. f. 

July 4, 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 


Coast Industrial Notes. 

—The Sacramento Drying and Packing Co. 
will build a large fruit cannery at Visalia. 

— Coalinga, Fresno Co., reports a new 
gusher from which flows 1000 gallons of oil 
per hour. 

— Mendocino county reported a sale of wool 
last week aggregating 275,842 pounds, at ftc to 
10%c a pound. 

—The Fresno Chamber of Commerce wants 
the Yosemite Railroad Co. to start their road 
from that city. 

— The lumber cargo shipments from Oregon 
and California to San Francisco in May aggre- 
gated 19,278,611 feet. 

— Washington expects this year's wheat 
crop to be 15,000,000 bushels— the biggest in 
the history of the State. 

— It is estimated that the prune crop in 
California this year will exceed 60,000,000 
pounds of cured fruit. In Oregon the prune 
crop is reported to be a failure. 

— The California Wine Association is about 
to build the largest winery in the world near 
Fresno, with a daily capacity of 960 tons of 
grapes. Elevators, a distillery, etc., will be 
built in connection with the winery. 

— Few persons, says the Seattle, Wash., 
Pout-Intelligencer, realize the magnitude of 
such orders as those now being filled by the 
Atlas Lumber Company and Stetson & Post 
in supplying 3,600,000 feet of cedar paving 
blocks for the city of Indianapolis. Perhaps a 
better idea of their extent may be gained 
from the fact that 300 cars will be required to 
move the blocks East. 

— Traffic Manager J. C. Stubbs says that 
the Southern Pacific will shortly make Gal- 
veston the entrepot for its Atlantic Steamship 
line instead of New Orleans. As soon as the 
Charleston harbor shall have been dredged to 
the proper depth the Morgan Line of steamers 
will carry transcontinental freight to that 
port, thus reducing the rail haul by 311 miles 
and giving the Sunset route a greater com- 
peting advantage. It is said that the South- 
ern Pacific will extend its lines from Houston 
to Galveston, instead of using the Gulf, Colo- 
rado and Santa Fe between those points, as it 
does at present. 

—The report of the Southern Pacific Co. for 
the year ending December 31st, 1895, shows 
that the net earnings per mile of road have de- 
creased from $5763.97 in 1872 to $2296.62 in 1895. 
The decrease in the net earnings is explained 
by the decrease in the receipts per ton, all of 
which is attributed to reduced freight rates. 
The figures show that the traffic has increased 
and the net earnings at the same time have 
decreased. During the eleven years which 
the Southern Pacific Co. has been operating 
the lines and branches which comprise the 
system it has accumulated a surplus of $10,- 
160,712.78. The total net earnings during that 
time have been $25,243,622.51; of this amount 
$15,082,909.73 has been spent for betterments 
and additions. 

The McCormiok Corn Harvester construction 
embodies the only correct principle which works 
iu a Corn Harvester. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Ploueer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


562,113.— Rubber Heels— A. N. Barrett, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

562,348.— Wagon Brake— H. A. Baxter, Seattle 

562,171.— Car Fender— Cogniasse & Shultz, S. F. 
562,066.— Thill Tug— A. W. Cook, Stockton, Cal. 
562,127.— Faucet— Fowler & Fet tic, Genoa, Nev. 
562,333. — Crutch — F. A. Lund. Los Angeles, Cal. 
562,317.— Wave Motor— C. R. Martin, Redondo, 

562,017. Curtain Hanger — J. M. Murdock, Oak- 
land, Cal. 

562,021.— Shawl Strap— L. Phelan, S F. 
562,028.— Car Coupling— L. E. Redden, Tempe, 
A. T. 

562,158.— Roasting Furnace — J. R. Sears, Stock- 
ton, Cal. 

562,254.— Lamp Stove— M. H. Sinclair. Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

562,102 —Gate— R. G. Stingley, Franklin, Or. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
(by mail for telegraphic order). American and 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in the 
shortest possible time. 


> like that of our reliable GOODHUE WIND 

>Mlt_LS is something to be proud of. We give 
. below a cut of Campton Township, Kane Co., 
' Illinois where there are $9,000.00 worth of our 

J chine increased the sales fo extensively. We 
I make also 2 to 8-horse Sweep Powers. 2 end 3 
k horse Tread Powers, and the famous SUCCESS 
: 1 horse Tread Power, used so largely for cream 
' separators, pumping, etc. A fulliine of Grind- 
Hng Mills Ensilage and Fodder Cutters, Corn 

> Shelters, Wood Saws, &o. If you write us to- 
k day, will send our new 160-page catalogue FREE* 

> APPLETON MFG. CO. 23 Fargo St. Batavia, Ills. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less in this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. BURKE, ('.26 Market St., S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

Butter and Milk Stock; also Thoroughbred Hogs 
and Poultry. William Niles & Uo„ Los Angeles, 
Cal., Breeders and Exporters. Established in 1876. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danville, Cal. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 


Vale, Cal. Barred Plymouth Rocks. Black Minor- 
cas. White Leghorns. Brown Leghorns. Eggs for 
sale. Send for circular. 

Prop., Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of high-class 
Black and White Langshans; Brown, Buff and 
White Leghorns: Black Spanish : Black Minorcas; 
Barred Plymouth Rocks and Pekin Ducks. Write 
for circular. 

R. G. HEAD. Napa, Cal.. breeds all leading vari- 
eties pure-bred poultry. Eggs, $1.00 a setting. Send 
for new catalogue. 

J. W. FORGEUS & CO., Santa Cruz. Cal. Fine 
Fowls and Eggs. Write to us 

Bros., San Jose, Cal. Barren eggs replaced. 

WILLIAM NILES & CO., Los Angeles, Cal. Nearly 
all varieties of Poultry, Dairy Cattle and Hogs. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps It. 

MANHATTAN EGG FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale, Tillman & Bendel, S. F. 

Send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S.F.—BERKSHIRES. 


Best Stock; Thoroughbreds. Win. Niles & Co., 
Los Angeles, Cal. Established in 1876. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

A. P. 1IOTALING — Berkshlres from imported 
stock— Mayfield, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton. Regist'd Berkshlres. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing. Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

C. P. BAILEY, San Jose. Cal. Pure bred Angora 
Goats and Persian Fat Tailed Sheep. Send for 
catalogue and price list. 

Improved Pacific Incubator. 

Absolutely Self-Regulating. 
Hot Water. 

Send stamp for our catalogue 
of Incubators, Wire Netting, 
Blooded Fowls and Poultry Ap- 
pliances generally. Remember 
the Best is the Cheapest. 

1317 Castro St.. Oakland, Cal. 

Short=Horn Bulls 



Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 

The Baden Farm Herd was established in 1867, 
with cows from then recent importations of the 
best English Milking Shorthorns, since which 
time improvement in dairy qualities has been 
steadily kept in view. 

The leading paper, and only weekly; 16 large pages. 
BE snRE to see It Before subscribing for any other 
G. W. York & Co.. 56 Fifth Ave.. Chicago. Ilk 


If you want to know 
about California and the 
Pacific States, send for 
Pacific Rural Press, 
the Best Illustrated and Leading Farming and Hort- 
icultural Weekly of the Far West. Trial, 50 cents 
for 3 mos. Two sample copies, 10c. The Deirey 
Publishing Co., 220 Market St.. San Franciscc- 

A Movable Habitation on the Great Ranges. 

In the remote grazing regions of this State 
the traveler not infrequently sees a small 
herder's cabin mounted on wheels, so that it 
may be moved about by easy stages to accom- 
modate the wanderings of the flock. As a 
wagon adapted to such use must bear its bur- 
den continuously the strain is necessarily 
great, and this fact, coupled with the con- 
tinual exposure to the weather, makes it nec- 
essary to use something which will stand the 
severest test. For something that meets 
every requirement for such a purpose, that 
will stand all kinds of weather, cannot warp, 

shrink, dry out or decay, there is, perhaps, 
nothing on the market equal in all respects to 
the all-steel Handy Truck manufactured by 
the Bettendorf Axle Co. of Davenport, la. 
This is but one of the many uses to which this 
truck may be put. It will be found of special 
advantage in all farm or ranch operation; just 
the thing for hauling hay; an ideal truck for 
wool, or anything else. It is lighter, stronger, 
runs easier than the ordinary wagon, and is 
practically indestructible, being absolutely 
impervious to the action of the elements. Cer- 
tainly all these good qualities combined in one 
implement leaves little else to be desired. 
Write the manufacturers for catalogue, 
prices, etc. 


Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 686, Los Angeles, Cal. 


We have several fine litters coming on. Book your 
orders for choice pigs. Write for prices and get ovir 

S. I V / 7.M.Y* ISi it.t WJ^ 

4 Free Offers! 

For years we have tried to secure for our subscribers some easy way of preserving their 
Pacific Rural Press, and binding it at trifling cost. We have at last found it, and we give 
here a picture of our new binder. It takes only half a minute to insert the paper, and there- 
after it is kept clean, and can be always found 
when wanted. A single binder will hold an entire 
volume of the Pacific Rural Press. When it is 
complete it can be filed away in your library as a 
most valuable book of reference. 

As a method of keeping your papers for future 
use, it is worth ten times its cost. It makes all the 
difference between lost, torn and dirtied papers, 
scattered about the house in such confusion that 
you can never find what you require, and a hand- 
some, orderly file, which becomes at the end of the 
year a valuable volume for your library. 

A single paper found when wanted repays the 
cost of the binder twice over. We cannot too 
strongly urge upon subscribers the great impor- 
tance of preserving each issue of this paper In our 
binder. In a few years you will have an ency- 
clopedia unequaled in character, variety and time- 
liness. In this way you can in a short time possess 
a real library without expense to yourself. 

To insure a copy of the new binder to every one 
of our subscribers we make the following liberal 
offers : 

First — We will send Free a binder to every sub- 
scriber promptly renewing his or her subscrip- 

Second — We will send Free a binder to every 
old subscriber who will send us a new subscription and money for the same. 

Third — We will send Free a binder to every subscriber who will send us the names and 
full addresses of ten people whom they have tried to get to subscribe for the Rural. 

We want you to get us new subscribers and make this very liberal offer that you will 
make a special effort to get your friends to subscribe, and if you are not always successful, we 
are still willing to reward you liberally for the effort. 

Fourth — We will send Free a binder to every new subscriber. 

In any communication it is necessary to state that a binder is desired, and to what ad- 

dress it is to be sent. 


230 Market Street San Francisco Cal, 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 4, 1896. 


We are overstocked on Farm Gears and Header Trucks 
of some sizes. To reduce stock we intend to sell certain 
sizes at a sacrifice, and until July 15, 1896, NOT LONGER, 
or untihwagons named are sold, we stand ready to name 


Mention Rural Press when you write. 


No other wagon has wheels with second-growth spokes and felloes. A stronger anil l»-tt«'r liiiinhitl 
wagon than has ever before been sold on this coast. Every HOLLOW STEEL AXLE broken or defect- 
ive In any way we will replace by a New Axle free of cost to purchaser. No limit as to time from date of 


ReatUhe following testimonials on the RUSHFORD HOLLOW STEEL AXLE WAGON and be convinced of its superiority: 


Messrs. /looker <t Co.. San Francisco, Cal.— Gents: Some years ago I purchased from your agent 
here, A. J. McLeod, several of the Uusliford Hollow Axle Wagons, and have been using them, and or- 
ders purchased later, ever since. 1 And them superior to any other wagon in light running and dura- 
bility, and the best wagon made for all general farm and teaming purposes, and have adopted them 
entirely on the Miller & Lux Haucho at Bakerslield. Yours truly, S. W. WHILE, 

Superintendent Miller & Lux Iiancho at Bakerstield. 

Table Mountain Ranch. .Mckphvs. 
Messrs. Hooker & Co., San Francisco. I at.— Dear Sirs: The Rusbford Axle is the best I have ever 
used. I have hauled 8000 pounds on a wagon only calculated to carry bdOO pounds, not only once, but 
six weeks at a time. I am. yours respectfully, MRS. ETHEL ADAMS. 

Sl;i>EUINTENtlENT's OFFICE. Mll.t.ER & Lf.\, POSO FARM, ( 

FlRSBAUQHB, Funo Co., CAL. i 
Messrs. //qoker <t- Co.. San Francisco. Col — Dear Sirs: The wagons from you are splendid and 
give entire satisfac tion— in fact, wagons cannot be better than they are. The size is just the thing for 
i a general farm wagon Yours truly, J, vv. SCHMITZ. 

•# , „ . „ HARRI9. 

Messrs. Honker A- I «... san frnnriscn. ( at. — Dear Sirs: I have had many years' experience with 
different makes of wagons and I consider the Rushford the best wagon I know of. The wagons 1 bought 
; of you were put on the coast hauling tan bark, the hardest place on a wagon that can be found, as the 
wagons are overloaded about loot) pounds more than their guaranteed capacity, and no other wagon 
that I know of will stand such loads over those roads and not break down. 

Yours truly, E. A. .IENKS. 

VEHICLES in Great Variety. FARHINQ I/IPLEHENTS of Every Description. BICYCLES F*RO/V\ UP. 

HOOKER Sc CO., 16 and 18 Drumm Street, San Francisco California. 

Union Gas Engine Co. 




For Pumps, Hoists, Launches, 





"Light Weight" 
Horse Fork. 

JACt r««— " 
"light Height" 
horse bokks 

need no Introduction, as they 
have been the only fork on the ■ 
market for the past llfteen years, \ 
them are in daily use all over 

Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 

Reduced Prices. 

3 and 3^-foot. 4 tines $12 SO 

J and 4V4-foot, 4 tines 15 OO 

6 and 6-foot, 6 tines 20 00 

Liberal discount to dealers. 








For Lightness, Strength and Durability. 

No pains are spared to make them perfect in every 


Every Farmer should have at least one of these Forks. 

We also manufacture Centrifugal Pumps and Compound Steam Kugtu>-H; and in the near 
future will place upon the market OIL .MOTORS of latest design and greatest economy aud 

Byron Jackson Hachine Works, 



Don't you get left, but order at once. 17 50 the 100. 

DO you live in a place where it is very cold and most of the orange family will not endure the 
weather ! Do you want a tree that will live under very adverse conditions and at the same time give 
you some good fruit » Then send to us for the Wash. Navel on the Trifoliata root. It will stand a 
greater degree of cold and more water than any other root, f 15.00 and 120.00 the 100. 

Wash. Navels and Med. Sweets at your own price, from $10.00 to $30.00 the 100 for general stock 
Special sizes on application. 

ALOHA NURSERIES, Penryn. Placer Co., Cal. 

FRKD 0. MILES, Manager. 





M. O'BRIEN, Agent, 509-513 Mission St. Write rwcirouian. San Francisco, Cal. 


At the Horse Shows. 

The time is fast approaching for the horse shows in connection with the 
State and District fairs. We hope that all that has been said about the coming 
demand for better horses and the very short crop of them which is now matur- 
ing will lead people to take more than ordinary interest in these coming exhi- 
bitions. The latest events indicate that too much has not been prophesied about 
the foreign demand for the better class of American horses. Not only in Eng- 
land, but on the Continent, efforts to introduce such animals are scoring success. 
There is opposition encountered, naturally, in opening a new trade of this kind, 
and local dealers do their worst in shouting disease and otherwise magligniLg 
the importations ; but we are told that such cries avail little, and their motive 
is so well understood that the animals sell well, in spite of opposition, because 
they show their merit so plainly. California is a long way from such trade, it is 
true, but, if the movement proceeds as expected, it will reach even to this coast 
and influence horse values. The fact, too, that California's natural conditions 
are so well suited to horse growth that our breeders can certainly produce bet- 
ter horses in less time than our wintry regions east of the mountains. But this 
is only a single phase of the matter. The American demand promises to be 
sharp for the best stock in draft and roadster classes, as has been fully dis- 
cussed in our columns. The engraving shows some of the premium heavy 
weights at the last State Fair. There is a fine portrait of Lord Dunsrnore, a 
Clydesdale, owned by J. E. Meadows of Lemoore ; also a good view of this splen- 

did horse and his family of youngsters. The Norman, Dumally Jr., owned by 
R. H. Hansen of Isleton, is also shown naked and in harness. Such horses and 
scores of others which the coming fairs will show should receive especial atten- 
tion this year. Good blood is cheap now, both for purchase and service, and 
good mares should not be idle. 

Nitrogen Traps of the Acacias. 

We alluded recently to the peculiar root excrescences, or tubercles, in which 
plants house the tiny bacteria which have the power of trapping the wary nitro- 
gen from the atmosphere. The illustrations used at that time showed the roots 
of herbaceous plants having these tubercles, but it was remarked that this en- 
dowment is common to the leguminous family, and the family includes many 
noble trees, of which the Australian acacias are best known in California ; but 
there are many others, both in temperate and tropical climes. To show the 
nitrogen traps of an acacia we take an instance illustrated in the last report of 
the University Experiment Station. In this instance the tubercles were found 
on the roots of an Acacia melanoxylon which was grubbed out during street im- 
provements in Berkeley. The trees had been previously deprived of many of 
their main roots and subsequently made large bunches of fibrous roots near the 
surface of the ground. In digging out the trees great bunches of these 
tubercles were found — so abundant, in fact, that the shovel seemed to throw 
out as much tubercle as it did soil. Evidently the tree had well supplied itself 
for absorbing atmospheric food, and in its hard and sterile place by the road- 
side was as sleek and well fed as tramps become through their absorption from 
wayside kitchens. Prof. Hilgard in his report calls attention to the fact that 
different plants have different forms of tubercle, and different species of bac- 
teria to live in them. The bacterium which labors for the good of the acacia 
will not do the same work for the clover. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 11, 1896. 

PACIFIC RURAL PRESS. Market St.; ELe K v aior.Xo. U front lU..San Francisco. Cat. I 
AdverlUinu ratci ma<H known on application. 

Any subrifefer serine "iMM.^^ihtt *!; ' 
^^O^tl^i»"I»^ T h P e y an 8 wer will be elven 
as promptly as ptacttcabte: f__ , 

Our latent fonU^o to pre ss Wedne s day evening. 

^stered at S. V. P 8toffl^8e^a-cla8B^aUjiatter : __ 

__. „ Kdltor. 

^ L ^ K wJc^o^ .:::::::".v.:.:::.:.:::.v.specui co„t r ,.,ut„ r . 

San Francisco, July 11, 1896. 


it tttctraTIONS -Prize Winning California Draft Horses; The 
^^B^^^^J^^} Pipfune 

fuW^rnado.'S. A New Cycling Suit ; A 

EDITORI A ?°-At G th*'HS.c Shows; Nitrogen Traps of the Acaeias, 
THE POULTRY YARD. — Advice to Beginnen .with Thoroughbreds; 

HORTICULTURE — What Shall the Nurserymen Dor; The South- 
ivl , ers- Pruning the Silver Prune; Ants on Fruit 

S^"mSrida Granger! ; The^omelo or Grape Fruit, «. Fros, 

and Tender Wood Growth,*!. , _ - _ 

^ra^l^SSS^^f New Bird* to the 

Figures on Cheese: Separator Ice Cream, 24. 
THE VKTKRINAKL\N\ --Anthrax or Uiarbon.Jl 
ELECTRICAL PROGRESS. —The 35-Mile Electrical Power Trans 

tra M ^MBffliEii>M Not Vote as He Prayed The Poppy 
Land Limits! Express; The Yaller Baby; Gems of Thought: No 
Calf There 26 Fads and Fashions; Mental Geography; Courage; 
Popular Science : Curious Facts; Pleasantries, 27. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Hints to Housekeepers; Domestic Hints, 

MARKET REPORT.— The Produce Market; Dried Fruit Market. 89. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From the State Lecturer. 80. 

MISCELLANEOUS. — Pith of the Week's News; Gleanings 18. 
Weather and Crops; Another Short Wheat Year in Australia; 
Notes on the Peach and Myroholan Roots ; Raisin Combine Col- 
lapses: Bogus Jellies in San Francisco; Army Worms in San 
Joaquin; Another Fruit House Drops, 19. Picture of a roruado, 
25. Best Patterns at a Low Price, 28. Uses of Olive Oil; 
Measurement of Boards, Etc., 31. 


(JWi/' this issue.) Pat/e. 

Gas Engine-A. Schilling* Sons... ^......32 

Fruit Grader and Perforator— H. M. Barnsrovc-r, San Jose, Cal....32 

Prune Machine— J. B. Burrell, San Jose. Cal • ■ V.1VX 

Fruit Driers' and Packers' Supplies— L.Cunningham, San Jose, Cal.32 

Smiths' Cash Store • ■ 87 

Gall Cure— Bickmore Gall Cure Co., Old Town, Me 32 

The Week. 

Weather and Crops. 

We are having good hot weather at California in- 
terior points this week. Adding a special Califor- 
nia holiday (Monterey Day, July 7th) to the glorious 
Fourth seems to have raised something warm, as 
the temperature record below will show. We have 
missed the Fourth of July shower this year and none 
is in sight, for the Weather Bureau expects the heat 
to continue. It is bringing on the fruit fast, and 
busy days are with the handlers. Pears are going 
on another season's trial of the London market. 
Peaches are having a fair run at the East, and Geor- 
gia is cutting a slight figure this year. Plums are 
selling well and large shipments are being made. 
Grain is turning out rather better than was ex- 
pected in view of the long norther. The pastures 
have held out well, but are now drying rapidly. 

The following data for the week ending 5 A. M. 
Wednesday, July 8, 18%, are from official sources, 
and are furnished by the United States Weather 
Bureau for the Pacific Rural Press : 


Total Rainfall 
for the Week.. . 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall to 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall Last 
Year to Same 

Average Season- 
al Rainfall to 

Maximum Tem- 
perature for the 

Minimum Tem- 
perature for the 





Red Bluff 









San Francisco 









San Luis Obispo 



Los Angeles 




San Diego 








• Indicates no record. 

The Valley Kuml lte£iii« on Wheat. 

The Valley railroad proposes to start right in at 
moving wheat to tide water at Stockton, although 
construction trains only are run and local freight of- 
fices are in the conductor's hat. They have opened 
a general office at the corner of Main and Hunter 
streets in Stockton and B. G. Maynard will be agent 
at that point. "At present," said Mr. Maynard to 
a reporter, " we expect to do business only one way. 
The construction train will go out with its material 
in the morning for the front, and, returning, will 
bring freight — wheat only — but we believe that we 
shall be able to carry all of that which the people 
can offer us. The cars loaded with grain, and that is 
about all we have a schedule on, will be brought in 
on the conducto/s memorandum and will be billed in 

Stockton. There will be no regular time schedule 
for any train until they reach Fresno, and then they 
expect to open up for business all along the line. 
They expect that there will be some grain to come in 
every day." 

Grape Outlook in Northern Sonoma. 

The Healdsburg Enterprise thus sums up the local 
grape situation: 

The grape crop of northern Sonoma will not come nearly up 
to the expectations of vineyard is ta who earlier in the season, 
and after the severe frosts, predicted that the berries had 
not been injured. That vines which were blackened by the 
frost will not produce much of a crop is a matter no longer in 
doubt; and it is safe to sav at this time that the yield of the 
Russian river vallev will not be over half as heavy as in 

An Knterprixe representative has been in a large number ol 
the vineyards in this section during the past week. The 
result ofhis investigations leads him to make the above state- 
ment which will be found to be about correct. 

Down in the Windsor country nearly every grape grower 
says his vines are not heavilv laden, and in the Dry creek 
vallev the same condition obtains. Some vineyards in Alex- 
ander valley will have a heavy crop, while others wore badly- 
nipped by the frost. 

A peculiar thing noted is that in vineyards where the frost 
affected the vines which afterwards came out strong and 
fresh, the berries are dropping off badly at this time. This 
should not occur, rarely has there been a more favorable 
season for grapes to set. No wind, but instead, warm, calm 

With a light crop and the cellars of this district empty, 
there will be a lively bidding for grapes this fall. As to 
prices, many ideas are expressed. The wine-maker says he 
will not be able to pay from |18 to 125 per ton for grapes this 
season, and sell the juice at the price now ruling. On the 
other hand, the producer is firm and says, " you must pay my 
price, or else you cannot get my crop." 

Fruits Should Be Packed When OOOl. 

The Wheatland Four Corners prints the following 
from G. W. Harney, official entomologist for Yuba 

I have had some inquiries while here as to the best methods 
of picking and packing fruit for Eastern shipment. My ex- 
perience has been that one of the most essential things in 
handling fruit destined for a long journey in an iced car is to 
see that it is picked and packed when cool. Iu these very hot 
days the pickers should be at work before sunrise, and they 
should cease work at about 9 :30 or 10 o'clock in the morning. 
By pursuing this method fruit may be allowed to become 
nearlv fullv ripe before being packed. Picked and packed cool, 
then placed in an iced car, true refrigeration is the result. 
When opened up in the East it is in fine condition and will 
bring a good price. 

Now, look at the reverse of this method. Some shippers 
pick and pack throughout the day. Some of the fruit is thor- 
oughly heated; it is wrapped iu paper and boxed up and never 
gets a chance to cool off properly. Even if it is hard and green 
when packed, it will soften up before it cools, and, instead of 
being refrigerated, it is shocked by the temperature of the 
iced car and before reaching its destination goes to pieces. 

The best returns I have seen for a lot of fruit was in the 
case of a shipment of 500 boxes of early peaches. They were 
nearly soft— in fact, some of them were nearly ripe ; but they 
were picked in the early dawn, packed up cool aud put in a re- 
frigerator before the heat had a chance at them. They car- 
ried in splendid shape, and when opened up in one of the big 
Eastern cities they were in perfect condition and netted the 
grower fully *000. ' Just imagine what the result would have 
been if the'fruit had been picked and packed on a hot after- 

Pith of the Week's News. 

McKinley will not take the stump in the coming campaign. 

At San Francisco park on Sunday last there was born a 
buffalo baby ; also a pair of twin elks. 

E. M. COOPHB, General Manager of Wells, Fargo & Co's 
Express died at his home in Oakland on Tuesday. 

The people of Crete have declared their independence of 
Turkish rule and will fight a defensive war against the Otto- 
man Porte. 

Frankie Mark, aged 16, committed suicide at San Jose on 
Tuesday because her hair had been cut off by her guardian as 
a punishment. 

Os the 2nd inst. ex-Confederates to the number of 100,000 
met at Richmond, Va., and laid the cornerstone for a monu- 
ment to Jefferson Davis. 

At Santa Barbara on the night of July tith Mrs. H. R. 
Richardson and her daugeter were murdered in their beds by 
parties and for causes unlearned. 

The brother of Murderer Dunham is in San Diego, ostensi- 
bly on business, but there are many who believe that he is 
helping his brother to get into Mexico. 

Since the Corbett-Sharkej' mill prize- lighting has had a 
great boom in San Francisco and nearly every night witnesses 
a "meet" somewhere between human bulldogs. 

Lokd Di skavem's yacht, the Valkyrie, which was beaten 
last year by the Defender has been sold to an American and 
so it is said, a Californian and will soon appear in San Fran- 
cisco bay. 

The bridge of the San Joaquin Valley Railway over the San 
Juan river will be finished by the 85th. ( 'trading to that . 
point has been nearly completed, and the tracks will be laid 
by the date named. The road will be completed to Fresno by 
August loth. 

The Rialto irrigation district in San Bernardino Co. will 
probably go out of existence, turning its irrigation system 
over to its bondholders. The district is one of the largest in 
the county and embraces one of the principal orange growing 


Vice-Preeidextial Candidate G. A. Hoiiart of New Jer- 
sey was formally notified of his nomination on Tuesday of this 
week. He made a graceful and dignified response, declaring 
himself in line with his party on the questions of tariff and 


Mr. Teller has the satisfaction of knowing that his course 
in the St. Louis Convention has the full approval of his own 
Stale. Upon his return to Denver he was greeted by a vast 
concourse and 500 enthusiastic young men drew his carriage 
through the streets. 

The celebration at Monterey, in honor of the 50th anniver- 
sary of raising the American flag in California, began on Mon- 
day and is still in progress as this is written (on Wednesday). 
The event has attracted vast numbers of people and has been 
successful in all particulars. 

Oakland is the scene of a small war based upon the " color 
line." The Oakland Cycling Club, composed of negroes, has 
applied for admission to the League of American Wheelmen, 
a nd there is a great deal of "feeling" over it. The decision 

is not yet rendered but whatever it may be there promises to 
be a big row. 

The most extravagantly magnificent entertainment in 
Paris for many years was a party given last week by the 
Countess Castellane, formerly Miss Gould. It is pronounced 
unexampled in France since the empire fell. "American 
money," says the chroniclers, " has come to the rescue of 
Parisian tradesmen as well as PnrjniaiLjnrirty " 

Says the Anderson Valley yews:/ It is just iTMttte singular 
that murderer Dunham and a fewtother like criminals prefer- 
dodging through the woods this hot weather When they 
might, under the benign care of (bur. California courts, be enr 
joying the comfort, quiet and Immunity ' from punishment 
their distinguished colleague, M|r. Durrant, is taking advan- 
tage of. 

TnE executive committee who will have the immediate 
charge of the McKinley campaign has been settled upon as 
follows: Mark Hanna, chairman; M. S. Quay, Pennsylvania ; 
C. Leland. Kansas: Joseph H. Manley, Maine; John D. Long,' 
Florida; Henry C. Spaine, Wisconsin; Charles C. Dawes, Ill- 
inois ; VV. T. Durbin, Indiana ; Warner Miller, New York ; 
W. M. Osborne, Massachusetts, secretary. 

Ax anti-Chinese wave has struck British Columbia and 
many citizens, in conjunction with labor leagues, are using 
every exertion to agitate the people to the proper pitch to 
carry away any objection the Federal Government might 
raise as to legislation for the exclusion of Chinese and Jap- 
anese from Canada. A monster anti-Mongolian mass meeting 
was held last night, to which delegates from all parts of the 
province were in attendance. After declaring against Chi- 
nese immigration in severe terms, the resolutions call upon 
the Dominion Government to increase the tax or duty levied 
on Chinese under Section S of the Chinese immigration act, 
from *50 to $500. 

The National Democratic Convention met at Chicago on 
Tuesday and is in its second day as the Rirai. goes to press. 
As had beeu anticipated, the silver men are in complete con- 
trol. They "turned down" Senator Hill of New York for 
temporary chairman in favor of Senator Daniel of Virginia, a 
silver man, and have elected Senator White of California 
permanent chairman. In order to secure a two-thirds vote for 
silver, they have thrown out gold delegates from Michigan 
and Nebraska and put silver men in their seats— in this re- 
spect following the example set by the McKinley majority at 
St. Louis. The platform reported by the committee, but not 
yet formally adopted, declares for free coinage of silver, for a 
tariff for revenue only, condemns the issuance of bonds in 
time of peace, condemns the Pacific Railroad Refunding bill, 
etc., etc. A proposition to indorse the Cleveland administra- 
tion was voted down. At every stage of these proceedings 
the gold men. led by Senator Hill and ex-Secretary Whitney, 
entered earnest and threatening protests, but to no purpose. 
They were heard with scant patience and less respect. As 
yet "they have given no definite hint of their plans, but there 
is general expectation that they will decline to support the 
nominees of the convention. There are mauy candidates for 
the Presidential nomination, including Bland, Blackburn, 
Stevenson, Boies, Tillman, Teller, Pennoyer and others, but 
as yet nothing to indicate who the nominee will be. The ef- 
fort is to name a man in good stand ng in his own party and 
who at the same time can command the Populist indorsement. 
This is a serious problem, since the Populist leaders have an- 
nounced that they will support nobody who has not formally 
cut loose from old part}' connections. 


The sugar beet experiment is progressing satisfactorily at 

A THBIFTI Reno man has applied natural heat from the 
Amedee hot springs to his incubators. 

Uncle George Loud, president of the Pioneer Society of 
San Bernardino county, passed his '.Kith birthday last week. 

David Woerner, a pioneer cooper and well known in Napa 
valley where samples of his work stand in almost every cellar, 
died in San Francisco last week, aged 63. 

David Het/.el, a Guerneville cigar maker expects in the 
future to raise the greater portion of the tobacco used in the 
manufacture of his cigars. This year he has a plantation of 
10,000 plants of cigar varieties. 

Says the Wheatland Four Corner*: "The Rckal Press is 
the king of its class and is distinctly a California journal. A 
neat feature of this journal is a binder which is almost given 
away. By means of the binder its subscribers are able to 
make of the journal an excellent volume." 

Watsoxville Pajaroiilan : " The men who predicted a light 
apple crop iu this valley are hedging. The crop is estimated 
at nearly double what it was at this time last year. The 
belleflower crop promises to be heavy, and the Newton pip- 
pin yield is going to be big. The Pajaro valley will have lots 
of apples for export this year." 

The Chino champion is informed that the experiment of ir- 
rigating beets in the southwest section of the Chino ranch 
has been quite successful. The beets that have been so 
treated are looking well and there is no doubt of the benefit 
derived from the flooding. Those that had stopped growing 
on account of the scorching heat have started another growth 
since irrigation. 

Financial disaster has at last overtaken "White Hat" 
McCarty. The eccentric turf man Tuesday filed in the 
Superior Court his application to be declared an insolvent 
debtor. McCarty asks the Court to relieve him of debts 
amounting to upward of *1S,000. He confesses that he has no 
assets other than his household furniture which he claims is 
exempt from execution. 

Santa Rosa, July 6.— Santa Rosa's fruit-preserving indus- 
tries will be operated at their full capacity this season. The 
big cannery, the Cutting Company of San Francisco, located 
here, will be started as soon as fruit is ready to pack. E. C. 
Merritt, an experienced fruit man, has been appointed mana- 
ger. Hunt Brothers' Packing Company has been reorganized, 
with J. D. Barnett as manager, and will begin operations 
soon. These canneries are among the largest in the State, 
and will pack all the fruit that is delivered to them. 

The J. K. Armsby Company will establish a dried fruit 
grading aud packing house at Visalia under the superintend- 
ence of Geo. A. Flemming. " We will be in a position," said 
Mr. Flemming, " to grade and pack all the dried fruit brought 
to us this season. The fruit can be brought direct to our 
establishment from the trays in the orchard, and it will be 
graded and receipts issued "therefor. The owner can then 
take his receipt and go to a bank or a private individual and 
borrow money on his goods, just like a wheat grower can get 
money on a warehouse receipt. If so desired, we will advance 
money to our patrons." 

HoRTict'LTfRAL Commissioxer Yoino of San Joaquin county 
has recently served the following notice upon the orchard is ts 
of the county : " Your attention is respectfully called to Sec- 
tions 9 and 8 of an act entitled ' An act to protect and promote 
the horticultural interests of the State.' (Statutes of Cali- 
fornia 1 SS!I, page 413). You are hereby noti fled that ou and 
after July 1st, 1896, your place of business will be inspected at 
intervals and any fruit found with scale bug, codlin moth or 
any other insect pest injurious to fruit trees or vines will be 

July 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


promptly confiscated and your store or salesroom will be placed 
in quarantine— of this take due notice." 

Fresno Enterprise : E. M. Stevens who has one of the finest 
vineyards in this part of the county says he will have less than 
half a crop. Mr. Stevens has 200 acres in raisin vines from five 
to eight years old and for two years past has cured fine crops 
of raisins. This spring when the killing frost came there 
was a promise of at least 200 tons in the vineyard. The 
vines now look well but the crop generally is light the young- 
est vines showing very little fruit. Mr. Stevens says his 
raisins will be sold on their merits, and when he receives the 
money he will deliver the goods. He has sold on the consign- 
ment and contract plan for two years and has graduated. 

The Dixon Tribune reports that there has been another un- 
accountable falling off this year in summer fallowed grain 
grown on the Dixon ridge. J. S. Mayes has been harvesting 
grain this week which gave every evidence of yielding from 
twelve to fifteen sacks per acre but which is actually turning 
out but four or five. Other farmers in the vicinity are having 
the same experience. No one seems to know exactly what the 
matter is. Some attribute the falling off to the late frosts 
and others to the ravages of the Hessian fly. On the lower 
lands, where the rain was more backward, the yield is exceed- 
ing expectations and will do much to make up the general 
average for the whole section. 

Stockton Mail: "At the next meeting of the Board of Su- 
pervisors there is talk of instructing the county peace officers 
to strictly enforce the county ordinance for the protection of 
the county bridges. As already reported in this paper the 
combined harvesters are playing havoc with the county 
bridges and culverts, and an investigation has shown that 
many new bridges have been crushed, simply because more 
weight was placed upon them than they were built to sustain. 
Not more than 2000 pounds on four wheels should be put upon 
them, and it is said that the weight of many of the harvesters 
is as much as 2800 pounds. Unless the bridges are repaired 
by the owners of the machines, there is talk of suing them 
for damages and also of proceeding against them criminally." 

Watson ville Pajaroriaii : "The Pajanmian is open to pub- 
lication of big yields of strawberries and other crops, and here 
goes for a starter : On a tract of four acres, in Amesti dis- 
trict, owned by R. Pinto, 102 chests of strawberries were 
gathered in one picking. The berries in a chest will weigh 
100 pounds, and this yield aggregated 10,200 pounds of fruit, 
an average of 2550 pounds of fruit per acre— a ton and a quar- 
ter of strawberries. The berry fields are divided into sec- 
tions, and each section is picked over once each week. Who 
can beat the Pinto showing i We are ready to publish the 
big yields. Two or three years ago R. W. Eton got 17 chests 
from a half acre, which is ahead of the Pinto showing, and 
was at the rate of 3400 pounds to the acre in one picking. 

Another Short Wheat Year in Australia. 

Supplies Short and More Grain Will lie Ordered From 

The Sydney Morning Herald of June 6th publishes 
the following : 

Breadstuffs locally have a somewhat firmer tone, in view of 
improved future prospects. A line of thirty tons of local roller 
flour sold at £10 5s. During the week a good deal of business 
has been done in local wheat, as high as 4s 5d having been 
paid for good-sized parcels. From Adelaide we learn that the 
market there is strengthening. There seems to be a strong 
belief in some quarters that South Australia has not much 
more than sufficient wheat to meet her own requirements; 
holders were consequently firm at 4s 6d per bushel. That col- 
ony has been supplying Western Australia since the begin- 
ning of the year at the rate of about 1000 tons of flour per 
month. A good deal of American flour, it is said, is finding 
its way into the Western market by way of Singapore and 
Hongkong. A Singapore firm of millers act as representatives 
of the Western Australian buyers. This naturally curtails 
to some extent the drain on the South Australian surplus. 
For some years back the South Australian millers have been 
building up a connection in South Africa, Western Australia 
and Queensland, and it is just now questionable which of 
these markets will be most neglected through the scarcity. 

On the 3rd of June the following was published in 
the Herald : 

The position of the breadstuffs market is now becoming 
more clearly defined. For some time back the receipts of the 
local grain by rail have been of the most meager character, 
and each succeeding week has put up a new record for small- 
ness of supply. During the seven days just ended only six 
tons came to hand, and from what can be gathered from ad- 
vices from the wheat-producing centers inland there is not 
likely to be any great quantity forwarded to the metropolis 
until the new season opens. Victoria has no wheat for export. 
In South Australia prices are firm, and for a large parcel even 
more than present current rates would have to be paid. 

Our Adelaide correspondent wires on this date some inter- 
esting figures regarding the South Australia surplus, which 
fully bear out the opinion that the greater portion of our defi- 
ciency must come from outside the colonies. He gives the 
total export to date as equivalent to 53,896 tons, thus leaving 
approximately 31,100 tons to be exported. The exports to New 
South Wales to date are given as 232,030 bushels of wheat 
and 8889 tons of flour, or equal to 14,600 tons in all. We thus 
find that only 26 per cent of the colony's export reached New 
South Wales, and should the same proportion continue during 
the remainder of the season there will only be 8086 tons to 
come forward to this port. As, however, a portion of the 
remaining surplus will probably be carried over until next 
season, the export to Sydney may be still further minimized. 

The New Zealand surplus, it now appears, was on paper 
only, and the prices and general tone of the market in that 
colony bear out that view of the case. Advices from Christ- 
church received June 2nd sum up the position thus: "If 
prices were to have tumbled down,, as some expected, they 
would have done so long ago. This is at least our idea." 
Millers here have grain to carry them on for several months 
to come, say to the middle of August. So that it would seem 
that importations will recommence before the season is out, 
and that these importations will be on a fairiy heavy scale. 
From the middle of August until the middle of December, be- 
fore which no great quantity of new wheat can be expected, 
leaves four clear months during which the consumptive de- 
mand will have to be supplied from somewhere or other. It 
is expected that the resources of America will again be called 
upon to make up the deficiency. 

Army Worms in San Joaquin. 

Army worms are reported from San Joaquin coun- 
ty. It is fortunate that the grain all over the county 
is so near the sack, as otherwise the visitation of the 
army worms would result in the loss of thousands of 
dollars. As it is, they can do little damage before 
the grain is harvested. The army worm could do 
considerable damage to vineyards now. So far as 
known, however, they have not made their appear- 
ance anywhere except in the neighborhood of Linden. 

Notes on the Peach and Myrobolan Roots. 

To the Editor: — -The following observation on 
peach and myrobolan root I'll give to the readers of 
the Pacific Rural Press if you think them of benefit : 

Sour Sap. — The Agricultural Experiment Station 
at Berkeley gives in its last report, on page 235, the 
cause and remedies of sour sap. In my judgment of 
this disease I think the gentlemen have given this 
subject the same careful study that they give all 
matters they undertake to investigate. 

To their remedy for sap souring I would add and 
recommend the late peach root for the French prune 
in any locality with severe March frosts. The sap 
in this tree starts much later, and so they escape 
this destructive enemy. 

To illustrate this fact I'll give the following obser- 
vation : Having a myrobolan and a late peach seed- 
ling on the same soil, I noticed the former blooming 
in February, while the latter is perfectly dormant. 
Going over to the French prune on myrobolan, I 
find the sap is active and the roots of some of the 
trees sending up suckers. These will grow at times 
2 feet before the trees attain their foliage, while on 
the other side trees on peach root give no sign of 
life. To these trees the severe frosts of March and 
early April are of no injury, and when the sap starts 
they will receive their foliage in a very short time ; 
while on the other side it takes the trees on myro- 
bolan roots weeks before they recover from their in- 
jury, so received, and consequently they bud out 
very slowly. 

I also notice in this locality that the French prune 
on peach root will ripen much sooner, and when ripe 
will drop freely, while the fruit growing on the other 
root will dry on the tree, and sticks have to be used 
to knock off the last gathering, occasioning addi- 
tional expense in harvesting the crop. 

The only objection against peach root I hear of is 
short life. This is easily overcome by a yearly sym- 
metrical pruning. Prune trees in this orchard have 
at the age of thirteen made 2 feet of growth up to 
this time, July 2nd. T. C. Asmus. 

Eagle Ranch, Dove, San Luis Obispo Co. 

Prof. YVoodworths' Note on Sour Sap. 

In view of Mr. Asmus' allusion to the last report 
of the University Experiment Station we take the 
paragraph to which he refers to make his account 
more complete: 

Sour Sap.— This is a disease due to a number of 
forms of bacteria. Like the gum disease of the 
orange, the organisms are not properly parasites, 
but rather decay-producing forms, which, under 
peculiar circumstances, have become parasitic. Two 
forms of sour-sap may be distinguished — the root, 
and the top souring. The former commonly follows 
standing water, and is particularly common in a 
hollow lined with hardpan. The latter is most 
abundant in spring, and follows late severe frosts. 

Mr. P. H. Atkinson, of Sebastopol, Sonoma 
County (April 15, 1894), writes in reference to the 
disease in his prune orchard: "The trees recently 
budded out, some of them bloomed, and about 20 to 
25 per cent began to wilt and die; * * you will 
notice that there is quite a sour smell. I have had 
one or two cases in former years, but nothing like 
the wholesale destruction now going on. People 
here call it sour-sap, but do not know what is the 
cause of it, nor what remedy to adopt. If the tree 
is cut back (nearly all the top being taken off) it 
sometimes revives, but generally dies altogether; 
at other times the top dies and the myrobolan root 
sends up suckers. The trees affected are in all 
kinds of positions. * * I have had the same 
thing happen occasionally to peaches, but not to any 

When the disease is noticed, the tree is generally 
beyond help, though it sometimes revives. The 
treatment, if on the roots, is drainage of the soil; if 
above ground, severe pruning. 

Another Fruit House Drops. 

The vicissitudes of merchants connected with the 
fruit shipping trade would fill volumes. From the 
very first, before the business took on any size, it 
had a way of breaking up people, and even recently 
its course is strewn with financial wrecks. The lat- 
est to go under is described in a dispatch from New 
York, on Monday of this week, as follows : 
. The E. L. Goodsell Company, fruit auctioneers and fruit 
importers, made an assignment to-day to Victor K. McElhenny 
Jr., without preferences. The company was organized in 
March, 1885. W. W. Flanagan was president and E. L. Good- 
sell vice-president. The authorized capital was $300,000 of 
which $166,000 was paid in. The company did a large business, 
but it did not prosper and several attachments were issued 
against it last spring. 

It is unfortunate to have such troubles attend the 
fruit trade, but it is perhaps incident to a newly 
established line of effort. Fruit dealers have in- 
dulged in expansion quite as much as fruit planters 
have. The business should get upon a solid conser- 
vative basis as soon as possible all around. 

Camp Roache Summer School, near Wright's, is 
proceeding this week, with Prof. Woodworth and 
Mr. Hayne as agricultural speakers and Prof. Ross 
on economics. Next week Profs. Hilgard and Wick- 
son will take agricultural subjects and Prof. Ross 
will complete his course. 

Weather and Crops. 

Keport of Conditions Up to the 6th Inst. 

The following synopsis of the weather and crop 
conditions during the week ending Monday, June 29, 
is issued by the State Agricultural Society in co- 
operation with the U. S. Climate and Crop Service, 
James A. Barwick, Section Director : 

Sacramento Valley Counties. 
Tehama County (Corning).— Harvesting is in full blast. 
(Pen tz).— Highest and lowest temperatures, 102° and 54°. 

Colusa County.— Highest and lowest temperatures, 08° and 

Glenn County (Elk Creek).— Fruit crop is better than ex- 
pected. Highest temperature, 105°. 

Suttek County— Figs are being shipped in large quantities. 
The apple crop will be fair. 

Placeu County (Auburn).— Hot winds have caused wheat 
and berries to shrink. (Newcastle).— Weather favorable for 
fruit. Highest and lowest temperatures, 100° and 50°. (Rose- 
ville).— Grain is plump and full. 
Sackamento County.— Highest temperature, 109°. 
Yolo County (Winters).— Apricots are ripening exception- 
ally slow this season notwithstanding the excessive heat. 
They ripen prematurely about the pit and continue to remain 
green on the outside, something that fruit growers are unable 
to account for. (Tremont).— Crops are turning out well. 
Napa, Sonoma and Santa Clara Valleys. 
Sonoma County (Gurneville). -Fruit crop is a failure, but 
the hay crop is a heavy one. Some of our hop fields have been 
planted to beets, carrots aud corn. (Freestone).— The apple 
crop will be a light one. 

Santa Clara County (Los Gatos).— Fruit shows signs of 
early ripening; apricots are fully a week in advance of last 
year. Apricots in the districts where frosts struck them are 
now cracking badly. Prunes and pears are doing well. 

San Benito County (Hollister).— The season has been later 
than usual, but all crops are looking well. Highest and low- 
est temperatures, 84° and 38°. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaouin County (Lodi).— Wheat has been somewhat 
shrunken by north winds. Highest and lowest temperatures, 
99° and 48°. 

Fkesno County.— Peaches abundant and of superior qual- 
ity; pears looking well ; apples only a fair crop. (Reedley)— 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 102° and 76°. 

Southern California. 
Weather cool and favorable for the bean crop; beans are 
looking well. Highest and lowest temperatures, 80° and 47°. 
Mountain Counties. 
Modoc County.— The hay crop will be larger in this county 
this season than it has been for years. 

SnASTA County (Anderson).— Although most other fruits 
are scarce, there will be plenty of pears. Prunes will be 
scarce, but grapes will be a plentiful crop. 

The New Raisin Combine Collapses. 

Report has it that the latest plan for selling 
raisins, of which we have given account in the 
Rural, has gone to pieces. On July 1st a joint com- 
mittee of five, appointed by the Fresno Chamber of 
Commerce and the One Hundred Thousand Club to 
formulate a plan for marketing raisins, held a meet- 
ing and decided to prosecute their work no further. 
They passed resolutions stating that the reason for 
their action was that raisin growers had not given 
them the support in their undertaking which was 
expected, that success was beyond their reach and 
further work was useless. 

The fact seems to be that these progressive gen- 
tlemen who have in the past run the real estate and 
counting-house features of the raisin business have 
not convinced the growers that they constitute the 
sort of Moses which the times require. They have 
succeeded in getting too many people into trouble to 
make a record of getting people out of trouble. 
Their sweat boxes were not made for raisins and 
there was a palpable misfit. The local co-operative 
associations are, however, still in the field and their 
work may ultimately solve the question. It is be- 
coming more and more evident that more education 
must precede a general co-operation. 

There are eleven co-operative companies in Fresno 
county, against five last year. Each company is 
composed of raisin growers, who join in packing 
their own raisins at actual cost, and all co-operatives 
sell through one committee. Last year they handled 
12 per cent of the crop. This year they expect to 
handle more than half. The raisin crop is very light 
this year. The pack will perhaps fall 100 cars short 
of last year. 

Bogus Jellies in San Francisco. 

In a land of fruit the markets should be free from 
bogus fruit products, and the city Board of Health 
proposes to have them so, if possible. It is criminal 
if such abominations are made in this land of fruit 
and it is an insult added thereto if such things are 
brought in from distant or foreign parts to be sold 
here. We hope the prosecution will push such busi- 
ness to the wall. Of eight samples bought in San 
Francisco, four were of goods sold as currant jelly. 
Of these the chemist said: 

Sample B 2 is made from the damaged fruit; sample E 8 is 
made from badly damaged fruit and is colored with aniline 
dyes; sample A 2, in tumbler, is a combination of apple and 
currant jellies ; sample A 2, in tin can, is apple jelly with some 
currant jelly. That labeled "Raspberry" is found to be 
apple jelly colored with aniline dyes. The "blackberry" 
jelly was found to have been made from damaged fruit. 

One sample of alleged " strawberry " jelly was found to be 
a compound of apple and turnip pulp, and another a mixture of 
strawberry and apple. 

The law under which prosecutions are directed to 
be begun make it a misdemeanor, punishable by fine 
and imprisonment, to sell without a notice on the 
label that the contents are a compound any article 
of food in which adulterants have been used. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

Julv 11, 1896. 


Advice to Beginners With Thoroughbreds. 

Jesse Latshaw tells the readers of the Northwest 
Horticulturist something of the value of thorough- 
breds and gives the beginner good advice about 
using the poultry shows to find out where he stands— 
or, rather, where his birds stand as representatives 
of their breeds. 

Advertising Good Stock.— I venture to say that to 
advertise is the only road to success. It is impos- 
sible to sell breeding stock unless you let the people 
know you have stock for sale. A small advertise- 
ment in two or three agricultural and poultry papers 
will prove to be a profitable investment. Be sure 
and have first-class stock, and then it is no trouble 
whatever to get a first-class price, which is the 
most important part of the business. To prove to 
the public that you have good stock, ship a few of 
the best birds to some first-class poultry show ; but 
do not expect to take all the prizes— if you do you 
will get left every time. If you get one first prize 
and two or three second and third prizes, you are 
fortunate and can make up your mind that you have 
some good stock. 

Using the Standard and Score Cards.— It just start- 
ing in the poultry business, in order to find out 
which is your best stock send $1 to some agricultural 
or poultry paper and get " The American Standard 
of Perfection," as adopted by the American Poultry 
Association at its eighteenth annual meeting at Chi- 
cago, Illinois, in 1893. This book contains a com- 
plete description of all the recognized varieties of 
fowls. It is well worth ten times its price. It ex- 
plains every point of a fowl and explains which fowls 
will qualify and which will not qualify. To learn the 
important points of a fowl one should make a score 
card for each fowl that it is expected to send to the 
show, and score them yourself according to the 
standard. When you receive the score cards from 
the show you can compare them with your scoring, 
and then you can see your mistakes at once. I 
claim that a new beginner can get five years' expe- 
rience with one year's good attention to the stand- 
ard and to his stock. It is an interesting as well as 
a profitable study. Remember, I am not a stock- 
holder in any newspaper ; I am not an agent for the 
book, " The Standard of Perfection," as some might 
think by the way I speak, but I would like to see the 
farmers of this State more interested in thorough- 
bred poultry, as I think they will be in the near 

Opening Trade. — I have received forty-six orders 
from new customers this spring and they are mostly 
all farmers. I think that is very good, considering 
the hard times. If the rest of the breeders are doing 
as well, or better, we will soon have one of the best 
poultry States in America. There is no excuse for 
farmers not procuring thoroughbred stock, for they 
have all the advantage there is over the city and vil- 
lage breeders, who keep their stock on a 25-foot lot. 
A farmer can feed stock at almost one-half the ex- 
pense of the breeder who keeps his fowls in small 
yards, and will receive better results. If a city 
breeder can raise funds at a profit by buying all of 
his feed and paying high rent and taxes, why can not 
the farmers have at least 50 per cent the advantage? 
But one should not be discouraged if he does not sell 
$500 or $1,000 worth of breeding stock the first year, 
for it takes a little time to get acquainted and be 
known as a first-class breeder before the public. 
You can not figure on more than 50 per cent of your 
increase as first-class breeding stock. 

flidsummer Hatching. 

To the Editor: — Some time ago you stated that 
the hatching season was over. We were then too 
busy to answer, but thought how extremely careful 
an editor of such a widely-read paper must be to 
avoid injuring some interest of his customers. It 
may be of use to you and interest your readers to 
know that there is really no fixed season for hatching 
or growing chickens on the Pacific coast. While the 
rainy season, or from January to May, is the favorite 
one, yet the remaining months are as favorable, un- 
der certain conditions. These are that lice are pre- 
vented lodgment on the chicks and that the growing 
birds have shade, with green food, meats and fresh 

The reason why it is often stated that chicks do 
not thrive here in hot weather is because the above 
are not attended to. 

The fruit season, with its varied demands ; sum- 
mer, with its many social pleasures and, perhaps, the 
lassitude attendant, all conduce to neglect of the de- 
tails vital to the chicks' welfare. 

We are among the largest breeders of high-class 
poultry and probably hatch more with incubators 
than any on this coast, and we do not find any differ- 
ence in vitality or growth in the chicks hatched dur- 
ing the whole year. Of course, ante-natal conditions 
must be attended to— the food suitable and sick or 
diseased birds cured or killed, as domestic fowls are 

subject to several of the afflictions common to hu- 
manity in its troubled passage across this whirling 

At this writing there are in separate brooder- 
yards under the fruit trees some 200 chicks, from 
two days to two weeks old, and their vigorous races 
and struggles with meat scraps would indicate activ- 
ity and strength. We also have machines hatching 
about weekly, the average egg infertility being about 
10 to 15 per cent, and this, too, from hens that have 
been in constant breeding mating one or two or more 

From April or May to October or November is 
really an excellent time to raise chicks, provided the 
little but all-important things above-named are duly 
looked after. Carman Bros. 

We are glad to have this note. We were aware of 
the facts and do not think that they are in conflict 
with our previous statement. For ordinal// work 
with chickens the hatching season closed as we said; 
for extra careful and correct work it is not over. 
But not one in a hundred will give such work at this 
time of the year, for the very reasons our corre- 
spondent gives. — Ed. 

Hints and Suggestions. 

Poultry House Floor. — The best and most satisfac- 
tory floor for a hen house is dry, clean dirt upon an 
earth floor. The earth in the house should be filled 
from six inches to one foot above the ground sur- 
rounding the house outside; this will prevent it from 
becoming damp and disagreeable to the occupants. 
Under the roosts should be thrown a shovelful or 
more of loose, dry dirt every morning, and the drop- 
pings removed at least once a week and the floor 
swept or scraped. A scratching place should be di- 
vided off by setting up boards a foot high, making a 
pen in which should be kept loose straw or chaff to 
the depth of four to six inches, and all loose grain 
fed fowls thrown in this pen. This will keep the 
hens busy and the busy hens lay ejrgs. This should 
not be allowed to become foul, but should be renewed 
occasionally. A liberal supply of air-slacked lime 
scattered over the floor will do much toward keeping 
the house in a good, wholesome condition. 

Grease for Koosts. — Acting on the suggestion that 
grease of any kind is sure death to vermin, Mr. 
Ma pes tells the Rural New Yorker that he tried the 
experiment of smearing the roosts, perches and 
cross bars with melted tallow or "cottolene." This 
was painted right on the perches during the daytime, 
and the result was that, so long as the grease re- 
mained on the perches, not a single mite could be 
found on them, and the hens were absolutely free 
from these insects. As is known, these mites leave 
the hen during the day and crawl on the under side 
of the roost, working only at night. In this way, 
the tallow or other grease painted on the roost, not 
only kills those that are there, but prevents the 
hatching of the eggs, and thus makes an end to the 
whole foul race. While this might not kill the large 
gray, or body louse, it is perfectly sure death to 
mites, and this treatment is well worthy of a trial 
by all poultrvmen who desire to get rid of this hen- 
house pest. Be sure to do the painting in the day- 
time, when the hens are away, and put the grease 
on thick enough so that it will stay on quite a long 

Sawdust in the Feed Room. — For a feed room, 
scratching and roosting room, an eastern poultry- 
man believes a board floor, covered about one inch 
deep with dry pine sawdust, is the best possible to 
have. Nothing equals sawdust as an absorbent, and 
the odor is pleasant and health-giving. If you ever 
by accident, have an inch of water settle on a floor, 
you bail out what you can and then put on the dry 
sawdust, and in a few minutes you remove the saw- 
dust, water and all, and you again have a dry floor. 
Just such an occurrence as above led to the adoption 
of sawdust as a permanent covering, and from its use 
for the past five years nothing will induce him to 
abandon it. With this he uses dry leaves, sometimes 
straw and sometimes hay. It is not a good idea to 
use the latter, as the fowls will eat it, and must in 
consequence consume more or less filth. 

A Dust Bath. — For a bath a correspondent used 
boxes in the henhouse, but has discarded them and 
studied nature's plan. If in the same room, dust is all 
over everything; without it, the room is at all times 
neat and clean. His dust box or dirt baths are 
small sheds, built on south of house and on the 
natural earth ; they are three feet high, roof covered 
with boards and paper, have windows in front, and 
are raised so that no water can get in. No ashes or 
artificial dust. Nothing pleases the hen better than 
mother earth, and nothing is its equal for a bath. 
Access to dust house is by a small door only, ten by 
twelve inches. 

Young Turkeys. — The first thing to do when a brood 
of turkeys is hatched is to examine the hen for lice. 
Lice come from the hen to the chicks. Look closely 
on the skin of her head and neck for the large lice 
and anoint her head with melted lard, rubbing it 
well into the skin. Then dust her thoroughly with 
fresh insect powder. Do the same to the young tur- 

keys and rub one drop of melted tallow on their 
heads. Too much grease is fatal to them. Keep down 
the lice and never let the young ones get damp. You 
will raise nearly all by so doing, as the large major- 
ity of young turkeys die from the great head lice. 
Feed on hard-boiled eggs, curds, bread dipped in 
milk, finely chopped onions, rolled oats, and keep 
ground bone before them. 

Boiled Wheat. — Boiled wheat for chicks has proved 
better than all other foods used. Simply boil the 
wheat until it is soft, and feed it in troughs to the 
chicks. It must not be sloppy, but fed as dry as it 
can be under the circumstances. Make a trial of the 
boiled wheat, and it will be found valuable 
many of the chicks that have no appetite. 

/fins as W<ed Killers. — If a hen and chicks are 
placed Id a yard or confined on a small plot, every 
blade of grass, as well as every weed, will be de- 
stroyed, and in a few days the plot will be as clean as 
if burned over. When hens are confined in yards, 
the yards are clean and bare of vegetation. When 
the hens are on a range, they also destroy thousands 
of young weeds, which is not so noticeable, but 
which is nevertheless the case. 

in saving 


Seasonable Hints. 

To the Editor: — I submit the following as the re- 
sult of my observation: 

Win n to < y ut Flowers. — The best time is early in the 
morning, before the dew dries off, as then they are in 
full vigor. In the afternoon, especially on warm, 
sunny days, they are devoid of sufficient sap and will 
not keep as long as those cut in the morning before. 
If one has to use the flowers some time after being 
cut, they should be laid in a box, dampened, kept 
cool and closed. It is still better to wrap the flowers 
in damp cloths or paper. This will further exclude 
the air. In this way they can be kept for several 
days nice and fresh. 

Watering in the Hmt of the Da//. — Most people have 
the erroneous belief that it is not right to water or 
sprinkle plants during sunshine. Now, all the plants 
will suffer more or less from dry sun heat, especially 
roses ; therefore, they should be sprinkled, if one can 
afford the time, several times during the day. The 
warmer the day the oftener they should be sprinkled, 
no matter if the water is cold. All the foliage and 
ground surface should be well sprinkled, more so on 
the sides of houses, etc. This gives a fine humid at- 
mosphere, which is most essential to plant growth, 
and will cure and prevent mildew. Many kinds of 
roses suffer very severel\ r from mildew, produced by 
hot, dry weather, as well as by damp atmosphere at 
a low temperature. This damp and low temperature, 
I notice, gives or causes the blight or curl on peach 
trees. That is the reason why no peaches will do well 
around here at all. Henry 

Eureka, Humboldt Co. 

Hints to Rose Growers. 

T. R. Hopkins, a florist at Seattle, gives the 
Northwest Horticulturist a few hints which may be of 
assistance to California readers as well. 

Cutting Roses to Keep. — All semi-double roses, such 
Papa Gontier, Bon Silene, Gen. Jacqueminot, etc., 
should be cut while in bud and placed in a cool, dark 
place, with the fresh ends of stems placed in water. 
They will then open in a short time, varying accordS 
ing to the variety and stage of advancement of the 
buds when cut. Do not use tin vessels for holding 
the flowers, as this will discolor the leaves and stems 
in the water. Bride, Catharine Mermet, Waban, 
Bridesmaid, Marshal Niel, Perle des Jardins and all 
like double roses will not require cutting until they 
become more advanced, then treat as advised for the 
others. La France is a very difficult rose to handle 
without losiug its color, and even with the utmost 
care it can hardly be kept in good shape for one day, 
so readily does it lose the peculiar silver pink tint 
and becomes a very undesirable shade. La France 
is better left on the bushes until nearly time to be 
used ; but on no account put them to service uutil 
they have stood in water one hour or more. It is 
simply astonishing how quickly fresh-cut flowers will 
wilt, while those which have been cut over night and 
left standing in water will remain fresh much longer. 
A cool cellar is perhaps the best place for keeping 
flowers. It is none the worse for being dark. Flow- 
ers which have been on ice do not keep so well. 

Washing Off Aphis. — I would recommend spraying 
with clear water, thrown with considerable force, 
such as the city waterworks furnish in nearly all 
cities. The water may be directed under the leaves 
and thus dislodge the insects without discoloring the 
foliage. Care should be taken not to wet the leaves 
when the sun is shining brightly, as the water on the 
leaves will cause them to burn and spot. The best 
time to spray is in the early morning or evening. 
However, let no person expect that insects can be 
kept in check in this way except by constant care. 

July 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 



What Shall the Nurserymen Do? 

In view of low fruit prices and the turning of city 
capital from orchard planting to mining, it is a good 
deal of a question with the nurserymen as to what 
they shall do. They cannot propagate "mining 
plants," and that is about the only kind of vegetable 
that goes at present. Some nurserymen have de- 
cided what to do, and that is to "get out of it." 
Others believe they should stay in on a more mod- 
erate schedule, and that is probably the best policy 
on the whole. 

What an Eastern Nurseryman Thinks. — At the con- 
vention of the American Association of Nurserymen 
in Chicago last week N. H. Albaugh of Ohio led in 
the discussion of the subject, " To Plant or Not to 
Plant." This was considered from the nursery- 
man's standpoint, of course. There is no doubt, he 
said, in the mind of every nurseryman that if the 
prevailing wholesale prices of nursery stock were to 
be guaranteed by this association to continue for the 
next five years we should turn our attention to cattle 
raising in Texas, or sheep raising in Vermont, or 
peach raising in Georgia, or some other business, 
and close up our nurseries, call our agents home and 
give the farmers a blessed rest for the next five 
years. But, with the hope that springs eternal, we 
say that pears at 4 cents and 3-cent apples and 2- 
cent peaches and 5-cent plums cannot continue, and 
these dull times we are now having will soon pass 
away. Somebody says that the market is about 
stocked, we have got about as many orchards as 
people will take the fruit of, and consequently our 
business is about at an end. What are the facts ? 

Growth of the Country. — We are meeting in Chicago 
as horticulturists, and I doubt whether there is 
within a radius of thirty or forty miles around this 
city enough fruit to supply .the citizens of this city 
one week out of the fifty-two in the year, probably 
not half as much. Here is a city that twenty-one 
years ago, when our association first met in it, had 
not half the population that it has to-day. In 
twenty years more it is likely that this city, with its 
suburbs, will number two millions and a half ; then 
there is a little town north of here on the lake, Mil- 
waukee, with four hundred thousand people ; you go 
to the northwest and there are the two twin sisters, 
St. Paul and Minneapolis, with nearly a million 
people, and there are towns springing up all over 
the country ; and all these people have mouths to 
feed and stomachs to satisfy, and somebody must do 
it. When you look at it in that view, we feel sure I 
we are not raising more trees than the people ought 
to plant. 

The Nurseryman's Policy. — Now shall we plant, or 
shall we not plant, as nurserymen? I say plant, 
but do not plant extravagantly. I believe if there 
were fewer trees put out for a year or two there 
would be more money for what were put out, and 
the price would be maintained to a reasonable living 
price. Let us go a little slow; let us plant not quite 
so much as usual ; let us make calculations to put 
our own men in the field to sell the stuff, and not 
depend entirely on supplying our trade, because we 
may be left, as each nurseryman is trying to grow 
enough for himself. 

I think, with these things taken into considera- 
tion, and the quantity of fruit that this country will 
consume, and a reasonably conservative action taken 
in regard to the planting for three or four years to 
come, will go largely towards solving this terrific 
problem that is before the nurseryman to-day, that 
he does not get enough at wholesale from his trees 
to pay the actual expenses of growing and digging 

The Southern Walnut Growers. 

We alluded recently to the Los Angeles meeting 
of the Walnut Growers' Association, held to form a 
central organization and lay out a plan of campaign 
for disposing of the incoming crop and establishing 
prices and grades. The following members were 
present as shown by the report in the Rural Cali- 

R. M. Fuller, Wm. Wedemeyer, E. H. Ashley, J. 
A. Montgomery, J. J. McClelland. A. Dorman, L. 
Montgomery, T. L. Goocb, D. M.Gate, T. R. Pas- 
sons, G. W. Hutchings, A. Dufliel, J. Moyse and I. 
P. Fleming, all of Rivera; S. T. Daniels, George D. 
Carleton, Sydmer Ross, A. McDermont and B. F. 
Porter of Fuller ton; Col. P. T. Swaine and Chas. S. 
Swaine of Los Nietos; A. T. Pendleton and A. H. 
Basten of Placentia; George H. Bonebrake and M. 
Meldelson of Capistrano; John R. White of Burbank, 
Willis Morrison and A. E. Davis of Downey, Wm. 
Shugg of Monte, and Mrs. H. A. Bond and A. W. 
Worm of Los Angeles. The election of officers being 
first in order A. E. Davis of the University was 
chosen president and Sydmer Ross secretary. The 
committee on order of business— consisting of Messrs. 
Dorman, Porter, Montgomery, Mendelson, Snow 

and McDermont — reported the following program: 
Organization of growers; best mode of marketing 
and preparing for market; diseases of trees; cultiva- 
tion and irrigation, general remarks, and time for 
next meeting. 

Following much time was taken up in the different 
plans and methods of securing united action among 
all the walnut growers of southern California, 
the matter finally simmering down to organizing 
thoroughly on the same lines that the Orange 
Growers' Exchanges are operated, namely, with a 
central organization to which the several district 
organizations shall send delegates, the central or- 
ganization to be a clearance house or sales agent for 
the different districts. It was shown that through 
the associations the cost of handling walnuts was 
three-fourths of one percent, much lower than could 
be accomplished individually, and, that by organiza- 
tion, special protection was afforded the small 
grower. On the best modes of marketing, Messrs. 
Gooch, Coffman and Porter gave the benefit of the 
experience in their associations. The question of 
the advantage of sulphuring walnuts for the market 
was the subject of much discussion. It was agreed 
that the use of sulphur was of no particular benefit. 

Touching the central organization the opinion of 
the convention was voiced in the following resolution: 

Resolved, That steps be taken for organization and such or- 
ganization shall be composed of the various directors of all 
local associations of southern California. 

It was decided to call a meeting to arrange the 
manner of marketing the incoming crop, establishing 
grades, prices, etc., be called for the first Tuesday 
in August next. 

Prof. Newton B. Pierce, agent of the National 
Department of Agriculture, stationed at Santa Ana, 
gave a very interesting talk on diseases affecting the 
walnut, and dwelt especially upon the fungous 
growth now prevalent in groves in this county. He 
explained his experiements with inoculation of 
seventy-five trees, seventy-two of which were com- 
pletely infected. His remedy was spraying trees 
twice a year, before the nuts are set and later in 
the spring with the Bordeaux mixture. Five cents 
per tree was said to be the average cost of spraying. 

Cultivation and irrigation was discussed at 
length, but no definite conclusions were arrived at. 
Just before adjoining the following resolution was 

Resolved, That the horticultural commission of this State be 
requested to adopt vigorous measures to prevent the selling 
or distributing, by any person, of walnut trees affected by 
any disease whatever. 

Pruning the Silver Prune. 

It is well known, says the Tree and Vine, that the 
silver prune tree has a tendency to bear fruit and 
produce vigorous new growth out on the end of the 
branches, something after the manner of the peach, 
and, indeed, in this climate, quite as much. Trees 
that have this growth already should be severely 
cut back at the regular annual pruning which will 
force out a new growth in the center of the tree, and 
the new growth can be kept alive and vigorous by a 
judicious pinching back in the summer, or what is 
known as summer pruning. In this way the new 
growth, fruit and spurs for future bearing can be 
kept in the center of the tree as well as toward the 
end of the limb, and a larger crop will result. Those 
who have good silver prune trees will probably find 
them as profitable as any with this treatment. 

Ants on Fruit Trees. 

To the Editou :— Can you inform me how to keep the little 
black ants from going up the fruit trees and eating the fruit 
or something that will kill them or get rid of them in some 
way. I have 700 trees and they destroy a large amount of fruit. 

Harris, Cal. E. A. Jinks. 

Ants can be killed in their underground habita- 
tions by pumping in sulphur fumes with a squirrel 
smoker — if you can find the habitations. As this is 
not easy it is more practicable to fix the trees so 
they cannot get up. Take paraffine, or some other 
impervious paper, and cut so as to make bands G 
inches wide and draw one around the trunk of each 
tree and fasten with a tack. If the bark is rough so 
that avenues are left under the paper, put on a piece 
of old sacking first and draw the paper tightly over 
that. Spread cheap printing ink over the paper 
band and renew it as often as necessary to keep it 
moist and sticky. Do not put the printer's ink or tar 
or anything of that sort directly on the bark. 

Florida Oranges. 

An agent of the Florida Fruit Exchange tells the 
< 'itizen of that State that he estimates next season's 
orange product at 125,000 boxes, against less than 
50,000 for the present year. The recovery of the 
trees is not as rapid as expected, but is satisfactory. 
About half the injured acreage is being recovered by 
active efforts— the rest neglected or indifferently cul- 
tivated. Twenty years will be required to replace 
the bearing surface in existence before the freeze. 
Yet many large owners who invested in the southern 
counties after the disaster are coming back and 

pushing the recovery of their lost groves, while i. 
abandoning their new ventures. It is thought a 
better orange can be grown in the northern part of 
the belt. 

The Pomelo or Grape Fruit. 

C. B. Hewett of Pasadena has given much atten- 
tion to the pomelo, the ruling fashion in the citrus 
family. He prepared an account of his researches 
for the Southern California Pomological Society, 
which will be read with much interest. 

Historical ami Medicinal.— -This wonderful citrus 
fruit was first introduced into Florida about 1839 
from Jamaica and Pernambuco. It was planted 
more as a curiosity and not thought much of, only 
being eaten by the old Floridians as a spring tonic 
and to drive away malaria, until the live Yankee got 
hold of it about 1884 and began to introduce it into 
the larger Eastern cities. As it had great medici- 
nal qualities, the doctors of the East soon began to 
recommend it for indigestion and as a tonic to tone 
up the system in the spring ; also as an appetizer. 

The majority of the people who eat this fruit do 
not like it at first, and many have not tried to like 
it on account of the extreme bitterness of the rind 
and membrane, or lining between the pulp. The 
correct way to eat this peculiar fruit is to separate, 
or take away, all this lining and eat only the pulp ; 
or, better still, cut the fruit open through the cen- 
ter, dig out the seeds and core, then sprinkle a little 
sugar over the pulp (working it in a little with a 
spoon or knife), let stand several hours or over 
night ; eat just before meals. This way one soon 
learns to like and even crave for it. Unlike strong 
drink or stimulants that create a craving appetite, 
the pomelo is not only harmless but beneficial, and 
will, I understand, even alleviate the rum appetite, 
and if persistently used cure drunkenness. There is 
nothing in the fruit line yet discovered that has the 
medicinal qualities of the pomelo. Hence the de- 
mand will increase from year to year and take all 
the fruit that will be grown in the United States for 
the next twenty years. 

The Supply Last Winter. — The product of Florida 
was about wiped out by the great freeze in that State 
in 1894-95, and this past season, what few pomelos the 
east obtained from the extreme southern border of 
Florida and South America, brought fabulous prices. 
A few boxes sent from California sold at from $10 to 
$20 per box in Boston and other eastern cities. 
Very common and poor fruit from Jamaica sold in 
Buffalo at from $12 to $15 per barrel. Of course 
these high prices will not continue when the live 
California planters get trees in bearing. There is 
not, however, any doubt but the demand has come 
to stay, and that it will increase as the fruit be- 
comes known. 

Varieties. — Most people think there is but one va- 
riety. This is a mistake, as all fruits have different 
kinds. I traveled over all parts of Florida during 
the winters of 1890 and 1892 looking up the best 
varieties, and bought trees of what I considered the 
four best and planted them at South Riverside. I 
found the Seedless a large fine fruit, having all the 
medicinal qualities desired with only an occasional 
seed ; is a very luscious fruit. The one I considered 
next best was the Aurantium, or Sweet Rind, across 
between the pomelo aud orange. It has none of the 
bitter about the rind or lining, and only a trace of 
it in the pulp, and still much of the flavor of the 
pomelo as well as that of the orange, and will suit 
the taste of all. I do not think, however, that it 
has the medicinal qualities of the bitter rind. I also 
found a very fine fruit in St. Petersburg on the Gulf 
coast called Leonardy's Grape Fruit. This has as 
thin a rind as the orange, is juicy, fine flavored, 
: with all the medicinal qualities. I also found the 
Walters. The original tree was on the place of a Mr. 
Walters at Belleview, Florida, and the fruit is the 
largest of the bitter rind I ever saw. The tree was 
over twenty years old and had some 5,000 pomelos 
on it weighing from two to three pounds each. I 
secured trees budded from all four of these varieties, 
and have them all in bearing but the Aurantium or 
Sweet Rind, which will probably bear some fruit this 
season. I consider these varieties the best yet dis- 
covered. The more common varieties of seedlings 
are about all called Triumph, and will stand in com- 
parison to these varieties as the seedling orange 
does to the budded varieties. 

Figures Too Large t<> Publish. — The Seedless will 
undoubtedly take the lead over all others. The Cal- 
ifornia growers who get the first orchards into 
bearing will undoubtedly have a gold mine in the 
shape of gold-producing fruit that will outdo all 
other fruits in this respect. It is no fad, but the 
demand has come to stay and will increase for years 
to come. It will take at least ten years of active 
l planting for California to make up Florida's loss in 
[ this line. I have given this fruit my especial atten- 
tion for at least five years, and if I were to do any 
! more citrus planting it would be nothing but the 

I The tree is the finest of all the citrus family, is a 
l thrifty grower, has large glossy leaves, and a tough 
' wood that will bear its enormous weight of fruit 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 11, 1896. 

without propping. I have seen as many h,000 
pomelos on a single tree that would average 32 
ounces each, or 12,000 pounds of fruit on a tree 22 
inches through the trunk three feet from the 
ground, and the tree over 40 feet in height, and 30 
feet across its widest branches. The fruit from this 
tree sold for such a fabulous price that I will not 
mention it here for fear of being set down for a com- 
bined Florida and California liar. 

Frost and Tender Wood Growth. 

To the Editor:— In regard to complaint of 
banches of prune trees dying off I would say that I 
have found that it is caused by late severe frost 
when such trees were just in tender growth. The 
frost seemed to stop the flow of sap; after awhile 
the leaves dropped, and on a good deal of those injured 
foliage is falling yet. I had four little apricot trees 
which died from the effects, and all the fruit trees I 
noticed are more or less crippled which will affect 
even next year's crop. 

Eureka. H. Melde. 


American Nut Growing. 


Budding and Grafting.— In Europe both budding 
and grafting of the walnut have been practiced from 
early times. Loudon states that both processes 
were much more successful in northern Italy and 
southern France than in northern France or in Eng- 
land. In the United States both budding and graft- 
ing are more easily done at the South than in the 
North. The methods most commonly followed in the 
nursery are flute and ring budding, practiced with 
dormant buds in the spring when the sap is in motion 
or late in summer, as with fruit trees. It has been 
found that both methods succeed best when the 
operation is performed at the collar. Annular and 
flute budding are preferred to the shield method as 
being more likely to succeed and less likely to have 
the young shoots broken down by winds. 

In the United States but little attempt at budding 
the Persian walnut has been made outside of Califor- 
nia. Felix Gillet, of that State, uses both ring and 
shield methods, budding in summer and using only 
the small buds from the base of new shoots. He cuts 
the shield of bark to be inserted not less than 2 
inches long and as broad as possible. The wood is 
carefully removed without injuring the base of bud, 
and the branch or shield inserted in the ordinary T- 
shaped slit made through the bark on a smooth, 
round section of the trunk of the tree. A bandage 
is bound evenly with a uniform pressure above and 
below the eye to insure the contact of the entire 
under surface of the shield with the cambium layer 
of the stock. These buds remain dormant until 
spring, and the bandages are then cut and the tended 
sprout trained up the stump of the tree, which is 
left several inches high, until late in summer. 

Knight records an instance of successful top- work- 
ing of the Persian walnut by saddle grafting. 
" Young or last year's wood was employed both as a 
scion and as the stock. Both scion and stock were 
allowed to unfold their buds and grow for a week 
or ten days before the operation of grafting was 
performed. Previous to doing this, the young shoots 
and foilage were rubbed off. Out of twenty-eight 
instances twenty-two grew well, many producing 
shoots nearly a yard long and of very great strength. 
The scions were attached to the young (annual) wood 
of stocks, which were between 6 and 8 feet high, and 
in all cases they were placed to stand astride the 
stock, one division of the scion being in some in- 
stances introduced between the bark and the wood, 
while in others both divisions were fitted to the wood 
and bark in ordinary way. Both modes of operating 
were equally successful. In each of these methods 
of grafting, it is advantageous to pare away almost 
all of the wood of both the divisions of the scions, 
and therefore the large pith in the young shoots of 
the walnut tree does not present any inconvenience 
to the grafter." 

Other methods that have been successful are cleft 
sap grafting, prong grafting, and hot-house graft- 

Cultivation. — During the first few years in orchard 
clean cultivation is advised, though if well fertilized 
the ground may be used for low-growing hoed crops 
and even for smaller and short-lived fruit trees. 

Pruning. — The walnut needs but little pruning, 
and California growers cut only those limbs that 
would interfere with teams in cultivating. When 
laden with fruit the limbs are kept propped to avoid 
cutting. When cutting must be done, it should be 
with a slanting cut from the underside of the part 
remaining on the tree, or the wound should be well 
waxed to keep water out of the large pith where 
decay is apt to begin. 

Age of Bearing and the Yield. — In California the age 
at which bearing begins is reported at from 4 to 10 
years; and in the Atlantic States at 10 to 20 years. 
The trees come gradually into bearing; they seldom 

yield more than 4 to 5 nuts the first year of fruiting 
and from 2 to 5 pounds the second year. In Spain 
and south of France there are trees believed to be 
over 300 years old which bear from 15 to 18 bushels 
of nuts each. 


Loudon says: " The fruit of the walnut (Juglam 
regia), both in France and in England, is commonly 
knocked from the trees by threshing the extremities 
of the branches (on which alone it is produced) with 
long poles. By this process many of the points of 
of the branches are broken, which causes the produc- 
tion of many spur-like shoots that afterwards bear 
flowers and fruit. Hence the custom of beating a 
barren tree to make it bear. Bosc considers that 
beating down the fruit with poles is injurious to the 
tree; but in France, he adds, 'as the trees are not in 
inclosures this barbarous practice is altogether un- 
avoidable. If the trees were inclosed, or if property 
exposed by the roadsides were sufficiently respected, 
it would be unnecessary to beat down the nut at all, 
as the wind alone, when the fruit is completly 
matured, would be quite sufficient to detach it from 
the tree.' 

" In gathering up the fruit that is either beaten 
down or has fallen naturally those nuts which have 
separated from the husks are kept by themselves, 
taken home, and spread out on a boarded floor in an 
area, shed, or granary, to the depth of 3 inches. 
Here they are turned over daily till they become 
perfectly dry. Those fruits from which the husks 
have not separated in the fall are placed in little 
heaps on the ground, but still under cover, and 
turned over and gently beaten till the husk sepa- 
rates. In France care is taken to prevent these 
heaps from fermenting, or 'sweating,' as it is called, 
because that occasions change in kernel and gives 
an unpleasant flavor to the oil. When the nuts have 
been thoroughly dried those not wanted for crushing 
for oil are laid by, often in wooden boxes or chests, 
where they are not subject to the changes of the 
atmosphere; in such places they will retain all their 
good qualities for about twelve months. In Britain 
the nuts of the walnut may be preserved fresh and 
fit for the table or for sowing for a year either by 
burying them in dry soil or sand so deep as not to 
be reached by frost, the heat of the sun, or rain; or 
by placing them in dry cellars and covering them 
with straw. The latter mode is most commonly 
abopted by the growers of this nut for the London 
market. Walnuts should not be gathered until their 
outer covering parts readily from the shell, which 
will be before the covering becomes mealy. There 
is a critical time at which the hull leaves the shell 
without staining it, a result sure to follow if the 
hulls are allowed to remain on and become soft. 
After being hulled the nuts should be well dried in 
the sun for a day or two and then stored away, 
either on shelves in an airy room or packed in jars 
or boxes in dry, white sand, which improves the color 
of the shell, and keeps the kernal more moist." 

Concerning Loudon's advice not to gather the nuts 
" until the outer covering parts readily from the 
shell," it must be said that it can not always be 
followed in the United States. There appears to be 
a marked difference in this respect due either to a 
difference in varieties or to a cause not yet under- 
stood. In some portions of California and in Dela- 
ware the hulls open on the trees and the nuts fall to 
the ground as freely as do the almond and the shell- 
bark hickories, while the reports indicate that in 
portions of Arkansas the hull is as persistent as that 
of the black walnut, even after the nut is fully mature. 
In southern California the Persian walnut commences 
ripening about the last of September. Where the 
nuts pop out of the hull," as some correspondents 
express it, the practice is to clear the ground in 
September of all leaves, and pick up the fallen nuts 
about once a week. California growers are very 
generally opposed to beating the trees with rods, 
believing that the dormant fruit buds are injured 
thereby. Where the hull remains persistent after 
the nut falls to the ground the practice of harvest- 
ers is to leave the nut on the ground until the hull 
turns dark. The hull is then removed by hand or 
by placing the nuts in a revolving churn or some 
such suitable device. A revolving cylinder with in- 
ternal projections to hatchel off the hulls of nuts 
with fragile shells would doubtless be useful in has- 
tening this process. Where the hulls have discolored 
the shells the nuts are washed to remove stains. 
Some growers bleach the nuts with sulphur fumes, 
but this practice should be discouraged, owing to its 
injurious effects on the quality of the meat. In the 
larger orchards gangs of hands are started after 
the nuts have commenced to fall. Taking row by 
row through the orchard these men slightly jar 
each tree that the ripe nuts still on the tree may fall. 
The nuts are picked up into baskets and taken to 
the drying bouse. As soon as the first round is 
finished the second is commenced. In four or five 
rounds the crop is gathered. By this method Mr. 
Heath harvests the crop of his 180 acre orchard. 

The soft-shell ripens a little earlier than the com- 
mon nut and they both vary somewhat according to the 
season. Mr. Sexton generally commences to pick on 
the 10th to the 15th of September, and the gathering 
continues during a month or six weeks. The walnuts 
are picked up and put in sacks and barrels, so as to 

be easily handled, and are then hauled to a sunny 
place to dry. 


The curing of walnuts for market is an operation 
demanding much care, They are dried on platforms 
or trays, either in the sun or by artificial beat, and 
when properly cured they will not turn rancid or 
sour for several months in an ordinarily dry cool 
place. The platforms for sun-drying are made of 
narrow boards with spaces one-fourth of an inch 
wide between the boards. The platform should be 
about 8 feet wide, 40 feet long, and the beds should 
be covered with canvas at night to protect the nuts 
from dew. The nuts should be stirred once or twice 
each day, and with favorable weather they will dry 
sufficiently in three days to be ready for market. 
Mr. Sexton dries his walnuts in the sun, and they 
have given good satisfaction, and for small orchards 
he thinks this the cheapest and best way, though 
where large quantities must be handled artificial 
heat must be used. Mr. Heath uses a simple drying 
house, in which the nuts are subjected no a heat of 
200° for six or seven hours, the nuts not being re- 
moved until they are thoroughly cured. He affirms 
that this mode of curing does not injure them for 
use as seed. 


The walnut is marketed in sacks, the greater 
portion in what are called walnut sacks, which hold 
about 120 pounds. Some growers screen the nuts, 
assorting the different sizes. The prices realized by 
growers, as recorded in different reports, range 
from 4J to 20 cents per pound. A few nuts are 
gathered green for pickling and for catsup. 

In France the cheap nut is sold to the oil mills and 
the finer ones are shipped to market. One hundred 
pounds of walnuts will produce about 18 pounds of 
oil. It is said that half the vegetable oil used in 
France is walnut oil, or about three times more than 
is used of olive oil. We are not aware that the wal- 
nut oil has ever been manufactured in the United 


Horticulture Brings New Birds to the Desert. 

The extension of horticultural areas brings birds 
to regions hitherto avoided by them. This is a fact 
of old record but instances of it have rarely been so 
entertainingly described as they now are by J. H. 
Gilmour of Palm Springs, a horticultural oasis in the 
Colorado desert in the southeast corner of California. 
Mr. Gilmour gives the Chronicle the results of his 
observations, first upon the cicada, or so-called locust, 
then on the birds. 

The Stillness of the. Desert Broken. — Certainly the 
character of the desert is fast being lost. Horticul- 
ture effects some singular transformations. The 
characteristic of the desert was its " solemn still- 
ness." It seemed as if nature were taking entire 
rest. Few things moved. The whole country was 
motionless. The air was heavy and still. One was 
racked by continual fearing, melancholy silence rested 
on the face of the land, its stillness being only 
broken by the nerve-racking whirr of the cicada. 

What a noisy creature it is. Try to read, try to 
think, try to be amiably disposed toward your fellow 
man, but when that ceaseless whirr commences, that 
irritating, ear-splitting whirr, I defy any man who is 
human, who has nerves, and who feels uncomfortable 
when the thermometer shows 110° in the shade, not 
to feel murderous, for the cicada always selects as 
his hiding place a tree close to your open window. 

In desperation I have emptied both barrels of a 
No. 10 shotgun into a pepper tree and loud above the 
noise of exploding powder, louder than before, 
more strident jeering, with fantastic twirls and 
twists, the cicada has whirred merrily on. He is in- 
sensible to powder and shot. The more you fire into 
the thrice accursed tree the louder he plays on. It 
is as a mark of honor to him. He commences at 
early morn, anon he stops, and you flatter yourself 
he has betaken himself to some more distant tree. 
Vain thought ! He starts the diabolical machinery 
of his noise. He graduates it. First it is low, like 
the creaking of a dry wheel on a brewery wagon ; 
then another whirr follows, then another. Then he 
groves bolder, and successfully imitates the rattle of 
a freight train, louder and louder. Here a creak, 
then a groan, then a hiss of escaping steam and then 
a churning and a grinding, then short, sharp cries as 
if all the evil spirits in the many chambered abodes 
of the damned were sending up simultaneously a pit- 
iful cry for release from their fiery cells. Then is 
patience exhausted. You rush to the offending tree, 
you peer carefully into the branches ; the whirr 
comes from your left, you look to the left ; no it is on 
the right ; no, surely above ; why, it must be under- 
foot. You give up the hunt in despair. You consign 
the cicada — there is only one — to nameless tortures. 
You flee the spot, for there is no repose where he is. 

Coming of the Birds. — But is the rancho on the 
desert silent now ? It is not. From the four cor- 
ners of the earth have birds come, and made Palm 

July 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

Springs their home. Are they a blessing ? The 
farmer, with an eye solely to business and unblessed 
with a love for birds, vainly wishes there were no 
birds — that we could return to our old state of un- 
birdness. Pleasant it is to hear their songs and 
cries, for the air is never quiet now. The " solemn 
stillness" of the desert is gone. Mocking birds 
scream at each other from the trees, orioles chatter 
unceasingly, linnets chirrup, doves coo — the open 
grave of nature — but a peopled wild. 

The Tanagcr. — But while they flood the air with 
tuneful melodies they make us pay dearly for their 
songs. They ravage without cessation the orchards. 
No tree can ripen its fruit without paying tribute to 
these voracious little monsters. They have a fine 
contempt for the shotgun. Their moral senses are 
completely blunted, and they have no fear of death. 
They sing as merrily over the corpse of a brother as 
over a luscious fruit. Of all orchard pests the tan- 
ager is, in my opinion, the most destructive. He is 
indeed a beautiful bird, and as he darts about the or- 
chard his gay yellow plumage enlivens the umbrage 
with golden dashes. He is a stout-beaked, heavy- 
headed little fellow. He is impervious to fear. He 
has no hesitation in attacking unripe fruit, and this 
he completely destroys. Sometimes, out of pure 
wantonness, he will not eat, but will bite the fruit 
from the stem to let it rot on the ground. It is a 
matter for consolation that he does not stay with us 
all the year. He comes in from the south about the 
end of April, and the first few days of warm weather 
finds him on his way to Banning, there to continue 
his devastating work till he flies to the mountains 
for the summer. 

Quail and Doves. — The quail are now coming down 
from the mountains and are busy among the rapidly 
forming grapes. The destruction two hungry quail 
can do is enormous. They generally hunt in pairs, 
and it is almost impossible to trap, shoot or destroy 
them, for they easily hide among the vines, and are 
so cunning that you can pass and repass them with- 
out their giving you a sign of their obnoxious pres- 
ence. Never have there been so many doves as dur- 
ing the present season. They swarm upon the 
ranches in great flocks. During midday they half 
bury themselves in the dust under the shade of the 
apricot trees, only taking shelter in the high cotton- 
woods when startled in their siesta. They really do 
no harm. They pick the fallen seed of the weeds and 
are thus a true friend to the farmer. They never 
attack the grape as do the quail, or the apricots as 
do the tanagers and linnets — and still the same unjust 
law holds against birds as we sometimes imagine it 
does against man. No one covets the flesh of the 
tanager, that destructive orchard pest, and yet the 
dove is shot at and killed for his meat— for of all 
birds the dove is the gamiest food. It does not seem 
an injustice, for if the tanager were good eating 
there would be a relish attached to his killing — now 
he is only killed to protect fruit, and his ornamental 
body is crucified on a tree to serve as a fatal warning 
to his brilliant brothers, but it does not. 

Birds in Great Variety. — So numerous have the 
birds become, new varieties appearing every summer 
that with the aid of French Gilman I am enabled to 
give the name of almost every bird that can be found 
in this valley. The list is already long, when it must 
be remembered that five years ago there was 
scarcely a bird to be seen, and so rare was their song 
that a new note was instantly commented upon. 
How different it is this morning. Orioles are sing- 
ing about the house, mocking birds are maintaining 
a ceaseless chatter, humming birds with their queer 
little chirrups are darting among the honeysuckle or 
flitting over the alfalfa patches which are now in 
full bloom. The grosbeak, the wren and other birds 
are easily noted. Life, pulsating life, is now the 
characteristic of the place — a change, a vast change 
to the dull throbbing stillness of five years ago. 

Their Times and Seasons. — Among the birds most 
prominent now is the much spoken of Western tana- 
ger. He comes here about the middle of April and 
leaves in the first weeks of May. The blue grosbeak 
is first seen in March and is with us through May, 
while the blackhead grosbeak stays here through 
April and May. The black crest flycatcher nests 
here and remains through March, April and May. 
The Western bluebird is among the first arrivals. 
He shows himself in February and leaves in April for 
the mountains, where the females nest. The birds 
which nest here are Cassin's kingbird, Bullock's oriole, 
Scott's oriole, Arizona hooded oriole, ash-throat ori- 
ole, doves and house wren. The house wren is al- 
most a new bird. He has been quite numerous this 
year, and, from the numbers that have been making 
their homes among us for the past month, we may 
look upon them in future as regular visitors. The 
house wren, however, nests not in the valley, but in 
Andre's canyon. The dwarf hermit thrush, a moun- 
tain bird, was first seen here this May. He has 
never been noticed before, and 1 am inclined to be- 
lieve that this has been his first visit to the valley. 
Other birds that nest here are the house finch or lin- 
net, the Western nighthawk and the cactus wren. 
The nest of this bird is always placed in the very 
heart of this thorny brush, making it almost impos- 
sible for any rude destroyer to reach it. 

When the snow is on the mountain and all around 

is cold, we have with us the mallard, the red-head, 
sprigtail, widgeon, greenwing teal, cinnamon teal, 
butterball, shoveler and the black-crown night 
heron. The sandhill cranes have been very numerous 
this year. They only stay a day or so and are soon 
away for the coast. 

Though humming birds are numerous during the 
summer, they have never been so numerous as at 
present. They are not so brilliant in plumage as 
those we see in Los Angeles county. There are only 
two varieties — the rufous-back humming bird and 
Anna's humming bird. 

Desert Birds. — The birds common to the desert are 
Le Contes' thrasher, the California valley quail, Gam- 
bier's partridge (desert quail), the red-tail hawk, 
sparrow hawk, Western horned owl, ground owl, 
golden eagle, white-crown sparrow, mocking bird, 
the butcher bird or California shrike. The butcher 
bird is so called owing to his murderous propensities. 
He catches lizards and spikes them upon the sharp 
thorns of a tree, and, when sufficiently preserved, it 
is presumed he eats them. He follows with assiduity 
the plow, and woe betide the unhappy field mouse up- 
turned by the share. He pounces upon the " timor- 
ous beastie " and rapidly dispatches it. Then there 
is the kildee plover, black Phoebe. Of all annoying 
birds the red shaft flicker is the most tantalizing. 
He is never so happy as when boring into the 
wooden frame of a house. His ceaseless tap is most 
provoking. He can never be frightened away, and 
death alone secures you from his persistence. It is 
his habit to make a hole and therein perch with head 
out. Then comes the lark sparrow, the barn swal- 
low, the tree swallow, violet-green swallow, the ver- 
din or yellow-head bush tit, the avocat (a snipe). 
Among the winter birds, the robin must not be 
neglected. Then we have the Lawrence goldfinch, 
the Arkansas goldfinch and the American goldfinch. 

The Destructive Crow. — This catalogue, I believe, 
completes the list of birds that winter and summer 
with us. As vegetation increases we may secure a 
few more. Some can well be spared, especially the 
crows and ravens. These ill-looking birds are es- 
pecially fond of watermelons, and the amount they 
destroy during the season is remarkable. Early 
watermelons in the Los Angeles market are worth 
from 50 to 75 cents apiece, and two miserable crows 
will consume many dollars' worth of melons during 


Put in a Cement Floor. 

It is a good time of the year to put a good floor 
in the stable, or at least to figure on doing it a 
little later when the hands get through with the 
harvest. The best floor is one made with Portland 
cement, and Waldo F. Brown tells the Prairie 
Farmer how to do it after grading and establishing 
the desirable levels. 

Materials and Mixing. — The best material to mix 
with the cement is coarse, sharp sand and finely 
crushed stone ; and with these materials ten parts 
of stone can be used to one of cement in the lower 
four inches, and four parts of sand to one of cement 
in the upper four inches. I have been laying more or 
less cement each year for the past eight years, and 
all my floors have given perfect satisfaction. I have 
used gravel for the concrete and have screened my 
sand out of the gravel, using a sieve with one-fourth 
inch meshes. Next in importance to good material 
is thorough mixing. In making the concrete we 
measure, either by counting the shovelfuls or by us- 
ing a bucket, putting eight parts of gravel to one of 
cement in a heap, then shoveling it over three or 
four times so as to mix it all thoroughly. The last 
time we shovel it over, a third person stands with a 
watering pot and sprinkles so that it will be thor- 
oughly dampened, but not enough to drip. We are 
now ready to commence laying the floor, which we do 
in sections about four feet wide, beginning at the 
end opposite the door. For a horse stable floor we 
use five inches of concrete and one inch of topping ; 
in the cow stable, three and one-half inches of con- 
crete and one-half inch of topping. We stake down 
a scantling four or six inches wide, as the case may 
be, about four feet from the wall of the stable, and 
finish this section before laying another. We first 
put in the concrete an inch or two at a time and 
tramp it solid with a broad-faced rammer, and con- 
tinue until within one or one-half inches of the top, 
using a straight edge with a notch at each end so 
that it will drop down one inch or one-half inch as we 
desire. When this is put in we are ready for the 
finishing coat, which is made of two parts of clean, 
sharp sand and one part of cement, which is thor- 
oughly mixed dry, and then wet and tempered to the 
same consistency as we would use in cementing a 
cistern ; we then pour it in, filling the mould to the 
top, turning our straight edge over, notched side up, 
so that it will be just full to the top. It will be ne- 
cessary to use a trowel around the edges and in the 

Grooves to Prevent Slipping. — In order to prevent 

horses slipping on it we make grooves four inches 
apart and something over one-half inch deep, for a 
distance of about two feet at the rear part of the 
stalls. These are made by laying down a broom 
handle, tapping it until it beds one-half its diameter, 
then move four inches and repeat, thus making par- 
allel grooves four inches apart. We also "make 
these grooves running the other way, in front of 
the door where we lead the horses in. When a 
section is finished we carefully lift the stakes and 
move our edge piece over and stake it, and so con- 
tinue until the floor is finished. The Portland ce- 
ment does not set as quickly as the cheap grades, but 
usually in twelve hours it is hard enough for a man 
to walk over it, and for the next ten days it should 
be protected from the sun and sprinkled thoroughly 
twice a day ; this prevents danger of cracking and 
makes it harden more slowly, insuring a better job. 

Level or Sloping. — In the horse stable we prefer to 
have the floor laid perfectly level both ways and use 
absorbents to take up the liquid ; but in the cow 
stable, where we have a manure ditch, the ditch six 
or eight inches deep and two feet wide in the bot- 
tom, with the edges slightly sloped outward ; then a 
walk two feet wide back of the ditch on the same 
level with the floor on which the cows stand. In my 
stable the manger is also floored with cement ; it is 
made six feet wide and the horses eat from one side 
and the cows from the other, their hay and fodder 
being dropped through a chute above into the man- 
ger. I prefer that all the floors in a basement stable 
should be of cement, because, first, plank floors rot 
out so quickly as to be unprofitable, and second, they 
always furnish a harbor for rats. 

« Breaking the Colt. 

This important work is often poorly done and a 
method full of kindness and care is that described 
by a Tasmanian horseman, Mr. F. D. Roberts, and 
published in a Government journal in that province. 
Mr. Roberts says the first thing is to have a good 
yard, not too large, just room for the colt to walk 
around you without being in danger of getting 
kicked. Get the colt in by himself, then go in the 
yard by yourself. The next thing is to catch him ; if 
he is timid be careful not to frighten him ; let him 
know you are his master, but will not hurt him ; you 
should not know fear nor anger ; never be in a hurry 
with him. Stand in the middle of the yard and let 
him walk round you; if you are Dot frightened he 
will lose fear of you. You should have a small whip 
in your hand, but be very careful how you use it ; 
you must study the temper of the colt ; if he is 
quiet and stubborn, you must handle him differently 
to a timid one. Do not be in a hurry to get the hal- 
ter on ; the first lesson is an important one ; let him 
smell your hand if he will. If he turns his rump to 
you hit him with the whip lightly and he will turn 
round to you ; then stand still and let him smell your 
hand : if he turns his rump again hit him the same 
as before. If you are careful he will soon get so he 
will not turn his rump to you. When he gets quiet 
enough to smell your hand, and knows you will not 
hurt him, you can rub his nose carefully at first, 
then you should get your hand on his neck, and 
handle him very quietly ; do that a few times before 
you touch his ears. If he is restless let him have a 
few minutes spell and walk quietly round the yard, 
but do not let him turn his rump to you. He will 
soon get to know you will not hurt him and he will 
come up to your hand. Handle his head well before 
you try to put the halter on ; let him smell the 
halter, and stroke his nose and neck with it, put it 
on his nose and take it off again a few times before 
you try to put it over his ears ; if he pulls away let 
him go, do not try to hold him ; give your whip a 
crack and he will come up to you again. When you 
have got the halter on be careful that it does not 
draw tight on his jaw or hurt him ; if it does he will 
pull back as naturally as a child will pull his finger 
out of the candle when it burns. 

Teaching the Colt to Lead. — The next thing is to 
teach him to lead ; do not try to pull by force ; you 
will not get him to lead well that way. Have your 
halter long enough to allow him to walk round the 
yard while you stand in the center, and, if you are 
careful, you will get him to follow without much pull- 
ing ; he should not know his own strength. You 
should teach him to lead before you bring him out of 
the yard ; do not let anyone in the yard with you. 
Never lunge a colt ; handle well before you put the 
tackling on ; get him quiet about the head first ; be 
careful with the bit, do not let it hit him ; put the 
bridle on and let him amuse himself with it for a lit- 
tle while. Handle well before you put the surcingle 
on ; do not put it on tight at first, or you will make 
him buck ; a colt properly handled will not buck. Let 
him get used to the surcingle before you put the 
crupper on, and do not put it on tight ; let him have 
the tackling on for a little while before you run him 
up. Do not rein tight, nor leave the tackling on 
more than two or three hours at a time for the first 
two or three days, if you want to give him a good 
mouth and get him to carry his head well. It will 
take five or six days to mouth him well. Don't let 
his mouth get sore, but handle well all over ; take 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 11, 1896. 

him in the stable and handle his legs well. Pick up 
all his feet before you mount him. 

Caching to be Driven.— When you have got him to 
lead well and quiet to handle, put the reins on in the 
yard and drive quietly round. Get him well used to 
the reins before you take him out of the yard ; the.n 
drive him about for an hour, not too long so as to 
tire. Put him in the stable again, take the tackling 
off and handle his legs well ; then take him out again, 
ride another horse and lead him, making him keep 
up alongide ; do this a few times, and then put on 
the saddle. Put the reins on and drive about, and 
make him answer the reins well. 

freaking to the Saddle.— Then take him in again, 
give a feed, and rub down well; put the saddle on. Get 
him well used to the saddle before you try to mount. 
Get on him in the stable first, and make him stand 
well for you. Get on and off before you bring him 
out. Don't have anyone to hold him, then take him 
in the yard, get on and off in the yard a few times, 
and he will soon be got to stand quiet. Ride round 
the yard a few times, then you can take him out, 
but have some one on another horse to ride with you. 
Get him to walk well before you trot, and don't ride 
him too long at a time. Never get him tired at first 
if you want the colt to carry himself well. 

Breaking to Harness. — When you have got him to 
go nicely in the saddle put the harness on in the 
stable; most of your work should be done in the 
stable. Handle well with the harness on and take 
plenty of time with his legs; get the animal used to 
the breeching and use him quietly but firmly. Take 
the harness off and take him out with the winkers on; 
put the reins on and drive about for a little while, 
and make him accustomed to the. reins about the 
legs; then put the harness on again and drive for an 
hour or two; then tie a rope to the traces and hold 
that with one hand and drive with the other; hold the 
rope tight just to let him feel the collar; don't pull 
too hard at first, and he will soon take to the collar. 
Make him trot with that before you put in the cart; 
if he sweats take the harness off and wash his 
shoulders with cold water and rub dry. Put the 
harness on again and drive for a little while, then 
show him the cart and let him smell it; put him in the 
shafts and take out again a few times before you 
hook in, and so get him well used to them; if you are 
careful the first time or two, you will not have much 
trouble afterwards. Have your cart as light as 
possible at first, so that he can start quietly without 
having to pull much. Don't put him in anything 
that he can't start easily with at first till he gets to 
go well and then you will have a horse that will never 
stick you up. 


Cream For The Churn. 

Mr. T. C. Rodgers is the dairy instructor in the 
Guelph (Ont.) Dairy School, and recently delivered a 
paper before the Cheese and Butter Makers' Con- 
vention of that province. His topic was " The Prep- 
aration of Cream fur the Churn." 

To have success in manufacturing the finest qual- 
ity of butter it is important to possess a knowledge 
of the chief factors employed in the cooling, ripening 
and preparation of the cream for the churn. This 
commences with the separating and continues till the 
cream is transferred to the churn. 

Ripening the ('nam. — With regard to the temper- 
ature of ripening cream, we have learned from our 
own and the experience of others, that the lower 
the temperature at which cream can be ripened so as 
to develop sufficient latic acid within a reasonable 
time, the better will be the texture of the butter. 
To this end the use of ice and a proper cooling vat, 
having a surrounding space of seven inches for ice 
water, are necessary. Cream ripened and churned 
at too high a temperature will produce butter of a 
soft, oily texture, and will diminish in value. 

The most satisfactory temperature at which to 
ripen cream is 60° in winter and a little lower in 
summer, as the milk at that season contains more 
latic acid when separated. At these low temperatures 
enough starter should be used to produce sufficient 
ripening to cause it to turn thick six or eight hours 
before time of churning. We advise the use of a 
starter because it controls, flavors and gives uniform 
ripeness and flavor to the cream from day to day. 

The Starter.— The starter should be put into the 
cream vat when separation commences, in order to 
control flavors. The quality to use varies from two 
to ten pounds to 100 pounds of cream, according to 
the ripeness of the milk and the time allowed for"the 
cream to ripen. When the cream is to be held two 
days before churning, it should be cooled to 52° in 
winter and 50° in summer, about half the usual 
amount of starter being used. The cream should be 
stirred frequently during the first six hours, and the 
temperature kept uniform. Our starter is made as I 
follows : Take one gallon of skim milk or whole milk 
of good clean flavor for each ten gallons of cream to 
be ripened. This is set in a vessel of boiling water 
and heated to 1G0°, stirring constantly ; then move 
from the hot water and let stand for twenty minutes, 
after which cool to 75° or 80°, and add about a quart 

of the old starter, having a fresh, clean flavor, to- 
gether with six quarts of clean water at the same 
temperature, to each ten gallons of the pasteurized 
(heated) milk. Then mix well and set in a clean, 
warm place. Do not stir until ready to use it, then 
break up fine by pouring or dipping before straining 
into the cream. 

Right Temperature for Churning. — The cream should 
be cooled to churning temperature at least one hour 
before churning, to harden the fat globules. The 
lower the temperature at which cream can be 
churned in forty to sixty minutes, the better will be 
the texture of the butter. The richer the cream up 
to a certain point, the lower the temperature at 
which it can be churned. The best results are ob- 
tained when the cream contains about 30 per cent 
of butter fat, when it can be churned at about 52° to 
54° in winter and 50° to 52° in summer. 

Cream that has been lowered below the desired 
churning temperature should be very carefully 
warmed by surrounding the cream vessel with water 
at a temperature not higher than (i5°, and then the 
cream should be constantly stirred. 

Butter makers must adopt low and uniform ripen- 
ing and churning temperatures to obtain a firm, 
uniform quality of butter. 

The Value of Breeds. 

The Experiment Station at Geneva, N. Y., has 
been conducting some tests with four of the leading 
breeds and reports the following results which may 
be taken as another volley in the battle of the dairy 

The process adopted was to establish, as fairly as 
could be done, the prices for the milk per hundred 
weight, for the milk solids for cheese making per 
pound, and for butter fat per pound; these figures 
were placed at $1.28 per hundred weight for milk, 
9J cents per pound for milk solids, and 26 A cents for 
butter fat. On this basis Ayrshire milk was worth 
as such, during the year, $87.24 per cow; its solids 
for cheese making were worth $81.14; and its 
butter fat for butter making was worth but $64.47. 
The Ayershire, according to this showing, would be 
j worth more to the milkman than to the cheese 
maker, and more to the cheese maker than to the 
butter maker. The milk of the Guernsey was worth 
$68.98, the milk solids were valued at $75.04 for 
cheese making, and $75.18 for butter making. Here, 
the Guernsey is shown to be more valuable to either 
the butter *or cheese maker than to the milkman. 
The milk of the Holsteein proved to be worth (101.38 
when sold as milk, $87.41 in the hands of the cheese 
maker, and $70.07 in the hands of the butter maker. 
The Holstein is, therefore, a better milkman's cow 
than a cheese maker's and a better cheese maker's 
cow than she is a butter makers's cow. The milk 
of the Jersey at the price assumed was worth $04 58; 
the solids were worth to the cheesemaker $72.37, 
and its butter fat was valued at $74.30. The Jersey 
is, therefore, just the reverse of the Holstein-Frie- 
sian. She is at her best in the butter maker, and 
the next most profitable use for her milk is cheese 
making; it is least profitable to the milkman. The 
Shorthorn gave milk worth $72 50, the solids in the 
hands of the cheese maker were worth $80 85; the fat 
in the hands of the butter maker was worth $5003. 
The figures prove the milk of the Shorthorn the 
most profitable for manufacture into the cheese, the 
sale of milk standing second in point of profit, and 
the butter value coming last. 

Some Figures on Cheese. 

In a recent report Major H. E. Alvord, of the 
United States Diary Division, says: 

Nine-tenths of the cheese produced in this country 
is made in the States of New York, Wisconsin, 
Ohio, Illinois, Vermont, Iowa, Pennsylvania and 
Michigan, ranking in the order named. The New 
York product alone is almost one-half the total, and 
this State and Wisconsin together make over two- 
thirds of all made. 

It requires the milk of about one million cows to 
make the cheese annually pressed in the United 

The value of the annual cheese product of this 
country varies from $20,000,000 to $25,000,000. 

About 0,000,000 pounds of cheese are imported 
annually into the United States. 

The rate of consumption of cheese in America is 
about three pounds per capita per annum. 

Consumption of cheese is apparently somewhat de- 

Good cheese is approximately composed of one- 
third water, one -third milk fat, and one-third 
casein, with some sugar and ash. 

Separator Ice Cream. 

There can no longer be any question, says Hoard's 
Dairyman, but that separator cream, properly han- 
dled, is well adapted for all purposes, including the 
making of icecream. The difficulties sometimes en- 
countered, where the cream churns to butter before 
freezing, seem to result from too much haste in 
starting the freezer before the mixture is sufficiently 
cooled down. 


Anthrax or Charbon. 

The announcement of this deadly disease from the 
Gilroy region of Santa Clara county should cause all 
stock men to the utmost vigilance in its detection 
and vigorous measures to stamp it out on its first 
appearence. This disease has a world-wide record 
for virulence. It has been variously called charbon, 
anthrax, splenic fever, splenic apoplexy, etc., ac- 
cording to the seat of the disease, the kind of animal 
attacked, and the fancy of the person making the 
diagnosis. However, these and several others are 
all names for the same disease. The mortality of 
charbon is simply terrific — its victims being num- 
bered by multiplied thousands in all infected districts 
in which it has gained a foothold, and where active 
preventative measures have not been taken. 

Attack* All Animals. — It is also a prototype of an 
almost equally dreaded disease in man, and this adds 
not a little to the horror of its appearance in the 
brute creation. Its especial delight seems to be the 
most valuable stock, such as horses, mules and cat- 
tle, although sheep and goats fall an easy prey to its 
rapacity, and others of lesser value are not exempt. 

Symptom*. — The symptoms are variable, and in 
very acute cases the animal may die suddenly with- 
out any warning symptoms, as if stricken with cere- 
bral apoplexy. In a much larger number of cases, 
however, there will be fever, chills, loss of appetite, 
muscular weaknes, tremor, spasm, difficult breath- 
ing, venous congestion, hemmorrhages and — death. 

Timet <</ 0<n/ /•/•</», v. — Charbon is found in all coun- 
tries of the world, and has been known for many cen- 

Many serious epidemics of it have occurred in the 
United States. These outbreaks usually occur dur- 
ing the spring of the year when those two germ- 
breeding factors, warmth and moisture, combine to 
exert their greatest influence. This followed by a 
season of dryness, the most favorable condition for 
the dissemination of germs — hence the rapid and 
continued spread of the disease during the summer 

It must be apparent to the most casual observer 
that in the matter of contagion, infection and mor- 
tality no other malady which attacks this branch of 
the animal kingdom can compare with this. Indeed, 
its power of destruction is so far-reaching, and the 
consequent pecuniary loss is so great, that the dam- 
age extends far beyond the owners of dying stock 
and smites with a heavy hand every industrial link- 
in the great chain of commerce, including the wage- 
earner, the merchant, the broker, the mortgagee 
and the banker. Quarantine against the plague is of 
no avail whatever, its devastating vemon leaping 
over space with the alacrity of Asiatic cholera. 

Pasteur's Gmit Dixeorerg. — In 1882, Louis Pasteur, 
the great French scientist, discovered a "vaccine" 
which, if injected into a healthy animal, will prevent 
anthrax or charbon as surely as the well-known vac- 
cine virus prevents small-pox in the human subject. 

Just why this remedy should have been so long in 
reaching the United States it would be difficult to 
say, for in France, Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy, 
Belgium, Spain, Russia, Great Britain, Australia 
and other countries it has been used with universal 
satisfaction for several years. Want of space forbids 
the giving of statistics for all these countries, but it 
may be mentioned that in France alone more than 
four millions of animals have been vaccinated with 
the Pasteur lymph, with an average mortality of less 
than one-half of one per cent. 

Vaccinations in this Country. — Pasteur's anthrax 
vaccine has been used in a few States, notably in 
New York, New Jersey, Illinois and Missouri, and, 
as I understand, with unfailing success. This was 
especially the case in New Jersey, where ninety-four 
herds were infected in a single county — 302 non vac- 
cinated animals died, while out of a total of 1600 
vaccinations only eight succumbed, and four of this 
number are knowu to have been infected before vac- 
cination. The statistics above quoted are from the 
official report of the State Board of Agriculture of 
New Jersey for 1895, and are but a repetition of those 
from all quarters of the globe where prompt and 
persistent vaccination has been practised. It must 
not be forgotten that vaccination is not a cure for 
anthrax — no cure for it has yet been discovered — but 
its action is purely that of a preventative, and there- 
fore it must be employed before the attack, when its 
efficacy may be relied on with the utmost confidence. 
The operation is one of great simplicity ; it is wholly 
unattended with danger, and its expense is almost 
nothing, as compared with the value of the animal. 

Every sound horse, mule and sheep, and every 
herd of cattle within the range of the affected dis- 
trict should be vaccinated at once, to insure against 
further spread of the prevent eruption, as well as to 
provide against future attacks. Animals already 
hopelessly sick should be killed and burned ; even 
burial of the carcasses does not insure against future 
infection, as the germs will live in the soil and main- 
tain their virulence for many years. By systematic 
and persistent vaccination of healthy stock, anthrax 
might eventually be eradicated. 

July 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


The 35=Hile Electrical Power 
Transmission at Fresno, Cal. 

Fresno, the commercial center of the 
San Joaquin valley, this State, was re- 
cently the scene of the completion of a 
great work, having for result the elec- 
trical transmission commercially over 


the longest distance yet attempted of 
power generated by an artificial fall of 
water unique in its creation and height. 

Not until the successful solution of 
the problem of long distance power 
transmission had been reached did the 
utilization of the San Joaquin river be- 
come possible. The San Joaquin Elec- 
tric Co. adopted the General Electric 
Company's project and three-phase 
S3 stem of transmission, by which power 
had already been successfully trans- 
mitted from Folsom to Sacramento, a 
distance of twenty-four miles. The 
work is now practically complete. 

The Hydraulic Plant. — The source of 
the water power is the North Fork of 
the San Joaquin, which at the point of 
diversion runs through a narrow can- 
yon with solid rock walls. The mini- 
mum low water flow of the stream at 
this point is 50 cubic feet per second, 
which at the head used will develop 
over 7000 horse power at the water 

From the point of diversion a flume 

They run along a right of way cleared 
of all obstructions for a width of 150 
feet. The grade is 5.28 feet to the 
mile, and the lower bank forms a road- 
way for the inspection wagons. As 
usual in California valleys, the entire 
system of headworks and canal is un- 
affected by frost. 

At the end of the canal is a natural 
basin several acres in extent sur- 


centers and bronze buckets, and are 
fitted with fly wheels 5 feet in diam- 

The 11,200 volt circuit, consisting of 
six bare copper wires, leaves the 
power house at the upper end, runs up 
the stream a few hundred feet, crosses 
the San Joaquin river with a span of 
275 feet wide, and is then led up the 
mountain for a distance of about 2000 




has been built and a canal excavated 
and carried along the slopes of a 
hill for a distance of seven miles. 

rounded for about three-quarters of its 
distance by a dyke of rock, which, for 
an expenditure of less than $3000, has 
been continued in an embankment for 
the remaining distance and a reservoir 
for storage water formed which at a 
maximum depth of only ten feet will be 
sufficient to operate the plant at full 
load for several days consecutively. 
This provision will allow of the ditch 
and flume being shut off in case of re- 
pair or changes. 
The reservoir is located at the top of 
a high hill, the river being some 
1600 feet below. From the 
pressure box in the reservoir 
the pipe line, 4100 feet long, is 
brought down the mountain 
side, and in this distance the 
difference in level between the 
water in the canal and the 
water in the river below is 
over 1400 feet. For the first 
400 feet the pipe is steel riv- 
eted ; the balance is lap welded 
pipe, with lock joints, and at 
the lower end is I of an inch 
thick by 22 inches in diameter. 

At the power house the pipe 
enters a receiver 57 feet long 
by 30 inches in diameter, of 
f-inch steel, with joints of the 
butt strap type. This receiver 
is designed to stand a working 
pressure of 800 pounds to the 
square inch. 

The power house at the bot- 
tom of the hill is built of native 
granite, with a wooden roof. It 
is 75 feet long by 30 feet wide 
and is built on a solid bed rock. 
The receiver and water wheels 
are outside the main power 
house, the shafts passing 
through a heavy granite wall, 
which effectually keeps all wa- 
ter and moisture out of the dy- 
namo room. 

The water wheels are of Pel- 
ton make, 57 inches in diameter, 
each capable of developing 500 
H. P. at 600 revolutions per 
minute under an effective head 
of 1400 feet, the highest head ever used 
for power transmission purposes. The 
wheels are constructed with steel plate 


feet. The line continues for about ten 
miles through a rolling, hilly country, 
easy of access and at all times below 
the snow line ; the rest of the line runs 
over a flat country and near Fresno 
passes through wheat fields and vine- 
yards and follows a special right of 
way and wagon road for the entire 
distance. The total length of the 
transmission line from the power 
house to the sub-station is little short 
of thirty-five miles, and is thus the 
longest commercial electric power 
transmission in the world. 

The poles are square redwood, 35 feet 
long, set 6 feet into the ground and fit- 
ted with three heavy cross arms and 
"one small cross arm for telephone 

As a model of construction the 
Fresno transmission line can compare 
favorably with any pole line work done 
in the country. 

The sub-station at Fresno is almost 
in the center of the business portion of 
the city, and is a brick structure 55 
feet by 45 feet. 

The system of distribution from the 
sub-station is divided up i lto three 
networks. The first, a 200-volt, four- 
wire, low-tension network, which cov- 
ers the business portion of the town 
and having an initial capacity of 6000 
16 C. P. incandescent lamps ; the sec- 
ond, a 1000-volt, three-phase system, 
covering the residence districts of the 
town and having an initial capacity of 
4000 16 C. P. incandescent lamps ; the 
third, a 3000-volt, three-phase circuit, 
designed to furnish current to the 
numerous vineyards and wineries with- 
in a radius of ten miies from the sub- 
station, for both lighting and power 
purposes. Motors will also be fur- 
nished with current from both the 200 
volt and 1000 volt systems. 

The policy of the operating company 
is of a broad guage character, the end 
in view being the stimulation of the 
use of electric power. To effect this 
end prices are made which compare 
favorably with that charged for power 
where steam coal is used. 

Picture of a Tornado. 

A photograph of a tornado is here- 
with reproduced from the Engineering 
News. It was taken at Oklahoma City, 
Oklahoma Territory, 4 p. m., May 14th. 
The tornado was about six miles dis- 
tant when the photograph was taken, 
and a rough computation indicates a 
probable diameter of the funnel of 

about 1000 feet. The print should show 
the sky much darker than it does, but 
a tornado is not an easy subject to 
photograph, most people who have 
seen one finding other things to occupy 
their time than taking pictures of the 
threatening spiral. So far as known 
this is the first actual photograph of a 
tornado ever published, and it is be- 
lieved that only one other has ever 
been taken. This is referred to in 
Russell's "Meteorology" as having 
been secured at the Howard mines, 
South Dakota, on August 28th, 1884, 
the cloud then being twenty-two miles 
away. The accompanying picture as 
a work of art is a failure, but it may 
give our readers some idea of how one 
of those terrible visitants looks. 

A Minister's Wife. 

McCormick Harvesting Machines are built upon 
honor. They insure purchaser against extortion 
for repairs. 

The Frank Statement of the Pastor of Bethel 

From the Advertiser. Elmira, N. Y. 

Dk. Williams. — Dear Sir: — My wife has 
been a sufferer from rheumatism for more 
than three years, suffering at times with ter- 
I rible pains in her limbs, and other times with 
a severe "crick" in her back which causes 
great agony. She spent much for physicians 
and medicine, but secured only temporary re- 
lief; finally she concluded to try Pink Pills. 
She has taken eight boxes, and I can say from 
the first one she has improved until now she 
is almost entirely free from pain, and has 
grown much stronger and feels confident that, 
by the blessing of God, they will effect a per- 
manent cure. We take great pleasure in 
recommending them to our friends. 

(Signed.) Rev. J. H. Bdcknbk, 

Pastor Bethel A. M. E. Church, Elmira, New 

Dr. Williams' Piuk Pills contain, in a con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
l give new life and richness to the blood and 
I restore shattered nerves. They are an unfail- 
| ing specific for such diseases as locomotor 
I ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
I sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, nervous 
| headache, the after effect of la grippe, palpi- 
tation of the heart, pale and sallow com- 
plexions, all forms of weakness either in male 
or female. Pink Pills are sold by all dealers, 
or will be sent postpaid on receipt of price, 50 
cents a box, or six boxes for $2.50 (they are 
never sold in bulk or by the 100), by address- 
ing Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, Shenec- 
tady, N. Y. 


A foreman in a large prune orchard with nine 
years' California experience wishes a situation 
during the coming drying season. Is an expert 
on curing and packing the French Prune, either by 
pricking or dipping. The fruit in the orchard in 
which he is regularly employed has been destroyed 
by frost. Address A. B., care this office, 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 11, 1896. 


Did Not Vote as He Prayed. 

A partv idolater met 

A " temperance crank " by the way. 
To sound him the farmer inquired: 

" I suppose, sir, you vote as you pray t" 
" Indeed, my dear sir, I do not," 

The dauntless "fanatic" replied; 
" I pray with my eyes close shut, 

But I vote with them open wide." 

—Mildred Merle. 

The Poppy Land Limited Express. 

The first train leaves at 6 p. M. 

For the land where the poppy blows : 
The mother dear is the engineer, 

And the passenger laughs and crows. 

The palace car is the mother' s arms ; 

The whistle, a low, sweet strain; 
The passenger winks and nods and blinks, 

And goes to sleep in the train ! 

At 8 p. m. the next train starts 

For the Poppy Land afar. 
The summons clear falls on the ear,— 

"All aboard for the sleeping-car!" 

But what is the fare to Poppy Land ! 

I hope it is not too dear. 
The fare is this, a hug and a kiss. 

And it is paid to the engineer ! 

So I ask of Him who children took 

On his knee in kindness great, 
"Take charge, I pray, of the trains each day 

That leave at six and eight. 

"Keep watch of the passengers, thus I pray, 

" For to me they are very dear, 
And special ward, O gracious Lord, 

O'er the gentle engineer." 

—Edgar Wade Abbot. 

The Yaller Baby. 

I hev alius bed a good opinion uv the 
wimmin folks. I don't look at em as 
some people do ; uv course, they're a 
necessity, just as men are. Uv course, 
if there warn't no wimmin folks there 
wouldn't be no men folks — leastwise 
that's what the medikil books say. 
But I never was much on discussin' 
humin economy. What I hev alius 
thought 'nd said wuz that wimmin 
folks wuz a kind of luxury, 'nd the best 
kind, too. Maybe it's because I hain't 
hed much to do with 'em that I'm sot 
on 'em. Never did get real well ac- 
quainted with more'n three or four uv 
'em in all my life. Seemed like it wuz 
meant that I shouldn't hev 'em round 
me as most men hev. Mother died 
when I wuz a little tike, 'nd A'nt Mary 
raised me till I wuz big enuff to make 
my own livin'. Down here in the South- 
west, you see, most uv the girls is 
boys. There ain't none uv them sivil- 
izin' influences folks talk uv — nothin' 
but flowers 'nd birds 'nd such things 
as poetry tells about. So I kind uv 
growed up with the curis notion 
that wimmin folks wuz too good for our 
part uv the country, 'nd I hevn't quite 
got that notion out'n my head yet. 

One time — waal, I reckon 'twuz 
about four years ago — I got a letter 
from ole Colonel Sibley to come up to 
Saint Louey 'nd consult with him 'bout 
some stock int'rests we hed together. 
Railroad travelin' wuz no new thing to 
me. I hed been pretty p'osperous — 
hed got past hevin' to ride in a cab- 
boose 'nd git out at every stop to 
punch up the steers ; hed money in the 
Hoost'n bank 'nd use to go to Tchi- 
cargo oncet a year. Hed met Fill 
Armer 'nd shook hands with him, 'nd 
oncet the city papers hed a colume 
article about my bein' a millionaire. 
Uv course, 'twarn't so, but a feller 
kind uv likes that sort uv thing, you 

The mornin' after I got that letter 
from Colonel Sibley I started for Saint 
Louey. I took a bunk in the Pullman 
car, like I hed been doin' for six years 
past, 'nd I reckon the other folks must 
hev thought I wuz a heap uv a man, 
for every haff hour I give the nigger 
haf a dollar to bresh me off. The car 
wuz full uv people — rich people, too, I 
reckon, for they wore good clo'es and 
criticized the scenery. Jest across 
from me there wuz a lady with a big, 
fat baby — the pruttiest woman I hed 
seen in a month uv Sundays ; 'nd the 
baby! why, doggone my skin, when I 
wuzn't payin' money to the nigger, 
darned if I didn't set there watchin' 

the big, fat little cuss, like he wuz the 
only baby I ever seen. I ain't much uv 
a hand at babies, 'cause I hain't seen 
very many uv 'em, 'nd when it comes 
to handlin' em, why, that would break 
me all up, 'nd like 's not 'twould break 
the baby all up, too. But it has alius 
been my 'notion that nex' to the wim- 
min folks babies wuz jest about the 
nicest things on earth. So the more I 
looked at that big, fat little baby set- 
tin' in its mother's lap 'cross the way, 
the more I wanted to look. Seemed 
like I wuz hoodooed by the little tike, 
nd the first thing I knew there wuz 
water in my eyes. Don't know why it 
is, but it alius makes me kind uv slop 
over to set 'nd watch a baby cooin' in 
its mother's lap. 

" Look a-hyar, Sam,'' says I to the 
nigger, "come hyar 'nd brush me oft' 
ag in ! Why ain't you 'tendiu' to biz- 
niss ? " 

But it didn't do no good tall. Per- 
tendin' to be cross with the nigger 
might fool the other folks in the car, 
but it didn't fool me. I wuz dead stuck 
on that baby, gol darn his pictur ! 
And there the little tike set on its 
mother's lap, doublin' up its fists 'nd 
tryin' to swaller 'em, 'nd talkin' like to 
its mother in a lingo I couldn't under- 
stand but which I liked to hear ; 'nd 
she kissed the baby 'nd stroked its hair 
'nd petted it like wimmin do. 

It made me mad to hear them other 
folks in the car criticizin' the scenery 
'nd things. A man's in mighty poor 
bizniss, anyhow, to be lookin' at scen- 
ery when there's a woman in sight — a 
woman nd a baby ! 

Pretty soon — oh, maybe an hour or 
two — the baby began to fret and 
worrit. Seemed to me like the little 
critter was hungry. Knowin' that 
there wasn't no eatin' house this side 
uv Bowieville, I jest called the train 
boy, 'nd says I to him, " Hev you got 
any victuals that will do for a baby ? " 

"How is oranges 'nd bananas?'' 
sez he. 

"That ought to do," sez I. "Jest 
do up a dozen uv your best oranges nd 
a dozen uv your best bananas, nd take 
'em over to that baby, with my com- 

But before he could do it the lady 
hed laid the baby on one uv her arms, 
'nd hed spread a shawl over its head 
'nd over her shoulder, 'nd all uv a sud- 
din the baby quit worrin', 'nd seemed 
like he hed gone to sleep. 

When we got to York Crossin' I 
looked out'n the winder nd seen some 
men carryin' a long pine box up toward 
the baggage car. Seein' their hats off 
I knew there wuz a dead body in the 
box, nd I couldn't help feelin' sorry for 
the poor creetur that hed died in that 
lonely place uv York Crossin'; but I 
mought hev felt a heap sorrier forthe 
creeturs that hed to live there, for I'll 
allow that York Crossin' is a leetle the 
durnedest lonesomest place T ever seen. 

Waal, jest afore the train started 
ag in who should come into the car but 
Bill Woodson, 'nd he wuz lookin' pow- 
erful tough. Bill herded cattle for me 
three winters, but hed moved away 
when he married one uv the waiter 
girls at Spooner's hotel at Hoost'n. 

"Hello, Bill!" says I. "What air 
you totin' so kin' uv keerful like in your 
arms there ?" 

" Why, I've got the baby," says he ; 
'nd as he said it the tears come up into 
his eyes. 

" Your own baby, Bill ? " says I. 

" Yes," says he. " Nellie took sick 
uv the janders a fortnight ago, 'nd — 
'nd she died, 'nd I'm takin' her body 
up to Texarkany to bury. She lived 
there, you know, 'nd I'm goin' to leave 
the baby there with its gran'ma." 

Poor Bill ! It wuz his wife that the 
men were carryin' in that pine box to 
the baggage car. 

" Likely lookin' baby, Bill," says I, 
cheerful like. " Perfect pictur uv its 
mother. Kind uv favors you 'round 
the lower part uv the face, though." 

I said this to make Bill feel happier. 
If I'd told the truth I'd 've said the 
baby wuz a sickly, yaller-lookin' little 
thing, for so it wuz ; looked haf starved, 
too. Couldn't help comparin' it with 
that big, fat baby in its mother's arms 
over the way. 

"Bill," says I, "here's a ten-dollar 

note for the baby, an God bless you ! " 

"Thank ye, Mr. Goodhue," says he, 
'nd he choked all up as he moved off 
with that yaller little baby in his arms. 
It warn't very fur up the road he wuz 
goin', 'nd he found a seat in one of the 
front cars. 

But along about an hour after that 
back come Bill, moseyin' through the 
car like he wuz huntin' for somebody. 
Seemed like he wuz in trouble nd wuz 
huntin' for a friend. 

" Anything I kin do for you, Bill ? " 
says I, but he didn't make no answer. 
All uv a suddint he sot his eyes on the 
prutty lady that hed the fat baby sleep- 
in' in her arms, 'nd he made a break 
for her like he wuz crazy. He took off 
his hat nd bent down over her, 'nd 
said somethin' none uv the rest uv us 
could hear. The lady kind uv started 
like she wuz frightened, 'nd then she 
looked up at Bill 'nd looked him right 
square in the countenance. She saw a 
tall, ganglin', awkward man, with long, 
yaller hair 'nd frowzy beard, 'nd she 
saw that he wuz tremblin', 'nd hed 
tears in his eyes. She looked down at 
the fat baby in her arms, nd then she 
looked out'n the winder at the great 
stretch uv prairie land, 'nd seemed 
like she wuz lookin' off further'n the 
rest uv us could see. Then, at last, 
she turned round 'nd said " Yes " to 
Bill, 'nd Bill went off into the front 
car ag'in. 

None uv the rest uv us knew what 
all this meant, but in a minnit Bill 
come back with his little yaller baby in 
his arms, 'nd you never beerd a baby 
squall nd carry on like that baby wuz 
squallin' 'nd carryin' on. Fact is, the 
little yaller baby wuz hungry — huugrier 
than a wolf — 'nd there wuz its mother 
dead in the car up ahead 'nd its gran'- 
ma a good piece up the road. What 
did the lady over the way do but lay 
her own sleepin' baby down on the seat 
beside her 'nd take up Bill's little yal- 
ler baby 'nd hold it on her arm 'nd 
cover up its head 'nd her shoulder with 
a shawl, jest like she hed done with 
the fat baby not long afore. Bill never 
looked at her ; he took off his hat 'nd 
held it in his hand, 'nd turned 'round 
'nd stood guard over that mother, 'nd 
I reckon that ef any man hed darst to 
look that way jest then Bill would've 
cut his heart out. 

The little yaller baby didn't cry very 
long. Seemed like it knowed there 
wuz a mother holdin' it — not its own 
mother, but a woman whose life hed 
been hallowed by God's blessin' with 
the love 'nd the purity 'nd the sanctity 
uv motherhood. 

Why, I wouldn't hev swapped that 
sight uv Bill 'nd them two babies 'nd 
that sweet woman for all the cattle in 
Texas ! It jest made me know that 
what I'd alius thought uv wimmin wuz 
gospel truth. God bless that lady, I 
say, wherever she is to-day, 'nd God 
bless all wimmin folks, for they're all 
alike in their unselfishness 'nd gentle- 
ness 'nd love ! 

Bill said, " God bless ye ! " too, when 
she handed him back his poor little 
yaller baby. The leetle creeter wuz 
fas' asleep, nd Bill darsn't speak very 
loud for fear he'd wake it up. But his 
heart wuz way up" in his mouth when 
he says "God bless ye ! " to that dear 
lady, 'nd then he added, like he wanted 
to let her know that he meant to pay 
her back when he could, " I'll do the 
same for you some time, if 1 kin." — 
Eugene Field. 

Gems of Thought. 

Miss Gotham (wishing to astound 
her Aunt Cynthia, from Hayseed Cor- 
ners) — What do you think of ray new 
gown, aunt ? It was made in Paris. 

Aunt Cynthia (severely) — Lan's sake, 
niece! I allers did hear thet your 
father was purty close-fisted, but I 
didn't think he'd go so far as to send 
to Europe an' have your dresses made 
by thet cheap foreign pauper labor. 

Taper — I should like two weeks' ab- 
sence to attend the wedding of a very 
dear friend. 

Mr. Gingham — It must be a very 
dear friend, indeed, to make you want 
that much time. Who is it ? 

Taper — Well, sir, after the ceremony 
she will be my wife. 

Hope uever hurt any one, never yet 
interfered with duty ; nay, always 
strengthens to the performance of 
duty, gives moral courage, and clears 
the judgment.— Macdonald. 

Our true opportunities come but 
once. They are sufficient, but not re- 
dundant. We have time enough for 
the longest duty, but not for the short- 
est sin. — James Martineau. 

Life is a trial of faith, a discipline of 
love, a schooling of service. It is man- 
ifestly ordered so as to secure the larg- 
est and best results in character. This 
view of life can be got, however, only 
from the divine point of view. — Philip 

The right human bond is that which 
unites soul with soul ; and only they 
are truly akin who consciously live in 
the same world, who think, believe, and 
love alike, who hope for the same 
things, aspire to the same ends.— 
Bishop Spaulding. 

Out of hearts ploughed by contrition 
spring flowers fairer than ever grew 
on the hard ground of unbroken self- 
content. There bloom in them sympathy 
and charity for other erring mortals 
and patience under suffering. — Sacred 
Heart Review. 

In the moral world there is nothing 
impossible if we bring a thorough will 
to it. Man can do everything with 
himself, but he must not attempt to do 
too much with others. — William von 

To get up every morning with the 
firm resolve to find pleasure in duties, 
and do them well, and finish the work 
which God has given us to do, that is 
to drink Christ's cup. The humblest 
occupation has in it materials of disci- 
pline for the highest heaven. — F. W. 

No Calf There. 

The boy was starting out in the 
world to make a living, and probably a 
name for himself. His father had given 
him some money and a great deal of 
advice. He had a situation in pros- 
pect, and as he had never taken kindly 
to farm work, it looked like a good 
opportunity for him. 

" Thur's one thing I wanter say ter 
ye," the old man said as he handed the 
youngster his luggage out of the spring 
wagon at the station, "an' I want yer 
to understan' that I say it in all kind- 
ness. Ye're goin' away from home 
with purty good prospects." 

" Yes dad.'' 

" An' at the same time ye're goin 
ter move inter the neighborhood o' the 
wicked whur yer foot's liable ter slip 
any minute." 

"Yes, dad." 

" Wal, what I wanter say is jes' this. 
Home's going ter stay right here whur 
ye can alius turn to it. But times hez 
been mighty hard latety an' this farm 
never wan't no great shakes nohow." 

" I know it dad." 

" So ye might ez well understan' thet 
ef ye come back 'cause ye wanter see 
the folks ag'in, ye'U git yer wish, but 
ef ye come back lookin' fur fatted calf 
ye're powerful likely ter get disap- 

lighest Honors — World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 



• Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard 

July 11, 1896. 


Fads and Fashions. 

Plaids are growing more and more 
popular, and are found in silks, wools 
and wash goods. 

In wash goods the grass linens are 
extremely popular. Dimities are found 
in many new and pleasing designs. 

Black and white and brown and 
white checks in wash silks are very 
pretty, serviceable and inexpensive for 
summer waists. 

A very stylish plaid waist whose 
prevailing colors are a rich deep red 
and black is trimmed with black velvet 
and has a Spanish girdle of the velvet. 

Many pretty effects are seen in the 
wash silks, which are lower priced than 
ever. These are principally in small 
checks and stripes and come in all 

Ginghams are no longer in vogue, 
but there are many new wash goods 
with an open-work, lacy effect which 
will be made up over a plain color, and 
the effect is most pleasing. 

The most popular sleeves are made 
very full, with a soft, drooping effect. 
They are gathered in at the elbow and 
fall carelessly to the wrist. The large, 
stiff, balloon sleeves are dead. 

Many of the plaid effects are made in 
a loose blouse style, and have a double 
box plait in the center of the back and 
front. The sleeves are large leg of 
mutton. Chiffon is much used for 
evening waists, and made up over a 
plain silk. 

Ribbons are the trimming of waists 
and gowns the coming season. Plaids 
in black and white and all colors are 
much liked. The Dresden ribbons are 
exquisite, also the gauzy effects which 
are to be much used as a garniture for 
summer costumes. 

The black silk wrap grenadines are 
very stylish for waists or whole cos- 
tumes. One piece, particularly notice- 
able, has graceful violets and their 
leaves dotting its surface, and it is 
made up over a violet silk lining. The 
trimming is of violet taffeta ribbon. 
Another grenadine has yellow blossoms 
scattered over it, and is made up over 

Mental Geography. 

The most populous country in Obliv- 
ion. Many go there; but few return. 

The largest river is Time. 

The deepest ocean is Death. 

The region where no living thing 
hath habitation is called Yesterday. 

The most highly civilized country is 

The highest mountain is called Suc- 
cess. Few reach the top save those 
who watch sharply for the passing of 
the spirit of the mountain, Opportu- 
nity, who carries upward all those that 
seize hold upon him. 

The region where no man hath ever 
set foot is called To-morrow. 

The greatest desert is called Life, 
and it hath many oases. These are 
called Hope, and Ambition, and Love, 
and Charity, and Home. And of them 
all the last is the most beautiful. Be- 
sides these are many others, smaller in 
extent, whence the traveler obtaineth 
refreshment during the weary journey 
through Life. 


Have the courage to tell a man why 
you will not lend him your money. 

Have the courage to wear your old 
garments till you can pay for new | 

Have the courage to pass the bottle 
without filling your glass. 

Have the courage to speak your 
mind when it is necessary that you 
should do so, and to hold your tongue 
when it is better that you should be 

Have the courage to pay a debt 
while you have the money in your 

Have the courage to provide an en- 
tertainment for your friends within 
your means, not beyond them. 

Have the courage to own that you 
are poor, if you are so. 

Popular Science. 

. The greatest length of England and 
Scotland, north to south, is about 608 

Exposure to sunlight is one of the 
best disinfectants for clothing known. 
The light passing through glass will 
not do it. 

The mountains of the moon are im- 
mensely larger in proportion than 
those of the earth. The moon is but 
one forty-ninth the size of the earth, 
but its mountain peaks are nearly as 
high. Twenty-two are higher than Mt. 
Blanc, which is within a few feet of 
three miles high. The highest is a 
little more than four miles and a half. 

It is well known that female birds 
are everywhere (as a general rule) of a 
dingy and inconspicuous hue contrasted 
with the brilliant colored ornamenta- 
tion of their mates. The reason seems 
to be pretty clear. The female bird is 
forced by its maternal solicitude to 
spend a considerable portion of its 
time on the nest, engaged in the im- 
portant duties of rearing the young. 
It is practically helpless during this 
period, and were it conspicuous by its 
color and readily distinguished from 
the nest and its surroundings, would 
fall an easy prey to enemies. The best 
proof of this is that where the male sits 
on the nest, and attends to the nursery, 
it is he who is dingy of hue and incon- 
spicuous and the female who is brightly 
colored. Even the gorgeously tinted 
male wild duck turns a dingy, decayed 
reed color at one season of the year. 
But this is precisely the time when he 
needs protection, namely, when unable 
to fly on account of casting his pinion 

Curious Facts. 


Oculist (presenting bill) — I think 
your sight has been improved. 

Patient (looking at the bill) — I could 
have seen a thing as big as that before 
I ever saw you. 

Salesman: "Do you want to have 
your goods sent by any particular ex- 
press ? " Customer: " Certainly, if you 
can find a particular express. I can't." 
— Roxburg Gazette. 

Lucy: " Mamma, may I go over 
there to the bridge ? " Mamma, " Why 
do you want to go over there, my 
dear?" Lucy: " Oh, I just want to 
gargle my feet in the brook." — Truth. 

A man was advertised to fly from a 
certain place; and some one asked Dr. 
Byles, the old Boston divine, if he were 
going to see the attempt made. " Pooh, 
no !" said he. " I have seen a horse 
fly." — Exchange. 


Hints to Housekeepers. 

The juice of a pineapple cuts the 
membrane from the throat of a diph- 
theria patient when nothing else will. 

School directors in the district of 
Duverne, Iowa, have ordered a cyclone 
cave dug at each of the school houses 
in the district. 

No parental care ever falls to the lot 
of a single member of the insect tribe. 
In general, the eggs of an insect are 
destined to be hatched long after the 
parents are dead. 

The elephant is commonly supposed 
to be a slow, clumsy fellow, but when 
excited or frightened can attain a 
speed of twenty miles an hour, and can 
keep it up for a half a day. 

People who are susceptible to the 
cold should make a point of wearing 
loose clothing in cold weather. Loose 
garments are always warmer than 
tight-fitting ones, not only because 
they allow room for circulation, but 
also because they permit a layer of air 
between the skin and the outside cold. 

The Chinese send three invitations 
to the guests that they desire to see at 
their great feast. The first is dis- 
patched two days before the feast, the 
second on the day itself, in order to 
remind those they have invited of their 
engagement, and the third just before 
the hour has arrived, so as to show 
how impatient they are to see their 
friends arrive. 

White spots upon varnished furni- 
ture will disappear if a hot plate be 
held over them. 

A hot bath taken on going to bed, 
even on a hot night in summer, is a 
better cure for insomnia than many 

A heavy flatiron, weighing seven or 
eight pounds, will do better work if it 
is passed over the clothes once with a 
firm, steady pressure than a lighter 
iron hurriedly passed over the clothes 
two or three times. 

When freckled or sunburnt, elder 
flower tea is not only soothing and re- 
freshing, but it seems to exercise also a 
beneficial effect on the skin. A good 
preparation of glycerine and cucumber 
will be found a real comfort. 

The really best method of cleaning 
mirrors and windows is to rub them" 
with a paste of whiting and water. 
When this dries, polish with dry 
chamois and remove the powder. A 
little alcohol in cold water also gives a 
brilliant polish. Soapsuds should never 
be used. 

Bring children up to sleep in the 
dark, as it is much better for their 
eyes, the complete darkness being an 
entire rest. Dark green or blue cur- 
tains are the best for bedrooms, and 
they should be drawn across the win- 
dow to prevent the glare of morning 
light falling too strongly upon the eyes. 
Never place a child's bed opposite a 
window, as the bright light falling up- 
on the face in sleep is exceedingly bad 
for the sight. 

Some pretty new pin cushions are 
the size of an orange, filled with bran 
or cork and covered with a thin silk or 
satine. The outside covering is of al- 
ternate rows of white silk braid, the 
width of dress braid, used with a col- 
ored silk braid. White is used with 
■green, or pink, or gold color; or pink 
and olive, or two other colors, are used 
together. The braids are in lengthwise 
stripes, and where the colors join are 
covered with a row of brier stitching 
in embroidery silk. 


Domestic Hints. 

Chocolate Pudding.— Scald together 
one quart of milk and three ounces of 
grated chocolate, and set aside to cool. 
Then add nearly a cup of sugar and 
yolks of five eggs. Bake, and when 
done spread whites on top and brown. 

Stuffed Eggs. — Take hard-boiled 
eggs ; shell them and cut in half ; take 
out the yolks and mix with bread 
crumbs soaked in milk, adding chopped 
and minced sardines, a little oil, vine- 
gar, pepper and salt ; fill the whites 
with the mixture. 

Baked Rhubarb. — Strip the thin 
skin from the young, tender stalks, 
and cut in half-inch lengths. Pour 
boiling water over them and cover for 
five minutes. Drain off the water, add 
a cupful of sugar to a pint of rhubarb, 
put in an earthen or graniteware dish 
and bake slowly. It should have the 
consistency of thin jelly and show a 
pinkish green color. 

Vegetable Soup. — Cut two lettuces, 
two turnips, carrots, onions, a young 
cucumber and a globe artichoke into 
neat slices, put them into a saucepan 
with a little butter and allow them to 
take a nice color, add two quarts of 
stock, a bunch of herbs and salt and 
pepper. Simmer gently for an hour or 
longer, add two spoonfuls of brandy 
and a squeeze of lemon juice, and serve 
very hot. 

Cup Cake. — Cream well together one 
cupful of butter and two cupfuls of 
sugar. Add the beaten yolks of four 
eggs, one-quarter of a teaspoonful of 
salt, the grated rind and juice of one 
lemon. Stir in alternately three cup- 
fuls of flour and one cupful of milk. 
Beat well for five minutes, add the 
whipped whites of the eggs and two 
teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Beat 
for a moment and bake in a loaf in a 
moderate oven about forty-five minutes. 


The bargains we now offer in 
our closing sale are for you and 
your friends. That you will be 
pleased with them we have not 
a doubt. 


Ladies' combination or union 
suits — vests and pants in one 
piece — to size 40, at 

45c, 65c, 7 5c, 95c, 
$1.25, $l.f5, $2.25. 

A saving to you of 25 to 75 
per cent. 

Ladies' and Misses' sleeveless 
vests, to size 38, at IOC, 15CJ 
and to size 44, at 25c, 45c 

Long-sleeve and high-neck 
Jersey ribbed vests — a full and 
complete line — at 

19c, 22c, 29c, 35c, 39c, 45c 

Pants to match all or nearly 
all of these at same price. 


With long or short sleeves, long 
or knee pants or drawers, such 
as others sell at 50c. to 60c, 
summer weight, closing at — 
1 to 3 years, 15c, 
4 to 7 years, 20C, 
8 1 to 12 years, 25c, 
12 to 1 6 years, 30C 


Pants or vests for ladies or big 
girls, finest quality made, used 
to bring $1.25 to $[.50 each gar- 
ment; we now close 

Sizes 28 and 30 at 55c., 
Sizes 32 and 34 at 65c, 
Sizes 36 to 40 at ?5c., 
Sizes 42 and 44 at 95c. 

If sizes are out we will fill with 
gray or white, same quality, same 
price, unless otherwise directed. 

Complete lines of children's 
wear from baby to big folks, 
girls or boys, also for ladies and 
misses, in great variety, at 

the big department store, 




414, 416, 418 Front St, S. F., Gal. 

P. S.— Send for Complete List, FREE. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 11, 1896. 

Best Patterns at a Low Price. 

The Rural Press has arranged with 
a leading New York pattern house to 
supply its readers with patterns in the 
latest fashion at prices very far below 
the ordinary retail cost. These pat- 
terns sell as high as 50 and 25 cents 
elsewhere. The Rural is enabled to 
furnish them to its leaders at 10 cents 
apiece, postpaid, for all sizes and de- 
signs. The patterns are handsomely 
put up in a separate envelope contain- 
ing illustrations and descriptions and 
mailed for 10 cents each to those who 
order them through this office. Ad- 
dress Pattern Department, Rural 
Press, 220 Market street, San Fran- 
cisco, giving number and size of pat- 
tern wanted. 

Popular fashion still includes the 
shirt waist. The design here given in- 
troduces the graceful effect of fullness 
at the shoulder. The pattern of this 
easily made shirt waist will be sent to 
readers of this paper for 10 cents. 

941 -Dunbar Blouse- Waist. 

Sizes for 34, 38, 38 and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 

A charmingly simple design, which 
admits of perfect ease and comfort ; 
and until something equally as conven- 
ient and comfortable is found the 
blouse-waist will remain universally 
popular. The blouse illustrated is of 
embroidered batiste, the back is full, 
but not drooping, and the fullness is 
held in place by a fitted lining of simple 
cut. The skirt piece at the back may 
be worn under or outside of the skirt. 
The collar and cuffs can be of linen or 
of the batiste, and the front of the 
blouse fastens invisibly under the front 
hem. Lawn, Chambery and dimity are 
the popular wash fabrics used for these 
blouses, also taffeta and wash silks. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

921-Norfolk Jacket. 
Sizes for 34, 36, 38 and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 
A popular and becoming design, con- 
sisting of the "Norfolk" jacket, 
"divided bicycle" skirt, and knicker- 
bockers and leggins, suitable for all 

outdoor excursions, and especially com- 
mended for use on the bicycle and 
in mountain climbing. The " Norfolk " 
jacket is the favorite garment, as its 
trim outlines are becoming to all, and 
has that trig, businesslike air which 
is suited to the exercise. Tweeds, 
cheviots, covert-cloths and mohair are 
the most popular fabrics chosen for 
these garments, finished with rows of 
machine stitching. 

923-Dlvided Bicycle Skirt. 

Sizes— Medium and Large. 

An excellent model for a divided 
skirt, with the fullness so adjusted both 
in the front and the back that the divi- 
sion is not at all apparent when the 
wearer is walking. It measures two 
and a half yards to each side, thus giv- 
ing ample fullness for perfect freedom 
in walking or riding. It is gathered 
sufficiently on the hips to give a grace- 
ful fit, and the plaits back and front 
are overlapped and tacked for a dis- 
tance below the waist line, allowing the 
plaited fullness below to fall perfectly 

1 - 1 . ; i< 1 \ ' s Knickerbockers and Levins. 

Size— Medium and Large. 

A practical design, suitable for bicy- 
cling, mountain climbing, the gymna- 
sium, and general outdoor exercise. 
They are fitted trimly at the top by a 
deep yoke, allowing ample fullness 
to fall below. Material match- 
ing the costume is generally employed 
for this model, but satin and silk are 
far more preferable, as they prevent 
the skirt from clinging. The model 
for the leggins buttons on the outside, 
and at the bottom is a strap that 
passes under the instep. Cloth and 
canvas are the popular materials, 
usually dark or of the same color as 
the costume. 

This outfit consists of three separate 
patterns, and special illustrations and 
full directions about each pattern will 
be found on the envelope in which it is 

The St. Louis Convention 

It seems to have been too one-sided to suit some 
people. It's just so with the Page fence — the com- 
bined opposition can't gel up excitement enough to 
make it interesling. When the best farmers, park 
men and railroads all unite on one fence, it's bound 
to win. 



— THE — 


Horse Medicine, 

D. D. T. 1868, 

Is Certainly the Best I'reparation of Its Kind 
in the Market. Handlers, stuck Kaiser* and 
Horse Owners of Every Description Will Tell 
You That It Does Good Work Every Time. 

Messrs. H. H. Moore & Sons, Stockton, Cal.— 
Gentlemen: In answer to your inquiry, would 
state that I used your H. H. H. Liuiaucnt on my 
Holland prize-winning cow, "Lena Menlo," for a 
wrenched shoulder, and it relieved her very much 
She calved the next day, and while suffering from 
the sprain gave the largest authenticated quan- 
tity of milk ever given on this coast (10H gallons 
per day), showing conclusively the great relief re- 
ceived from your remedy. I consider it a necessity 
in my stables, and when away from home feel per- 
fectly safe, as inexperienced men can do no harm 
with It as they can with the more powerful blis- 
ters. Respectfully yours, Frank H. Btrkk, 

Breeder of Registered Holsteins and Berkshire's. 

Menlo Park, Cal., January 22, 1889. 

Manufactured by 


Cor. Sutter St. and Miner Ave., 


1103-BrUtol House Dress. 

Sizes for 34, 36,38 and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 

This graceful and becoming room and 
morning gown is of heliotrope crepon, 
trimmed with Bruges lace and black 
velvet ribbons The pattern is in 
princess shape in the back, and the 
fullness of the front is held in place by 
a fitted lining. The broad collar is 
especially becoming, and the neck is 
finished with one of the popular stock 
collars. Any of the popular silk, woolen, 
or cotton fabrics may be chosen for this 
model, with any preferred style of 
trimming. By the omission of the large 
collar the model becomes one of the 
simplest designs for a house dress. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on the envelope in which it is enclosed. 


Is an excellent institution, beautifully located 
at Burlingame, San Mateo Coutity, California. 
Nowhere do boys receive more careful super- 
vision or more thorough training and instruc- 
tion. The school is accredited at both of our 
universities, and prepares boys equally well 
for business. The mention of the name of 
Ex-State Superintendent Ira G. Hoitt as its 
master is a guarantee that it is a tirst-class 
home school. 

Whitewashing: done for THKEE-Ol'AKTEKS 
OF A CKNT per Square Yard. 


400 yards of white- 
washing or 200 trees 
may be sprayed In one 
hour by Wain Wright's 
Whitewashing Ma- 
chine & Tree Sprayer. 
Machines at prices from 
II to »50. Whitewashing 
or Tree Sprayinp Nozzles 
Sent by mall at tl.Oueach. 
With this machine, rods 
and nozzles, buildings 26 
feet hlffh can be white- 
washed or trees sprayed 
without staging or lad- 
ders. All the lartre build- 
ings at the Midwinter 
Fair were whitewashed 
with lime and had the 
appearance of tine paint 
work. We also supply a 
full line of the Best and 
Cheapest Telephones, 
Transmitters, Wire, etc., 
for communication be- 
tween office, warehouse, 
dwelling, etc. Send for 
Catalogue. WM. WAIXWKIGHT, No. 7 Spear 



Width of tire, 6 in. ; height of bolster, :*) in. Car- 
ries any size platform or bed. Wheels turn under 
the load. Nothing equal to it for Farm, Orchard 
and Vineyard. Four sizes, one horse to six horses. 
Fully guaranteed. Write for Catalogue. Agents 
wanted. W. C. KA Kit;. General Ageut, 157 
New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

i n 

Asb est 


A Dry Powder requiring only the addition of 
Cold Water to be ready for instant use. 

For outside purposes it is designed to take the 
place of Oil faint, where Economy and Durabil- 
ity are both required, its covering capacity being 
fully 100 per cent greater. 

For painting Fences. Barns, Stables; also for 
whitening Walls and Ceilings in Factories, Ware- 
houses, Breweries, Cellars, etc , it's just the thing. 

Guaranteed not to scale off, nor change color 
with age. 

Cheaper and Whiter Than Whitewash. 

''Outside" furnished In white and colors. 

When ordering state if wanted for outside or in- 
side use. 

Write for complete information and prices. 
S3 Davis Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Tomatoes, Melons, Cabbage, 
Turnips, Lettuce, Peas, Beets, 
Onions, and all Vegetables, re- 
move large quantities of Potash 
from the soil. Supply 


in liberal quantities by the use 
of fertilizers containing not 
less than 10% actual Pot- 
ash. Better and more profit- 
able yields are sure to follow. 

Our pamphlets are not advertising circulars boom- 
ing special fertilizers, but are practical works, contain- 
ing latest researches on the subject of fertilization, and 
are really helpful to farmers. They are sent free for 
the asking. , 

93 Nassau St., New York. 

riEYER, WILSON & CO., San Francisco., Cal.. 
are our Agents for the Pacific Coast. 


PRICE Traction Engine — 80 Horse. 
HAY PRESS — 30 Ton Day Capacity, 

<> Bonn I'owcr. N»»|<| Low. 



BICYCLES, New ^ Second 

I. J. Truman & Co., 

Office. Mills Building. SAN FliANCISCO. 

Monarch *»* Junior Monarch 

Manufactured in San Leandro by L. C. Morehouse, 
under an assignment of patents from the 
patentee, Jacob Price. 


(Two Sizes.) 


- \\ LE LMDBO, CAL. 
WM. H. GRAY General Agent. 



for all the purposes 
for which wind 
mills are used 

is the COODHUE 

We also 
full line of 
grinding ml! 
wood saws, s 
lera, fodder and 
ensilage cutters, A 
Catalogue sent FR 

O W E R 
a Marrel. 
Adapted to all 
osea requiring a 
node rate power. 





Wagons^ ^ ^ 


1004 to 1006 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 
"California Fruits and How to Grow Them." 

Praclical, Explicit, Comprehensive. 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 220 Market St., S. F. 

July 1 1 , 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press 



Produce Market. 

San Francisco, July 8,1896. 

GRAIN STATISTICS.— Receipts of wheat 
from July 1, 1895, to July 1, 1890, were in 
centals 9,270,600; barley 3,009,048; corn, sacks, 
242,714; rye, centals, 100,715; oats, 575,968; 
flour, barrels, 5,452,783. The exports have 
been as follows in centals: wheat, 1895-96, 
10,462,893; 1894-95, 9,603,291; barley, 1895-96, 
2,291,081; 1894-95, 652,893; flour, barrels, 954,- 
623; 1894-95,915,484. The average prices by 
crop seasons have been, 1895-96, wheat,$l. 01 2-5; 
feed barlev, 66 ■ 1 4 cents; 1894-5, wheat, 87% 
cents; barley, 61 cents; 1893-94, wheat $1. 01 % 
barley, 56% cents. First arrival new wheat 
this year. May 25, and sold at $1.11%, new 
barley June 21, sold at 77% cents. The aver- 
age charters for Cork, United Kingdom, 
Havre or Antwerp, were 1895-96, wood ship, 
£1 7s ; iron, £1 6s 6d. ; 1894-95, wood, £1 5s 
6d. ; iron, £1 7s. 

WHEAT.— The market has been interfered 
with by a three-day holiday in our city and 
one at the East. This respite from business 
has enabled large operators to canvas more 
closely crop prospects at home and abroad and 
the outlook for the markets in the supply and 
demand continues. The eastern markets after 
declining have towards the close shown more 
strength with an advancing tendency. This, 
no doubt, is largely due to lower estimates of 
the yield in the United States and Canada, 
and also to a decrease in the visible supply of 
over 1,600,000 bushels in this country in the 
face of farmer's deliveries aggregating over 
2 200,000 bushels— the highest on record at 
this time of the year. From January 1, to 
June 13, the exports of all countries to Europe 
aggregated 303,384,000 bushels against 332, 216,- 
000 bushels the corresponding time in 1895. 
This shows a falling off nearly 29,000,000 bush- 
els which the consumption has increased. 
Writing on the situation at the East the New 
York Wa 11 Street Journal says: "Bulls on wheat 
had the first encouragement yesterday for 
several weeks. The Government crop report 
of June 1, although it was well known to be 
greatly exaggerated, had, with the immense 
northwest receipts, a depressed effect on the 
cereal all through the month. The State crop 
reports will come in now daily, before the 
Government report on the 10th, and that for 
Illinois shows a further decline in condition 
during June. As the State reports were very 
much below the Government estimate June 1, 
it is believed that the Government will have 
to change its figures for both spring and 
winter wheat. Thoman's estimate of a crop 
of 443,000,000 bushels of both spring and 
winter is considered by some good judges too 
high, but if his estimate is right wheat is 
likely to sell at a good deal higher figures 
soon. The recent break was intensified by 
the liquidation of the July option, but similar 
liquidation will not occur in July, as Septem- 
ber is now the trading option." 

Mclntyre & Wardwell of New York write : 
" Thoman's crop report for July estimates the 
winter wheat harvest at 271,000,000 bushels, 
or 13,000,000 bushels less than their estimate 
of last month, and they put spring wheat at 
172,000,000 bushels, which is 58,000,000 bushels 
less than last year. There is no change in 
crop news, the only feature being that in a 
market with an upward tendency crop tele- 
grams are read and acted upon, whereas with 
the market going the other way but little at- 
tention is paid to them. Our own advices in- 
dicate that the position we have taken all 
along, viz : that we would not raise any more 
winter wheat this year than we did last, is 
about correct." 

In the local market there is very little busi- 
ness passing. Exporters appear to only buy 
for pressing wants, and as these are light, 
they have very little influence on market val- 
ues. The belief is prevalent that the crop 
this year will be about 1,000,000 tons, with the 
grade better than was last year's. This high 
estimate causes buyers to look for an easier 
market when farmers begin to make large de- 
liveries. Our market is governed largely by 
the English, while the latter is controlled by 
the Chicago and New York markets. No. 1 
shipping is quoted on the basis of 95c, the bet- 
ter grades selling higher and poorer graues 
selling lower, club $1.05@1.07% and milling 
$1.05 to 11.12%. 

Speculative Wheat Markets.— Trading 
with us has been interrupted by a three-day 
holiday, but at the East trading has been 
large owing to only one day being observed, 
and also to the fact that private crop reports 
have been uniformly unfavorable. If these 
advices are born but by the Government 
monthly report, due on July 10th, it is thought 
stronger markets at home and abroad will re- 
sult. In this city there is a very pronounced 
bear sentiment among operators, which makes 
it difficult to trade owing to the bulls having 
the courage of their convictions. 

The closing prices per bushel at Chicago and 
San Francisco, per cental, were as follows : 

,— Chicago^ ^San Francisco— , 
July. Sept. Dec. Seller '96 

Thursday 55V4 5656 97% 93'/ 2 

Friday 54?s 56!6 98 

Saturday * — — 

Monday 54% 55% *.... 

Tuesday 55* 56?» *.... 


Crop Advices.— In this State all advices 
point to a crop of over 950,000 tons, with the 
grade averaging better than had been ex- 
pected. From Oregon and Washington our 
advices indicate an outturn equal to last 
year's. The Eastern reports are less favor- 
able. It is now conceded that the yield will 
fall below last year's by from 25,000,000 to 
40,000,000 bushels, while some think it will 
not go above that of 1893. The official esti- 
mates of the crop were: 1895, 467,105,000 
bushels; 1894, 460,267,000 bushels ; 1893,396,- 
132,000 bushels. From Europe our advices are 
essentially unchanged. France will require 

to import about 15,000,000 bushels of wheat. 
Owing to the large area of land brought under 
cultivation in Russia crop advices from that 
country are closely watched. The last official 
advices from there were : There had been 
drought in the middle black soil countries and 
in the southwestern departments. The spring 
crops in black soil districts promise an aver- 
age. In Bessarabia both spring and winter 
crops are bad. Rain has fallen in the dis- 
tricts bordering the Azof and the lower 
reaches of the Don. In northern Caucasus 
there is an improved condition in the spring 

Charters. — There is nothing new to report. 
Rates remain at last quotations. 

The tonnage situation compares as follows 
in registered tons : 

1896. 1805. 

In port engaged 48,456 39,646 

In port disengaged 39,966 

On the way 260,855 353,154 

Totals 349,277 392,800 

BARLEY.— The holidays interrupted busi- 
ness, making quotations largely nominal. 
Harvesting is well advanced, and with ex- 
pected few receipts buyers will not anticipate 
their wants. 

The closing prices for No. 1 feed at San 
Francisco were as follows : 


Thursday 6858 

Friday 68* 




* Holiday. 

For spot the market is quoted as follows: 
Feed, 62%@70c; brewing, 75(@80c. 

OATS.— The demand is slow. The con- 
sumption has fallen off fully 25 per cent. Re- 
ceipts of new will soon be a factor. 

The market is quoted firm at the fol- 
lowing prices : Milling, 85rfi)92%c; feed, 75 
@92%c ; gray, 80@85c ; Surprise, 92%c@$1.02%. 

CORN.— The market is essentially un- 
changed since our last issue. The demand is 
fair, while the stock and that to arrive from 
the East are ample for all requirements. 

Our market is quoted as follows: Large 
yellow, 90f@95c; small round, 96%c@$l,00; 
white, 77%(S!82%c. 

FEEDSTUFF.— There is a continued good 
demand, but owing to fair offerings the mar- 
ket holds steady. 

Quotations are as follows : Bran, SIS.OOfa) 
16. 50 per ton ; middlings, #17.50f?fl20 per ton ; roll 
barley, $15.00@16.00 per ton ; feed corn, $20@21 
ton ; oilcake meal, $21ra22 per ton. 

HAY.— The market is well supplied. It is 
stated that there has been more cut this year 
than had been estimated. Large feeders are 
reported negotiating for the bulk of their re- 

We quote as follows: Wheat, $7.50@10 
per ton ; oat, $6^8 ; wheat and oat, $7<?fi9 ; bar- 
ley, $5f^ 7. 50; alfalfa, $«@6.50; clover, |6@8; 
stock, $6(317. Old hay : Wheat and oat, |7@ 
11.50; compressed wheat, $8(9)10. 

STRAW.— Market is quoted at 20@40c per 

BEANS.— The market is sluggish and in 
buyers' favor. Crop advices are to the effect 
that it promises to be a fair outturn. 

The market is quoted as follows for con- 
signment lots: Bavos, 90W97%c ; Small 
Whites, $1.15@1.25; Pea, $1.20081.40; Large 
Whites, 90c(o)$1.05; Pink, 75@85c; Reds, 
$1.10@1.25; Limas, J2.35@2.60; Butter, $1.20 

POTATOES.— Fewer receipts and only a 
fair demand cause a lower market. 

The market is quoted as follows: Early 
Rose, 60(H)75c in sacks; 75("90c in boxes; 
Garnet Chiles, 75<ft!90e in sacks; Burbanks, 
$1@1.25 in boxes. 

ONIONS.— Dealers quote Silverskins at 
35@50c per 100 Ifts. and Reds at 15@25c. 

VEGETABLES. — The market continues 
to be liberally supplied with seasonable 

The market is quoted as follows : Aspara- 
gus, 50c@$2.25 per box; rhubarb, 25@50c 
per box ; green peas, 50c@$l per sack for 
common, $1.250*1. 50 for sweet; string beans, 
lft|l4c per ft.; green pepper, 8(3)12%c per It,; 
summer squash, 25(f< N 50c per box; tomatoes, 
$1.50(3)2.50 per box; cucumbers, 50e(3l$2.00 per 
box; cabbage, 40@50c per 100; garlic, 
2@2%c per lb ; green corn, 50c@$l per sack ; 
Alameda, $1. 50(32 per crate; egg plant, 8@ 
13%0 per lb. 

BUTTER.— Receipts continue ample while 
the demand is largely for daily requirements. 
Dealers say that concessions are necessary to 
induce buying. 

The market is quoted as follows : Creamery, 
14@15c; dairy, ll@13%c. 

CHEESE— The market is weak. 

The market is quoted as follows according to 
quality, at 5 (3i 6%c for new, and 7(3)8c for 
Young America ; cream cheddar, 8%(3)9c. 

EGGS.— The market is weak and heavy 
under liberal supplies and a falling off in con- 
sumption owing to increasing receipts of 

The market is quoted as follows : Store, 
10@Uc; Oregon, 10@llc; Eastern, 9@12c; 
ranch, 12@14c; duck, 12@13c. 

POULTRY.— Receipts and dcni nds have 
been about even. 

Live Turkeys, gobblers, per pound 16 @ 17 

•' hens H (<$ 16 

Dressed Turkeys "fl 

Roosters, old, per dozen 4 00@ I 50 

young 5 00<a;7 50 

Broilers 2 00@4 00 

Fryers 4 00@5 00 

Hens 3 50@5 00 

Ducks 2 50@4 50 

Geese, per pair 75@1 00 

Pigeons, per doz 1 25@1 50 

HOPS. — Nothing new to report since last 
week's review. Quotations for new crop con- 
tract are about the same as given last week.' 
A New York exchange reports that market 
as follows: "Regarding the market for 1895 

crop and older hops, there is nothing new to 
report. Business is confined mostly to rather 
small sales to home brewers, and the prices 
accepted are in line with quotations that have 
ruled for some time past. Dealers are mak- 
ing only moderate purchases here or in the 
interior markets, and comparatively few 
samples of really desirable hops are being 
shown at the moment. Export business is al- 
most at a standstill. The spot supply of State 
hops is rather light, but there appears to be 
an abundance of Pacifies, some lines of which 
were offered on the basis of 4c cash for me- 
dium quality. Cable advices reported im- 
provement in the condition of the growing 
crop of England." 

WOOL. -There seems to be more inquiry 
with the more desirable grades placed at a 
slight advance over quotations. 

We quote : San Joaquin and southern coast, 
6 months' growth, 4(B)6c; San Joaquin, foot- 
hill, good to choice, 7@9c; San Joaquin, year's 
growth, 4%(3j7c; Nevada, 6@9%c; Oregon, 
Valley, 8@llc; Mendocino and Humboldt, 

MEAT MARKET.— In sympthy with an 
advance in hams and bacon, hogs are strong 
at an advance. Outside of this there are no 
changes in the market. 

Wholesale rates for dressed stock from 
slaughterers are as follows : 

Beef— First quality, 5@5%c; second quality, 
4%@4%c; third quality, 3%@4c. 

Veal — Large, 4(3)5c; small, 5@6c. 

Mutton— Wethers, 5(3)5%c; ewe, 4@4%c. 

Lamb — Spring, 5(3)5%c. 

Pork— Live hogs, 3%@3%c for large, 3%@ 
3 3 4 c for small. 


116 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Dried Fruit Market. 

San Francisco, July 8, 1896. 
New York mail advices to July 3d are as 
follows : 

The demand for most descriptions of dried 
fruits continues very good, notwithstanding 
the increasing competition of green stock. 
Most of the orders come from out of town, 
and, although they are for small lots, a con- 
siderable quantity in the aggregate is being 
moved daily. The demand for loose California 
raisins does not appear to be as good as it was 
a few days since, present prices seeming to be 
above buyers' views. However, stocks of 
goods that fully come up to the standard are 
limited, and the tone of the market is firm, 
with an upward tendency. London layers are 
attracting attention, but we have heard of no 
important sales. Most holders now demand 
$1.00. For imported Sultana raisins there is 
a good consuming demand. The recent arrival 
of Valencia raisins has been put into store, 
the prices asked seeming to be above the 
ideas of buyers. Malaga raisins are dull and 
nominal. New apricots are beginning to at- 
tract attention, though buyers limit their 
purchases to small lots. The sales reported 
yesterday at 8'/ 4 c. were, it is understood, of 
stock of standard quality in bags. New choice 
apricots, which are expected here about July 
10th, are selling at 8 3 i0?!9c. delivered in New 
York, as to the size of the order. The latter 
are in 50-lb boxes, unfaced. Peaches are 
scarce and very firm, but we hear of no sales 
of any consequence. The demand for prunes 
continues. It runs chiefly on the large sizes, 
which are scarce. Prices are much firmer, 
but not quotably higher. There is little doing 
in citron or peel, but prices are steady. Dates 
and figs remain dull and somewhat nominal. 
There is only a small demand for nuts to sup- 
ply current requirements. Brazils are firmer, 
but not higher as yet. Filberts are steady, 
but no important transactions have occurred 
so far as can be learned. 

The market is practically bare of old stock 
of all varieties, which causes trading to be con- 
fined to jobbing lots for which quotations 
would be misleading. Commission merchants 
report very little inquiry for new season 
fruits. They state that even for apricots 
there in very little inquiry and that it would 
be difficult to place any sized parcel at over 7 
cents if that f. o. b. Some quote 6% cents f. 
o. b. as the basis. There is no inquiry for 
peaches, pears or prunes. Dealers at the East 
seem to be waiting for political and trade de- 

Fresh Fruit. 

TREE FRUITS.— Receipts of cherries are 
very light, hardly enough to quote. The re- 
ceipts of apricots are free, with canners buy- 
ing, which keeps the market fairly active. 
The receipts of peaches are only fair, but it is 
expected to steadily increase. The same re- 
marks apply to pears, apples, plums and 

The market is quoted as follows : Apricots, 
20@50c in baskets, 30@65c in boxes ; peaches, 
45(3)80c in boxes, 40@75c in baskets; plums, 
25@55c in boxes; apples, small boxes, 25@40c, 
large boxes, 45(3)90c; pears, 25(H)55c a box, 
Bartlets, 90c@$l ; figs, single layers, 25@35c, 
double layers, 4Gfe60c. Canners quote in bulk 
on the following basis: Apricots, $17@20 per 
ton; peaches, Crawford, $15©20, cling $20(3) 
25; pears, $15@20; plums, $17@25. Poorer 
grades less and extra choice more. 

Berry receipts continue in excess of the de- 
mand, which causes a weak market. 

The market is quoted as follows: Straw- 
berries, per chest, $2.50(3)3.50 for Longworth, 
$1.50(3)2.50 for large; raspberries, $2@4 per 
chest ; currants, $2(3)4 per chest; blackberries, 
$1.50@3 per chest. 

—Cattle are reported dying of starvation on 
the ranges of Arizona. The greatest loss is 
in Verde county, eastward from Flagstaff, 
and in the Skull Valley ranges, where the 
animals are perishing by thousands, the mesa 
being entirely bare. 


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Consignments Solicited. Advances Made. 




tff General Commission Merchants, 41 

310 CALIFORNIA ST., 8. F. 
Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

49~Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

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July 11, 18%. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

From the State Lecturer. 


This department is indebted to 
Brother John Tuohy, Lecturer of Tu- 
lare Grange, for a full and interesting 
account of a meeting of that Grange 
and the discussion of the theme placed 
at the top of these lines. 

In addition to remarks of the mem- 
bers on the subject, papers were read 
from Brother E. F. Adams, chairman 
of the Committee on Education of the 
State Grange, written for the Agricul- 
tural Department of the San Francisco 
Chronic!'-, of which he is the editor. 

Mrs. C. J. Berry, of Tulare, also con- 
tributed a paper, presenting the sub- 
ject in a clear and forcible light. She 
said in part : 

"Reforming school methods is a task 
of such herculean proportions that one 
approaches the subject with hesitation, 
but that the object of schools is that 
' education shall educate' goes without 
saying. Impressions formed from long 
experience as a teacher lead me to the 
belief that we must begin any system 
of 1 industrial education 1 with the sev- 
en-year-olds, and, with a few boxes of 
various kinds of soils and some seeds, 
show them how to plant them and en- 
courage them in watching their growth 
to see whether sand or fine, rich soil is 
best for them, etc., etc. 

"The nine-year-olds could be given 
practical lessons, studying the weather 
from day to dry to note its effect upon 
vegetable life around them." 

References along the lines of general 
agricultural, horticultural and floricul- 
tural topics were made when the essay- 
ist made the following pertinent obser- 
vation : 

"One important matter should not 
be overlooked ; the press must be cen- 
sured for its ridicule of the farmer and 
his boys, for from that important edu- 
cator in our midst the town boy takes 
his cue and imagines his stylish clothes 
and city ways especially entitle him to 
jeer ' hayseeds,' as they derisively call 
the country boys. 

"A great many of our prominent 
men began life on a farm, and when 
you concentrate their names under one 
heading you find a pretty fair list of 
1 hayseeds,' and the list can be indefi- 
nitely lengthened to include a long line 
of American statesmen, poets, artists, 
warriors and scientists." 

By request the writer submitted a 
few thoughts on the subject in writing 
which were read. 

So much of the programme was ren- 
dered in fulfillment of a previously ar- 
ranged plan for the meeting. 

During the interim the report of the 
committee on ways and means of the 
Board of Regents of the University of 
California which had been sent to the 
Grange for consideration, received due 
attention and a committee was ap- 
pointed to formulate the views of the 
Grange in accordance with the sense 
as expressed, the same to be sent to 
the committee of the University. Fol- 
lowing is the report of the committee : 

Hall of Tulare Grange, No. 198, 
P. op H., Cal., Visalia, 
June 30th, 1896. 

This Grange has received and considered in 
regular session this day, the report of the 
committee of ways and means of the Board of 
Regents of the University of California. As 
requested to do. by the committee of ways 
and means, we have given the subjects men- 
tioned in the report, the deficiency of $15,000 
in this year's expenses of the University of 
California and the desirability of further aid- 
ing the college of agriculture, now simply an 
adjunct to the University of California," our 
best consideration. 

In doing this it is proposed, within the next 
six months, to hold in different portions of the 
State fifty meetings of tillers of the soil to be 
addressed by the faculty of the Universitv of 
California. We have been led to the following 
conclusions : 

We believe the University of California as 
an institution of higher classical education, 
and for training and instruction in what is 
generally understood as the "professions" an 
exceptionally good institution of learning. As 
citizens of California we feel a pride in it. 

We believe the Board of Regents are edu- 
cated, broad-miuded men; that they have 
brought good attention and marked ability to 
the duties of their office and, as they should 
do, take a pride in the University of Califor- 
nia, its work and its success. 

We believe they understand the financial 

condition of the University and how to provide 
therefore better than we of Tulare Grange 
can do. On this subject we trust to the 
sense of right in the performance of their 
duties by the regents. We make no sug- 

With the recommendation of the committee 
of ways and means, that the faculty of the 
Universitv of California hold public meetings 
within the next six months with the tillers of 
soil, we will %ay : if these meetings withjthe 
tillers of the soil are to be for the purpose of 
dieting from the agricultural community 
their wishes and desire for instruction in 
agriculture and of their views and desires as 
to the work and management of the college of 
agriculture, we are in touch with it, and we 
are hopeful of good results; but if it is to be a 
canvass for higher and more taxation to sup- 
port the classical university at Berkeley, 
from our present point of view we do not 
believe in it. We do not believe it will be 
productive of good results. The best results, 
however, we believe will be obtained in pro- 
moting agricultural education by a removal of 
the college of agriculture from Berkeley, from 
the baneful influence of a classical university. 

We admit the College of Agriculture in the 
work it is doing is good work, but it is not 
graduating agriculturists, and this we believe 
should be its mission. Judged by the amount 
appropriated by the general government for 
its support, by the many years it has been in 
existence, by the very few students it has 
instructed or graduated, it is a positive fail- 
ure and an impressive object lesson in the 
folly of combining a college of agriculture 
with a classical university. It seems to us 
no school of agriculture will fill its mission, 
unless, in addition to the scientigc course it 
also gives thorough practical instruction in 
the calling. There appears to be surrounding 
a classical university an atmosphere inimical 
to and holding in contempt the calling of 
agriculture, having such force and power over 
the young man or woman who desires to 
study, practically, agriculture, as it is un- 
reasonable to expect him or her to overcome. 

We believe this is the experience of every 
State where the College of Agriculture has 
been combined with the classical university, 
and we believe it is, without exception, the 
rule also that where the College of Agricul- 
ture has been removed, the farther the bet- 
ter, from university influences in practical 
as well as theoretical instruction, in the 
number of students it instructs and gradu- 
ates, it is a success, a benefit and a pride to 
the State where it exists. 

We would recommend, therefore, that the 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts be 
removed from Berkeley. That it be estab- 
lished in some good, central agricultural and 
manufacturing town, such as Los Angeles, 
San Jose, Stockton or Sacramento, where we 
hesitate not to say it will be the College of 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts contemplated 
by the law providing for its establishment 
and maintenance. 

We believe the calling of agriculture and 
the theoretical and practical work therein to 
be as interesting a study as that of any pro- 

We believe where students therein are sur- 
rounded by instructors and students of like 
dispositions and desire, they, too, wi 1 be im- 
bued with a laudable pride and interest in 
their professions ; and we believe this is the 
way and the only conditions under which sci- 
entific and industrial agricultural education 
can be successfully attained. 

We ask our sister Granges throughout Cali- 
fornia to give this subject careful considera- 
tion and express their views, and we earnestly 
hope some members of the Board of Regents 
will take action towards removing the College 
of Agriculture from Berkeley ; for it will be 
done ultimately. 

Much space is devoted to the forego- 
ing subject, but as it is the question of 
all others now prominently before the 
agrioulturists of our State, as well as 
before the Patrons of Husbandry as an 
organization, nothing more appropriate 
to the time could be given. 

San Jose Grange has the university 
matter under consideration, and doubt- 
less others we know not of, and all are 
awaiting conclusions that should be 
made through the public press, and 
may be made through this department 
if thought advisable. 


The above publication has just been 
received from the office of Brother 
Alpha Messer, Worthy Lecturer of the 
National Grauge. The budget for this 
week's paper being made up, a review 
of the Bulletin must be deferred until 
later. The State Lecturer having been 
favored with a number of extra copies 
will distribute them as far as they may 
go to subordinate Lecturers, who, as 
will be seen, are again requested to re- 
port proceedings to the State Lec- 
turer. The work of Brother Messer is 
commendable and well calculated to 
bring out Grange news. 


We generally suffer remorse only 
when we are found out. 

He that swears tells us that his bare 
word is not to be credited. 

The little that has been done to se- 
cure unanimity of thought among farm- 

ers in discussing questions of mutual 
interest is already bearing abundant 
fruit and thus far there seems tobe but 
little difference of opinion in regard to 
the question discussed. 

We count upon the uncertain; but 
the inevitable surprises us. 

When a small man has done anything 
he immediately tells the public what he 
has accomplished. 

Nothing is more amiable than true 
modesty, and nothing more contempti- 
ble than that which is false. 

The perfection of conversation is not 
to play a regular sonata, but, like the 
.-Eolian harp, to wait the inspiration of 
the passing breeze. 

In the days of Midas, whatever the 
man touched turned into gold ; things 
are different now— touch a man with 
gold and he turns into anything. 

Thought and sympathy are often 
more valuable than anything money 
can procure. Both need continual cir- 
culation to keep them wholesome and 

The sublimest thing in the universe, 
except its Creator, is a human will 
governing itself by a law higher than 
its own desire. 

Genius seldom runs in straight lines. 
Few great men or great women have 
great sons and great daughters. Sel- 
dom all the children of any family are 
talented. While we can but admire 
native ability, we have a still greater 
admiration for that child of a great 
man who, being endowed with few 
gifts, will accept his natural position in 
life and do small work well. — Farmer' » 

Tt is not at all strange to hear an in- 
telligent minister say that some of the 
members of his church will even stay 
from prayer meeting to attend a polit- 
ical caucus. I would have them not 
only leave their prayer meetings, but 
any other meetings and get out 
these "watch towers" of Zion and 
stand there day and night to see 
that God-fearing men are placed in 
power. — Correspondent Orange Visitor. 

" It's but a Step. — Poet (to farmer) 
See what a beautiful prospect is un- 
folded in yonder billowy fields, and 
hark! the voice of the plowman! 

Farmer — Yes, he's been cussing 
that mule since daylight, and it's one 
of them German mules that used to 
pull a beer wagon, so he can't under- 
stand a word o' it. — American Planter. 

Horse Owners! Try 



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July 11, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


Olive oil is now used in many ways 
at one time never thought of. Besides 
being more largely used medicinally, it 
enters into various processes of cook- 
ing much more extensively than it did. 
It is well known that eggs fried in good 
olive oil are much better flavored than 
when any kind of fat has been used. In 
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Eczema has rapidly disappeared upon 
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stores to the worn-out or diseased tis- 
sue just those elements of repair that 
its reconstruction demands. 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey & Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific Coast. 


562.688. — Fruit Picker, Etc.— Baisley & Decker, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 

562,510. — Oar — E. B. Cleaveland, Snohomish, Wash. 
562,459.— Washing Utensil— Mary M. Davis, South 

Pasadena, Cal. 
562,716.— Step Ladder— C. H. Dyar, Ontario, Cal. 
562,784.— Legging— C. Fisher, S. F. 
562,742.— Dental Engine— O. H. & A. F. Pieper, 

San Jose, Cal. 
562,418. — Jar Sealer — S. B. Ragatz, Los Angeles, 

Cal. 1 

562.689. — Wrench — A. Willons, Redlands, Cal. 
25,665 — Design for Can— E. H. James, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey & Co. in the shortest time possible 
by mail or telegraphic order). American and For- 
eign patents obtained, and general patent business 
for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with perfect 
security, at reasonable rates, and In the shortest 
possible time. 

Doubling the length of a board or 
timber reduces the stiffness eightfold 
and the strength one-half. Doubling 
the width of a board doubles the stiff- 
ness and strength. Doubling the thick- 
ness of a board or the depth of a tim- 
ber increases the stiffness about 
eightfold and the strength fourfold. 
If, therefore, it is desired to double 
the length and retain the same stiff- 
ness, it is necessary to double the 
thickness or depth. 

"A well-known physician a Wiesbaden 
was called in to attend a lady of high 
lineage. "Well, how do you feel to- 
day, my dear madam ?" inquired the 
doctor, in his usual cheery manner. 
"I am a Marchioness, doctor," she 
replied, laying an emphasis on the title. 
" Ah ! I am sorry to hear it," said the 
physician, " as that is a complaint I am 
unable to cure." And so saying, he 
snatched up his hat and departed. — 
El Tarapaca. 

SSIOO Reward, SI 00. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreadful disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical fra- 
ternity. Catarrh being a constitutional disease, 
requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's Ca- 
tarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon 
the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease 
and giving the patient strength by building up 
the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers that they offer one hundred dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 
testimonials. Address. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

*S-Sold by Druggists,75c. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less in this directory at 50e per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S. F. Al Prize Hol- 
ateins; Grade Milch Cows. Fine Pigs. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. F. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Fine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times, either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danvilie, Cal. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. F., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 


Vale, Cal. Barred Plymouth Rocks. Black Minor- 
cas, White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns. Eggs for 
sale. Send for circular. 

Prop., Sacramento, Cal. Breeder of high-class 
Black and White Langshans; Brown, Buff and 
White Leghorns; Black Spanish; Black Minorcas; 
Barred Plymouth Rocks and Pekin Ducks. Write 
for circular. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeds all leading vari- 
eties pure-bred poultry. Eggs, II. 00 a setting. Send 
for new catalogue. 

J. W. FORGEOS & CO., Santa Cruz. Cal. Fine 
Fowls and Eggs. Write to us 

Bros., San Jose, Cal. Barren eggs replaced. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

MANHATTAN EGG FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale, Tillman & Bendel, S. F. 

Send for illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S. F— BERKSHIRES. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

A. P. HOTALING — Berkshir«s from imported 
stock— Mayfield, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Regist'd Berkshires. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

C. P. BAILEY, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred Angora 
Goats and Persian Fat Tailed Sheep. Send for 
catalogue and price list. 

Improved Pacific Incubator. 

Absolutely Self-Regulating. 
Hot Water. 

Send stamp for our catalogue 
of Incubators, Wire Netting, 
Blooded Fowls and Poultry Ap- 
pliances generally. Remember 
the Best is the Cheapest. 

1317 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 


Will cure your horse or collar 
i and harness gall without loss 
{of time or money. You work 
)the horse and cure him at the 
same time. Equally Rood for 
Cuts, Scratches, Speed Cracks, 
Sore Teats on cows, Ac. Ask 
your dealer for it. If he should 
not have it correspond direct 

Bickmore Call Cure Co. Foxioa, OLD TOWN, ME. 

The leading paper, and only weekly ; 16 large pages. 
Be sure to see it before subscribing for any other 
G. W. York & Co., 56 Fifth Ave., Chicago. III. 





Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 


Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 







P. & B. Manilla Roofing 

For Coverin^Poultry^Houses, Sheds'and Like Structures. 


250 Square Feet, with Nails and Paint Complete 


PAfoAFFTNF PAINT CCi 116 B£ »"ery St., San Francisco. 

I rl.1V/l.l 1 L^L, 1 /I 111 1 1>U., 524 S. Broadway, Los Angeles. 

No Noise. . . . £ No Backing ^ state agents for the 

No Vibration. . < Up \ Jones AllSteel Hay Rakes. . . . 

NO Lost Power { to Start \ Mor San Spading Harrows 

in trip \ Morgan Grape Hoes 

in me £ Avery Chilled and Steel Plows. . 

Grass -^^\ Napoleon Gang Plows 


, - r "\% "#;^PS£ V j Powell Derricks and Nets 

The Jones Chain flower. 

5 Stockton Reversible Gang Plows. 





Almond Hulling and Shelling 







Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 


Iron cut, punched and formed, lor making pipe on ground where required. All kinds of Tools sup- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required. Are prepared or coating all sizes of Pipes 
with Asphaltum. 

B. T. Ba bbitt's B est Lye. 

i M /E call Prune Growers and Farmers particular attention to this Lye. It is stronger and goes 
further than any other manufactured, and has the endorsement of the largest packers and 
growers on the coast. WE GUARANTEE EVERY CASE. 



Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 686, Los Angeles, Cal. 


We have several fine litters coming on. Book your 
orders for choice pigs. Write for prices and get our 


Don't you get left, but order at once. $7.50 the 100. 

DO you live in a place where it is very cold and most of the orange family will not endure the 
weather ? Do you want a tree that will live under very adverse conditions and at the same time give 
you some good fruit ? Then send to us for the Wash. Navel on the Trifoliata root. It will stand a 
greater degree of cold and more water than any other root. $15.00 and $20.00 the 100. 

Wash. Navels and Med. Sweets at your own price, from $10.00 to $30.00 the 100 for general stock 
Special sizes on application. 

ALOHA NURSERIES, Penryn Placer Co., Cal. 

FRED C. MILES, Manager. 





M. O'BRIEN, Agent, 509-513 Mission St. write tor circulars. San Francisco, Cal. 


5000 Green Gage Seedlings 

For piece grafting; one bushel Green Gage seed. 

Blake, Moffltt <& T o w n e, 


512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco. Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 11, 1896 



Gas or Gasoline Engine. 

It Is superior to all others. 

The cheapest and simplest to operate. 

It does business without much attention. 

Positively and absolutely no back tires. 

THE GOLDEN GATE GAS ENGINE has special merit in 
works requiring variable power. It can use natural gas water 
gas coal gas, or gasoline, and will run anything on earth that re- 



211 and 213 Main Street, San Francisco. 



These Stackers 
and Rakes 

Are California made anil 
are especially adapted 
to the Pacific coast. 

Write /or 
Catalogue — 
No. 14 — Haying and 
No. 15-Pumps 



There is no machinery on the i anch that 
will save more hard labor, time and 
money than these machines. They are 
simple, pract ical and durable. Will save 
double their cost in one season. Will 
handle more hay. with an equal force, in 
better style, and in one-half the time 
required by any other method. 

OUTFITS. Buy through your local 
dealer, or send direct to us. 

in the near future will place upon the market OIL MOTORS of latest design »ml greatest 
economy and efficiency. 

Byron Jackson Machine Works, 




p \ T NO*" 19. I 00 " 



The best substitute for barb wire ever invented— perfectly harmless to stock. This fencing has been 
adopted by the Belle Mead Stock Farm of Belle Mead, N. J., as well as by theN. Y., L. E.& W. K. R. 


For Poultry Yards, Pigeon Houses, Aviaries, Etc. 

Farm and Lawn Fencing and Gates. 




Send for Catalogues. 


WASHBn^> s ^,iOEN MFO. Co. 

r\a\" MAKERS OF 




The "ACME" 

Perforator and Grader, 



No Bloaters, Better Fruit and More of It. 

It Saves You Time, Fuel, Lye and $s. 

The Best Perforator^ the Best Grader. 

Prepares Prunes and Plums for the dry ground with more absolute certainty and less labor 
than the dipper. Repeated tests have shown that the fruit cures heavier— from 4 to 6 per cent 
and has a better flavor; in other words, it carries more sugar. The capacity of these machines 
varies Irom 12 to 100 tons per day. 





Prune Machine 



The Fruit at one Operation. 
Different Sizes and Prices; with or without Grader. Hand and Power Machines. 

Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List 

J. B. BURRELL, 447-449 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 


Fruit Driers' and Packers' Supplies. 



For Illustrated Catalogue of General Orchard Supplies, Address 


338 and 340 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 




220 Market St.. San Franrlsco. Cal. 

I Send for 
Mailed Free. 



I >1I'S. Etc. 


With itall Bearing Turntable, Divided Boxes, 
Bmbbttl Hearings. 

Truly :i Bem and worth Its weight In (told. It com- 
bines beauty, strength anil simplicity. Governs It- 
self perfectly; It Is the best on earth. They are 

geared back three to one. the wheel making them 

run in the lightest wind or breeze. The mill Is made 
entirelv of Steel and Cast Iron. Each one of our Gem 
Windmills la warranted. If not satisfactory, freight 
will be paid both ways and money refunded. 

We carry a full line of all kinds of Pumps - for 
hand, windmill or power use. Adapted for all 
depths of wells. Pipe. Pipe Fittings, Brass Goods. 
Hose, Tanks, etc. 

W00DIN & LITTLE, 312 and 3U Market Street, 


This single word is the title of an illustrated book 
by Mr. Abbot Kinney of Lamanda Park, Los An- 
geles county, just published. It is a monograph on 
the eucalyptus family of trees, with popular descrip- 
tions of the prominent species and varieties, their 
various uses and adaptations, their medicinal and 
other products, the botany of the genus, with plates 
showing distinctive appearances of a number of the 
species. For about a score of years Mr. Kinney has 
been an ardent student of tree growths in California, 
and to this long period of local observation he brought 
impressions gained by travel in many lands. He 
has been for many years our most prominent writer 
on forestry, especially in its economic aspects. He 
was a member of the first Forestry Commission of 
California, and afterwards served a long term as 
its chairman. All these facts, taken in connection 
with his enthusiastic devotion to trees and their in- 
terests, singularly fit Mr. Kinney to prepare a mon- 
ograph upon the eucalypts in California, and the 
work will not only be of very great value in dissem- 
inating important information about them in this 
State but it will render similar service in all semi- 
tropical regions of the earth. Such service is especi- 
ally timely because, thus far, eucalyptus lore has 
been held fast in erudite botanical works or set forth 
in colonial reports which are not widely available. 
Mr. Kinney's work has upwards of 300 pages, large 
octavo, and 28 full-page plates from photographs of 
California-grown specimens. 

Through the courtesy of the author we are able to 


lay before the readers of the Press 
some portions of his work. We 
select for this issue an engraving 
of Eucalyptus amygdalina, which is 
one of the hardy species and is 
adapted to some regions of Califor- 
nia where more common species like 
the globulus suffers from frost. Mr. 
Kinney notes that while the amyg- 
dalina is the tallest of the Austra- 
lian trees and the tallest tree in the 
world, in amygdalinas in southern 
California have in no case equaled 
in size the common blue gum, nor 
does their manner of growth give 
promise that they ever will. The 
tallest trees seem to be of a variety 
known as regnans, while the Cali- 
fornia trees are of two other vari- 
eties of the species, viz. : angustifolia 
and linearis. The regnans has a 
broader leaf and is otherwise dis- 
tinguished. Our engraving is of 
the variety angustifolia, growing 
upon the place of Mrs. Jean C. 
Carr of Pasadena, Los Angeles 
county. One picture shows its 
general form of growth and the 
other its peculiar narrow leaves 
and small bloom and seed vessels. 
The leaves are of dark, dull green. 
Mr. Kinney mentions two other 
varietal forms besides the trees 
which we have named, 
so that one can get 
quite a collection of 
eucalyptus varieties 
without going beyond a single species. 
The angustifolia has stood severe frosts 
at the Chico Forestry Station, and 
does well there. Good specimens are 
to be seen at Ellwood Cooper's place 
near Santa Barbara, and at the For- 
estry Station near Santa Monica ; al- 
so upon the University grounds in 

Some idea of the difficulties which a 
careful writer encounters when en- 
deavoring to expound this matter of 
eucalyptus species and varieties can 
be had from the fact that iu addition 
to the five varieties indicated above 
there are further modifications pro- 
duced by climate. There is thought 
by Von Mueller to be an Alpine form 
of Eucalyptus amygdalina because they 
happen to have had survive on the 
estate of the Duke of Devonshire in 
England, a tree enduring 7°, and there 
are four species which the Kew au- 
thorities consider safe at 10°. The 
selection of these hardier varieties 
will give the eucalyptus a much wider 
range than it now has in California, 
and will also carry the genius into the 
southern States as well as farther 
north on the continent of Europe. The 
general reading of Mr. Kinney's trea- 
tise will render the important public 
service therefore of greatly increasing 
the eucalyptus area in the northern 
hemisphere. People who have been 
disappointed at seeing the common 
globulus killed as easily as an orange 
tree by frosts, which are counted 


heavy in California, might have found their groves 
unharmed if they had planted amygdalina or some 
other of the hardier eucalypts. 

According to the Ojai there is a very serious situ- 
ation in the Ojai valley, due to the presence of the 
j black scale. Says the Ojai: "Some radical method 
must be found to exterminate this pest. It is also 
clear that the Rhizobius is not equal to the task. 
When the ladybird was introduced into the valley it 
was proclaimed tha.t we had secured an ally which, 
alone and single-handed, would speedily remove the 
pest from our orchards. For a time the ladybird did 
her work with satisfaction ; but she has gone off 
duty, with no immediate prospect of going on again. 
We can account for this state of affairs only on the 
theory that the ladybirds have a game law among 
themselves and this is the ' close ' season. Perhaps 
their instinct teaches them that if they exterminate 
their favorite diet they shall forever after be forced 
to get along without it." 

The California Fruit Transportation Co. forwarded 
another consignment of fruit to London during the 
week. "It is our purpose," said Mr. Quigley," the 
Sacramento manager, the other day, "to push this 
matter of sending California fruit to London in the 
hope of creating a demand for it there that will 
make it a permanent and profitable business for our 
growers. It has been up-hill work for two seasons, 
but the difficulties at first encountered are being 
overcome. We have taken some severe risks, but 
have faith in the success of the enterprise." 

Another carload of redwood has just been shipped 
from California to Nuremberg, Germany, for use in 
making leadpencils. The cedar forests of Europe, 
that formerly supplied wood for pencils, have been 
practically exhausted. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 18, 1896 


Office, No. 220 Market St.; Elevator, No. IS Front St. .San Francisco, Cat. 


Advertising rate* matte known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any suojeet to the Bckal 
Pkkss, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either througrh the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest form* go to press Wednesday evening. • 

Registered at S. F. Postofflce as second-class mall matter. 


E. J. WICKBOS spec ial Contributor. 

San Francisco, Juiy;W 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Eucalyptus AlffyKdalina at Pasadena; Euca- 
lyptus Aniygdaliua. Variety Augus'tifolta; 33. Fashion Cuts, 44. 

EDITORIALS.— Eucalyptus; Siufatioii in the Ojal Valley; Another 
Consignment of Fruit to London"; Shipment of Redwood to Ger- 
many, 33. The Week, 34. * 

HORTICULTURE. — California Apples, 36. The Life of the Horti- 
culturist, 37. _ 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE.— Outlines of Hie Lectures at Camp 

THe'iiAIRY.— Another Way to Make a Round Silo; Rearing Calves 
with Creamery Skim Milk, 38. 

THE POULTRY YARD.— Interesting Experience in Sacramento 
County; A flood Word for Ducks; Selected Suggestions, SB. 

THE HOME CIRCLE.— His Mother's Songs; (Jetting Acquainted 
with the Country; A Missiou; Gems; For the Woman: Fashion 
Notes, 42. Curious Facts; Pleasantries; To Iron Tablecloths; 
Influence of Fatigue Upon the Nervous System, 43 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Kitchen Lore; House-Cleaning Hints, 43. 

MARKET REPORT — The Produce Market; Dried Fruit Market. 
45-46. _ 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— The Lecturer's Department: From 
Stockton, 47. _ 

MISCELLANEOUS.— Pith of the Week's News; Gleanings, 35. 
Weather and,Crops ; What a 1-ondon Fruit Dealer Thinks: Swine 
Plague in the Sacramento Valley; An Invitation, 36. The Dis- 
tribution of Agricultural Documents, 39. Why Stone Walls Are 
Damp: A Definite Understanding; Celery a Cure for Rheumatism; 
Electrical Development: Why One Feels Chilly When Lying I 
Down; To Distinguish Between Iron and Steel Tools, 4(1. Myster 
les in Science; Mountain Ranges; The New Highway, 41. Best | 
Patterns at a Low Price. 44. 


(New this issue.) I'aye. 

Smiths' Cash Store 48 

State Fair of California 48 

Agricultural Machinery— Krogh Mfg. Co 47 

Morton Special Delivery 47 

Bicycles— Hooker & Co 47 

The Week. 

The Weather. 

It has been a week of unusual heat throughout 
California and the effect has been to hurry forward 
every sort of summer work. Orchards have ripened 
rapidly aud in many instances ahead of expectations, 
and there has of course been a feverish rush in dry- 
ing operations. Grain fields, too, have felt the heat, 
but nowhere, so far as we can learn, to their injury. 
Everywhere the yield of wheat and barley turns out 
better than was looked for. The worst effect of the 
protracted heat is to dry up the feed for stock. Fol- 
lowing is the report of the U. S. Weather Service 
for the week : 

The following data for the week ending 5 A. m. 
Wednesday, July lo, 1890, are from official sources, 
and are furnished by the United States Weather 
Bureau for the Pacific Rural Press : 


Total Rainfall 
for the Week . . . 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall to 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall Last 
Year to Same 

Average Season- 
al Rainfall to 

Maximum Tem- 
perature for the 

Minimum Tem- 
perature for the 





Red Bluff 





















San Luis Obispo 









1 76 







* Indicates no record. 

Hot Weather Observations. 

A Woodland Democrat man, who spent Saturday 
and Sunday last in the southwestern part of Yolo 
and northern part of Solano, writes as follows: 

The present hot spell is causing the orchardists 
considerable expense. In the vicinity of Winters 
most of the fruit men are picking and drying their 
apricot crop. The warm weather is ripening this 
variety of fruit so fast that the orchardists are com- 
pelled to increase their force of help in order to 
properly prepare the fruit for the drying trays; con- 
sequently an additional outlay of money is necessary 
to save the crop. Thousands and thousands of trays 
of the yellow fruit can be seen on the ground in the 
Winters fruit belt and Pleasant Valley. It is not 
positively known whether or not the fruit will prop- 
erly dry in the extreme heat, but so far no material 
injury has been noticed. There is some damage re- 
ported to the pear crop, caused by the hot weather 
drying the pears before they have sufficiently ripened 
to be picked, but this complaint does not seem to be 
general. A large number of people are at work in 
the fruit belt, and their camps present the scene of 
a lively little village. This is undoubtedly rather an 
agreeable way of spending the summer and at the 
same time enables them to earn considerable money. 

A trip through Pleasant Valley at this time of the 

year is not very pleasant, especially when the tem- 
perature is as high as it is this year, but the worst 
of all is the dusty roads. There is a sharp contrast 
between these highways and those of Vaca Valley. 
The latter are sprinkled, thereby affording much 
pleasure to the sight-seer. The difference in the 
roads of the two valleys should receive the attention 
of the Yolo county supervisors, who might then feel 
like adding an additional ten cents to our road tax 
for sprinkling purposes, thus placing old Yolo in 
line with those progressive counties, which have 
learned that the amount spent for sprinkling roads 
brings greater returns than any other outlay of 
public funds. 

Eastern Fresh Fruit Market. 

The past week has been a time of heavy shipments 
of fresh fruits to the Eastern markets. On Saturday 
the total number of cars forwarded was 4-, this be- 
ing the maximum single day's shipment for the sea- 
son this far. This week the forwardings are lighter, 
Tuesday's shipments aggregating only 1- carloads. 
Under heavy supplies the prices recently ruling in 
the Eastern markets are not fully maintained. In 
New York the market is, just now, especially low, 
due probably to a term of very hot weather. The 
following reports from New York and Chicago show 
the range of prices for Tuesday, the quotations for 
that day being the latest at hand as the Rural goes 
to press : 

Nkw YORK, July 14 —Porter Brothers Company sold: Plums— 
Japan, itl 50(.i 3 50 per half crate; Peach, 90c(ftf I 50; Ogon, H5cf« II 35, 
Quaekeuboss. %\ 05. 

Prunes— Tragedy, $1(3-1 to per half crate ; Simoni. $1 60. 

Pears— Hartlett, S5c(o*l 65 per box: 50'* 75c per half liox. 

Figs, 55c, $1 10<ail .'HI per box. 

Apricots— Royal, 45e(n $1 15 per half crate. 

Peaches, 50c@|l 05 per box. 

Apples, 60(«.70c per box. 

Tnere were 14 cars on the New York market to-day. 
Tee Earl Fruit Company sold to-day: Prunes— Tragedy, 85c(S$l 40 
per halt crate. 

Plums— Peach, 55iw*l 15 per half crate: Royal Hative, 55cWf 1 ; 
Japan, 5ft(« HOe ; Bradshaw , 35cfsi$l. 

Pears— Hartlett, 70c(n;|l 25 per box. 

Peaches— Hale's Early, bad order, 50<ai70c per box. 

Chk'aoo, July 14 — The Earl Fruit Company sold to-day : Prunes— 
Tragedy, *1 35(« 1 65 per half crate. 

Plums— Burbank, *l 80 per half erate : Peach, *1 25; Royal Hative. 
85c; Mikado, soft, Him 85c. 

Peaches— St. John, $1 KKn 1 25 per box: half crates. tecfutl 20; 
Hale's Early, 45fa65c per box. 

Porter Urothers Company sold: Plums— Burbank. $K« I 80 per half 
crate; Peach, $1 30: other varieties, 7iic(&»l 05. 

Prunes— Tragedy, »1.30(d)1.45 per half-crate. 

Peaches— St. John, 7Dc@l4l.20 per box, and 55ia75c per half-box: 
oilier varieties, 20(« 70c per 1h>x. 
Pears— Bartlett, 45c per half-box. 

Good Prices for Haisins. 

Raisin producers are taking very hopeful views of 
the market this year and for the first time in sev- 
eral seasons find themselves justified in assuming a 
stiff attitude. A Fresno dispatch of the 8th inst. 
says : 

There has been a marked advance in raisins in the past few 
days. An offer was yesterday made for the crop of 100 acres 
at ISO per ton in the sweatbox. This is about twice as much 
as was realized last year. Other offers about as good are 
being made. Advices from the East give figures highly en- 
couraging. The prediction is made in New York that prices 
will rule there which will make raisins worth 460 per ton in 
the sweatbox here. Since the committee of five appointed by 
the Chamber of Commerce and the Hundred Thousand Club 
gave up the effort to organize an association, buyers have en- 
tered the field and prices at once began to go up. Growers 
are disposed to hold to their raisins in the hope of further 
advance. The crop will be 1000 tons short of last year. 

The Single Auction System. 

The New York Journal of Commerce of the 3rd 
inst. has this to say about the single auction system 
as it is now in operation in New York City: 

The California fruit sales under the single auction house 
system may now be said to have had a practical trial. The 
receipts to date have been a trifle heavier than during the 
corresponding period last season, about 100 carloads having 
arrived. All this fruit has come over the Erie Railroad, and 
has been sold on the Erie pier, No. 20 N. It., according to 
arrangements entered into by the different receivers here 
during the spring. The Erie has built a handsome auction 
room, in which the fruit is sold, Brown & Secomb selling for 
the Porter Bros. Co., Sgobel it Day, P. Ruhlman & Co. and C. 
Joralemon, while the E. L. Goodsell Co. sell the fruit of the 
Earl Fruit Co. 

Inquiry was made yesterday regarding any changes that 
had taken place as a result of the operation of the single auc- 
tion system. So far there has been no friction, and every- 
thing has, it is claimed, moved in a satisfactory manner. 
Prices, however, have not shown the improvement that was 
anticipated. Last year, it will be remembered, part of the 
fruit was sold on the Erie wharf and the balance on the West 
Shore wharf, and it was thought that with the sales compet- 
ing prices suffered in consequence. Thus far this year, how- 
ever, there has, it is claimed, been no improvement over last 
year's prices, and the opponents of the single auction plan 
claim that the concentration of the buyers has not had the 
promised effect of securing better prices. 

Up to the present time eight or nine cars have been the 
most sold in one day, and it is claimed that the fruit belong- 
ing to the receiver at the end of the catalogue did not receive 
consideration from buyers equal to the consideration given 
the earlier offerings, as the buyers became restless, partly 
owing to the long catalogue. It is said that if the shippers 
would stop sending lots of say one, two, three and four pack- 
ages it would be better for all concerned. 

The season will continue until December, and the heavier 
offerings later may, of course, show more plainly the benefits 
of the single auction system. 

An Appeal to I'oult rvmen. 

Under date of 10th inst. Mr. J. A. Schofield of 
Hollister writes to the Rural Press as follows : 
"The misunderstanding heretofore existing between 
the California State Poultry Association and the 
directors of the State Agricultural Society has been 
settled by mutual agreement, the directors of the 
Agricultural Society granting all reasonable demands 

of the Poultry Association. We desire to urge upon 
all poultrymen the propriety of taking advantage of 
the liberal action of the Agricultural Society and 
making the next poultry exhibit at the State Fair 
the finest in the history pf the Sffcte, and thereby 
reflecting credit upon>he management." 

■ i . . * 

CaliforulU Regains the Pacific Flour Trade. 

For two or thtee years past, owing .to* a combina- 
I tion of circumstances," which have frequently been 
set forth-through the Rural Press, Oregon millers 
have been able to underbid tfie millers of California 
in the 'Hour trade of China and Central America. 
The condition which^?Yiabled this to be done was only 
temporary and rt appears already to have passed 
away. A '.letter from Stockton, dated 14th inst. 
(Tuesday) says: 

The victory of the Oregon flour over the California product 
has been short-lived, as the bulk of the China trade is again 
setting toward this point. For the past month the local mills 
have been running day and night, and big orders from China 
and Central America continue to arrive. This morning an or- 
der for 2,000 tons for immediate delivery at San Francisco for 
reshipment on the first Chiua steamer was received. Mill men 
say that while the Oregon flour is accepted in the cheaper 
trade, the best class of trade has found out the superiority of 
the California article, and it is steadily gaining back all of the 
ground which it lost when competition was first inaugurated 
at the North. The Central American trade is good, and sev- 
eral big orders for shipment next month remain to be filled. 
The heavy wheat crop will also give the millers an advantage 
this season. They are already receiving grain over the Val- 
ley road, and, while the farmer will get a stiff price, the sav- 
ing in freights will give the local mills some ground to work 
upon in case they are called upon to meet further competition. 
The situation here is very encouraging to the miller and the 
producer, and the laborer" will natnrally share in the return of 
better conditions. 

An Oregon Treatment for Cherry (ium. 

We recently published with comments a note from 
Gilbert Rayburn of Livermore on the gumming of 
cherry trees and the publication prompted J. W. 
Hauck of Jefferson, Or. , to give his experience as 


After reading Mr. Rayburn's letter to the Pacific 
RritAL Press I will offer some advice which I think 
will greatly lessen "gummosis" of cherry trees if 
not entirely prevent it. We have to contend with 
this trouble over much in Oregon, especially on 
Royal Ana. I spray with 4 to 6 pounds of blue 
stone (or copper sulphate) to 50 gallons of water as 
soon as the leaves fall. Spray again in the spring 
with the same solution before the buds swell. Gum 
spots appearing on the cherry trees are cut out and 
washed with the above solution, also when you slit 
the bark take a sponge and wet with the solution 
and rub where the slit in bark has been made. The 
above, if not a cure, I think will greatly modify the 
exudation of the gum. 

The Eastern Fruit Market. 

Reviewing the situation at the beginning of the 
week, the Sacramento Record- Union says: 

The fruit shippers of the city are well pleased with the 
prices received for recent consignments of pears, some of 
which brought in New York $2.04 a box. It is believed that 
from now until the end of the season good prices will prevail. 
Advices received by the Producers' Exchange from its East- 
ern agent state that the peach crop of New Jersey and Dela- 
ware will be unprecedentedly heavy, and that foom 5,000,000 
to 0,000,000 baskets will be marketed as against 2,000,000 last 
year. They are advised that the crop will be placed in the 
market about the 1st of August, and are cautioned against 
making extensive peach shipments after that time. Like ad- 
vices have been received by other fruit shippers in the city, 
though a difference of opinion exists as to the effect the heavy 
crop will have on late varieties of California peaches. Mr. 
Hechtman of Porter Bros, thinks the competition will not in- 
jure California shipments to any great extent, owing to the 
fact that much of the crop will be handled by Eastern 
canneries. The Georgia crop will not exceed 350 carloads, 
and is already being put on the market. It, however, cuts no 
figure, and it is of a very inferior quality, both in size and 
flavor, owing to the extremely late and cold season. 

Cattle living From Drought in Arizona. 

Recent vague reports of distress in Arizona from 
want of water are directly confirmed by a corre- 
spondent writing on the 8th inst. to the San Bernar- 
dino Sun. We quote: 

Never since the settlement of this Territory has there been 
such a drought. At Williams, a town of 1500 population, there 
is absolutely no water. The entire supply is hauled in Atlan- 
tic it Pacific cars from Crozier, 100 miles west. The precious 
fluid sells for 05 cents a barrel and is hard to get at that price. 
At Flagstaff, Wilcox and Winslow the situation is almost as 
bad. Streams are dry, wells are in the same condition, and 
the few storage reservoirs in that section were never filled 
during the past winter. All the cattle strong enough to stand 
the trip to the loading pens have been rounded up, sold to buy- 
ers from Kansas, Wyoming, Colorado, Dakota and Montana, 
and shipped out of the country. The carcasses of thousands of 
head of stock, too weak to be driven to the railroad, are 
strewn over the country, where they died from starvation 
and thirst. So numerous are these carcasses that the stench 
is very offensive to persons traveling through the section ad- 
jacent to Williams and Flagstaff. Many settlers have already 
been compelled to leave the section, and, unless rains soon 
come, the exodus must speedily become general. 

Advance in the Price of Vineyard Product*.. 

It is now evident that the wine product of Califor- 
nia for 1696 is going to be short owing to the frosts 
of the spring, and it, of course, follows that prices 
are to be higher than last season. As a beginning, 
the California Wine Association announces an advance 
in wholesale prices of 2i cents per gallon. Both dry 
and sweet varieties are included in the raise. These 
consist of claret, Zinfandel, hock, Reisling and Chas- 

July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


selas, and port, sherry and Angelica. Estimating 
that there are 10,000,000 gallons on hand, the ad- 
vance will place $250,000 in the pockets of the hold- 
ers. Ordinary claret has gone up from 25 to 27$ 
cents a gallon. Its price before the combinations in 
the trade were made was 11$ cents. 

Should Save Their Papers. 

Says the Four Corners of Wheatland : ' ' Sub- 
scribers to the Rural Press should save their 
papers and send for a binder which the publishers 
offer. The Rural Press is not a paper of to-day 
only, but is composed of matter valuable and in- 
structive at all times. A bound volume is an excel- 
lent library edition." 

Stockton Warehousemen Disgusted. 

And now comes a wail from Stockton to the effect 
that the grain schedule of the Valley Railroad favors 
Port Costa at the expense of the former port. The 
difference between the rate from valley points to 
Stockton and the through rate to Port Costa is 50 
cents per ton, while the rate by steamer and barge 
by the old line from Stockton to Port Costa, accord- 
ing to the rate list last issued by the California Nav- 
igation and Improvement Company, is 60 cents a 
ton. In discussing the matter this afternoon, M. P. 
Stein, representative of the Miller warehouse, said 
he thought the Valley road's new schedule would 
have a tendency to cause more grain to go direct to 
Port Costa, thus cutting into Stockton's warehouse 

Useless and Miseheivons Dickering. 

The utter folly of attempting to do any business in 
the Eastern markets with dried fruits in advance of 
the season is illustrated by the following letter writ- 
ten by a well-known Chicago merchant to Mr. Her- 
sey of San Jose, manager of the California Dried 
Fruit Agency. The letter is as follows : 

Chicago, July 2, 1896. 
R. W. Herney, San Jose, Cal. — Dear Sir: In conversation 
to-day with one of our large buyers, he told the writer he had 
been solicited to make an offer on prunes for October shipment, 
and that he had offered 2 cents f. o. b. for ten cars of four 
sizes, and would offer that for more. The only item of espe- 
cial interest to you in this gossip is, that he stipulated in mak- 
ing the offer that the quality and gradings should be equal to 

It is unfortunate, perhaps, that this sort of dickering should 
be indulged in at the present time, but "the boys" have 
nothing else to do. Yours truly, W. S. Knight & Co. 

S. F. Fruit Exchange Election. 

The annual election of the San Francisco Fruit 
Exchange occurred on Wednesday of the current 
week. There was no competition for honors, there 
being but one ticket which was elected, as follows : 
President, Herman Bendel ; vice-president, J. L. 
Wilson ; treasurer, Abe Rosenberg ; directors — D. 
E. Allison, H. Bendel, P. D. Code, W. A. Curtis of 
Sacramento, Frank Dalton, A. G. Freeman, C. C. 
Kinsey, Abe Rosenberg and J. L. Wilson. The new 
Board unanimously re-elected as secretary of the 
Exchange Mr. T. S. Taylor, who has ably filled that 
office since the organization of the Exchange. The 
annual banquet of the Exchangers occurred on Tues- 
day evening at the Occidental hotel and proved to be 
a great occasion. The reputation of the fruit trade 
as first-class "talkers " was fully maintained. 

Pith of the Week's News. 

Six deaths from heat during the past week are reported 
from the Mohave desert. 

Baron Hirsch's widow has donated £4,000,000 ($20,000,000) 
to promote the emigration of Russian Jews to Argentina. 

The story of the recent earthquake in Japan grows in hor- 
ror. The latest reports put the number of killed at 50,000. 

No visiting statesman in recent years has been received in 
Europe with such honors as have been accorded to Li Hung 
Chang. He will return home via the United States. 

At Logan, Iowa, on the night of the 11th, two Chicago and 
Northwestern trains came together at full speed. Thirty-five 
persons were killed and many others seriously injured. 

At the funeral of Harriet Beecher Stowe there were no 
mourning emblems. As at the funeral of her brother, Henry 
Ward Beecher, the church was decorated with flowers as for 
a festival. 

The Pacific mail steamship Colombia went ashore on Pigeon 
Point, thirty-eight miles south of San Francisco, on Tuesday 
night in a fog. The passengers were saved, but the ship will 
probably be a total loss. 

While driving through the streets of Paris in official state 
on Tuesday, the President of Prance was twice fired upon by 
a crank. The man was clearly irresponsible and the incident 
has no political significance. 

At Oleta. on Tuesday night, Frank French, while drunk, 
attempted to enter the store of Sing Wah, a Chinese mer- 
chant. He kicked in the door and was about to make his way 
in when the Chinaman shot him dead. 

Having been importuned to be a candidate for the Governor- 
ship of Missouri, Mr. Bland — "Silver Dick"— has declined, 
saying that, if it is desired by his people, he will serve in 
Congress; otherwise, he will remain in private life. 

The properties of the Oregon Railway & Navigation Co. 
were sold last week for $9,637,250. The "capitalization " upon 
which this company has long been exacting dividends aggre- 
gated about $45,000,000. Rates ought to be lower from this 
time forth. 

Jacob H. Neff has resigned as a member of the State 
Board of Prison Directors on account of ill health and lack of 
time. It is generally believed that Gov. Budd will appoint 
Robert T. Devlin of Sacramento to the vacant place. Devlin 
was once before a prison director. 

Mr. McKini.ey has had a very quiet week at home, varied 

by an on-Sunday trip to Cleveland, where be was the guest of 
Mr. M. A. Hanna. He continues to receive visitations from 
representatives from all parts of the country, but in respond- 
ing to their congratulations he has little to say about political 
matters. His formal letter of acceptance has not yet been 
issued. If he has any plans for the campaign, they are not 

Porfiro Diaz was on Monday re-elected for the fourth or 
fifth time President of the "United States of Mexico." 
Under the Mexican Constitution it is not allowed that the 
President shall succeed himself, but in the Spanish republics, 
so-called, trifles of this sort are not allowed to interfere with 
the personal plans of the men who command military power. 
While nominally the President of Mexico, Diaz is in reality a 
dictator, with unlimited powers. 

In the confusion of political principles and parties many 
strange things are happening. For example, A. T. Hatch, 
the fruit man, so long an advocate of protection, and who dur- 
ing the past three years has missed no chance, public or pri- 
vate, to laud protection and run down free trade, is now 
openly advocating a free trader for the Presidency. He con- 
siders the financial question as all-important, and bases his 
political change of heart on his faith in the silver cause. 

Spain is finding the Cuban war a tremendous strain upon 
her resources. In the seventeen months since the revolt began 
in has cost the lives of 60,000 men and $200,000,000 in money. 
Some of the Spanish statesmen are now urging the Govern- 
ment to grant reforms in Cuba, even while the revolt is yet 
active, under the belief that thus the war might be brought 
to an end. The belief it is believed is groundless. Any offer 
of reforms would be rejected by the insurgents. The Cubans 
will retire from the field only when they have won 

There has been an effort on the part of a certain sensational 
newspaper to make out a scandal at the Whittier Reform 
School, the charge being that several of the inmates had been 
cruelly whipped. It appears upon investigation that the 
story was practically a fabrication ; that the punishments 
inflicted were deserved and not brutal or unnecessarily 
severe. Those who manage such establishment as that at 
Whittier have to deal with some pretty tough cases and it is 
not surprising that moral suasion has oftentimes to be rein- 
forced with something more material and practical. 

The Democratic State Central Committee has been organ- 
ized as follows: Gavin McNab, James D. Phelan, A. A. 
Watkins, Eugene Deuprey, W. P. Sullivan, Max Popper, 
Marion Biggs, Jr., San Francisco; Thomas Garrard, Angels, 
Calaveras county ; A. B. Paris, San Bernardino; Harry Pat- 
ton, Los Angeles; J. K. Mahan, Sutter; John P. Haynes, 
Eureka; Dr. C. F. Nutting, Yreka; W. W. Foote, R. M. 
Fitzgerald, Oakland; Isidore Alexander, Sacramento; D. A. 
Ostrom, Yuba; John Markley, Solano; Fred Cox, Sacramento; 
J. A. Shepherd, Lathrop. 

Civil Engineers George Davidson, George H. Mendell, 
W. C. Alberger and E. C. Grunsky have submitted to "Re- 
clamation District 108" a plain to drain the great Colusa 
basin, and so redeem something like 70,000 acres of fine land, 
which now lies swampy and valueless. The project calls for 
the construction of a canal from Long bridge to Knight's 
Landing, which will carry off 12,000 cubic feet of water a sec- 
ond, and be of the largest capacity of any canal in the State. 
It will be thirty miles long, a quarter of a mile wide, 7 feet 
deep, and, when built, will assume the proportions of a great 
river. Exclusive of rights of way and land purchases, the 
outlay is estimated by the engineers at $550,000. 

Wm. J. Bryan of Nebraska, the Democratic nominee for the 
Presidency, is the youngest man ever named for that office. 
He was born in Illinois in 1860, moved to Nebraska in 1887, 
and has served two terms in Congress from the Lincoln dis- 
trict. His whole reputation rests upon his brilliant gifts as 
an orator, exercised persistently for the past nine years in 
the cause of free silver, to which he is devoted heart and 
soul. In his own part}' he has not always been in favor be- 
cause of his prenounced Populistie leanings. Nothing in the 
history of American politics is more dramatic than the circum- 
stances of his nomination. On Thursday his name was at the 
end of a long list of candidates — so far in the rear that he was 
scarcely considered a Presidential possibility. Called, by 
accident, to address the convention at a moment of waiting 
for a committee report, he so electrified the whole body of 
delegates that no other man was " in it " from that hour 
forth. Hardly in the world's record of oratory has so high a 
reward immediately followed a mere forensic display. The 
Vice-Presidential nominee — Arthur Sewell of Maine— is a 
shipowner of high character, very rich and very much re- 
spected by the people of Maine. He- has always been a Demo- 
crat and a free trader, and for several years has been a pro- 
nounced free silver man. 

The political situation in the United States is more mixed 
and uncertain than at any time since the war. The Republi- 
can party has declared for a high protective tariff and for " the 
existing" gold standard" until it can be superceded by inter- 
national bimetallism. It has made the special apostle of pro- 
tection its presidential candidate and will attempt to make 
the tariff the leading issue of the campaign. Its candidate for 
vice-president is an eastern man practically unknown in the 
political world, chosen because of his association with large 
financial and manufacturing interests. In thus adopting a gold 
policy, the party has lost the support of a body of western sil- 
ver men, but how large or to what effect it remains to be 
seen. On the other hand, the Democratic party has sought to 
subordinate all other issues than that of silver, and has 
named as its presidential candidate a western man whose 
whole celebrity rests upon his activity in the free silver agita- 
tion of the last half dozen years. In naming a candidate for 
the vice-presidency it has sought to conciliate eastern senti- 
ment by selecting an eastern man of wealth and of large 
financial connections. So far as the present campaign is con- 
cerned, this course has hopelessly divided the Democratic 
strength. That section of the Democratic party which lives 
east of the Alleghany mountains has served notice that it will 
not accept the free silver policy of the Chicago convention and 
that it will not support its candidates. It is clear that the 
Democratic free-silver party will have its way in making sil- 
ver the leading issue, or against the tariff, and that it will 
force the fighting during the campaign. It has a cause in 
which there is great popular interest, and it has a candidate 
singularly adapted by origin, temperament and speech-making 
talent to set the ball of popular discussion in motion. In all 
likelihood, the Populists will endorse the Democratic nominee 
and employ in his interest its widely-organized system of pub- 
lic agitation. In the campaign to be fought during the coming 
four months, the Republicans will have the strength of an 
abundant supply of money. The large vested interests of the 
country will fill the Republican campaign pot, and in all the 
ways which may be organized and supported by liberal use 
of funds, the Republican managers will have an im- 
mense advantage. But the advantage in popular oratory will 
rest with the combination of Democrats and Populists. Most of 
the effective stump speakers in the doubtful States will be on 
their side ; most of the fixed national prejudices may be and 
will be made to do them effective service; the prevailing 
hard times will second their appeals in a million homes. Up 
to this time nobody can do anything more than guess what the 
outcome will be. Indeed, it would be folly even to guess 

I since the main factors in the contest have not yet been fully 
developed. It will be time to begin guessing when it is deter- 

I mined what course the Populist party will take, when the 

bolting silver Republicans shall have declared their plans, and 
when the eastern gold-standardists have settled what their 
policy is to be. In the meantime, those| prophets who care 
to preserve their credit will do well to lie low and await 


Grain buyers are said to be numerous in the Sacramento 
and San Joaquin valleys. This is an encouraging sign. 

A correspondent reports that the whole product of the Los 
Gatos cannery for the present season has been sold in advance. 

Some miserable wretch is going about the country in the 
vicinity of Tracy slashing open grain sacks piled in the field. 

The report that L. U. Shippee of Stocktsn is on his death 
bed is denied. He is suffering from rheumatism, but his con- 
dition is in no sense critical. 

At Lodi on the evening of the Fourth Henry Barnhart lost 
a small field of grain by fire. It is supposed to have caught 
from a fallen rocket, fired in celebration of the day. 

The Anaheim Gazette says that a beet dump has been in- 
vented at that place which promises to revolutionize the 
handling of beet crops. Tim Carroll is the inventor. 

Highland Grange in the Santa Cruz mountains has incor- 
porated, its object being to conduct a summer school at Camp 
Roche and to purchase property in connection with the same. 

Chas. Ellis of Los Gatos was gored to death last Saturday 
by a vicious bull. He was tethering the animal when it made 
a mad rush at him, inflecting injuries from which he died a 
few hours later. 

Forty per cent of the orange crop of southern California for 
the season of 1S95-6 was sold through the exchanges. It is 
believed that a still larger share of next season's crop will be 
disposed of by the same method. 

Henry Bros., near Campbell mountain, eight miles east of 
Reedley, have harvested 1400 sacks of barley from a 60-acre 
field. It is reported that J. C. Housley, eight miles east of 
Reedley has beaten this record but the figures are not given. 

The estimated yield of hops in Sonoma county this year is 
9000 bales. In 1894 the yield was 1554 bales and in 1895 1050 
bales. Owing to low prices, some growers did not cultivate 
yards. Three cents a pound have been offered, but growers 
are disposed to wait for better figures. 

Edward Le Quesne, a well-known fruit grower of Sara- 
toga, has fitted up a drying plant and is preparing to handle 
2000 tons of fruit during the present season. L. Cunningham 
of San Jose supplied the whole mechanical plant, which is un- 
surpassed in Santa Clara county for completeness, conveni- 
ence and practical economy. 

Miller & Hatchkiss of the Sebastopol (Sonoma Co.) 
cannery have bought 250 tons of Visalia peaches, the greater 
part of which will be sent to Sebastopol to be put up. The 
price was $15 per ton. The Sebastopol establishment will 
have a prodigious output this season, estimated as follows : 
1000 tons of peaches, 60 tons of blackberries, 150 tons of plums 
and 200 tons of pears. 

Up to the present time only stockholders and their families 
have been employed in the Campbell dryer. It is the inten- 
tion of the management throughout the season to give work to 
residents of Campbell in preference to outsiders, and it is 
doubtful if they will be able to give work to all the local un- 
employed. One day last week more than forty persons asked 
for work and were refused. 

The Hanford Sentinel sounds the following note of warning 
to raisin growers : " Agents who have been examining the 
raisin crop in Kings county, and who have set the yield too 
high, as some think, are suspected of doing so to keep down 
the price in the interest of 'skinners.' Producers should go 
slow and not be too fast in contracting their crops, because the 
price should be at least 3 cents in the sweatbox." 

Lompoc mustard growers are in the thick of their harvest 
work. A full crop, says the Record, only in a very few in- 
stances can be looked for. The yield or output will be less 
than one-fourth of the previous year, which should have some 
good effect on prices. There are a good many thousand bags 
of last year's crop yet stored in the landing warehouse that 
is being steadily worked off at very low figures— too low, in 
fact, to encourage future planting. 

Says the Sonoma Farmer: And why not call them California 
walnuts '. They originated in Chili to be sure, and upon being 
transplanted in England, Spain and France and being sold in 
London, acquired the commercial name "English walnuts!" 
However, they grow like the French prune, to a greater state 
of perfection under our glorious sunshine stimulated by a 
generous soil, and we again assert that such superior products 
should be named after the State that gives them their sup- 
eriority. Push it along. 

Says the Modesto Herald: " So far as harvesting has pro- 
gressed, the barley yield has been uniformly good, running 
from eight to sixteen sacks to the acre, but the yield of wheat 
in the hard lands of the hills on this side of the San Joaquin 
is falling 25 per cent under estimates, while exceeding esti- 
mates about 25 per cent on the plains. In the hills the heads 
are small, the meshes contain but two grains and the grains 
are somewhat shrunken. On the plains the meshes are turn- 
ing out three and four grains and there is little shrinkage." 

Mr. R. W. Bell, the Santa Rosa nurseryman, returned a 
few days back from a trip to Yolo, Solano and Napa counties, 
and reports to the Santa Rosa Democrat : "The farmers about 
Dixon are experimenting largely with sugar beets and that 
they hope to have a sugar factory established there next year. 
From Winters west to the foothills a good crop of apricots is 
reported. East and south of the town the crop is very light. 
The Winters crop of apricots is put at 1000 tons. About Vaca- 
ville, except on the foothills, the fruit is not more than one- 
third of a crop, and the yield throughout Napa county will be 
very light indeed." 

Says the Pomona Times: " As this harvest progresses, the 
fact becomes more clearly apparent that for various causes — 
frost being one, but perhaps not the chief one — the apricot 
crop is not only small, but not up to the usual standard. The 
Pomona Deciduous Fruit Growers' Association will have not 
more than 70 tons of apricots, and ordinarily it would have 
about 600. About the same proportion is true of prunes and 
pears, and peaches relatively less. The causes of short crops 
are not all referable to frost. The warm weather of February 
started the sap up and the trees to growing; the cold weather 
of March checked growth, and it was not resumed with the 
usual vigor. Prunes and peaches bloomed during two or more 
months — something unusual." 

Tremont, Solano Co., letter: "Geo. Greive takes the cake 
this year for the heaviest yield of grain. From 100 acres of 
barley he harvested 2,000 sacks— an average of 20 sacks per 
j acre, and this, too, from winter-sown grain. The land from 
| time of sowing until harvesting was in use nearly five months 
I and represents a return of $15 per acre. * * * Tremont 
carries off the cooky this year for good yields of summer-fal- 
low wheat. On the low adobe soils there is being produced 
from 14 to 16 sacks per acre. On the high land, though, the 
yield is not so good, as the grain was about three weeks ear- 
lier and was badly injured by the frost. Rich, warm land is a 
good thing to have any time, but there are times when a 
I whole crop is ruined by blossoming too early and being nipped 
by the frost." 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 18, 1896. 

Weather and Crops. 

A Period of Exceptionally Hot Weather.- Grain Turning Out 
Better than Expected. 

Following is a summary of the weather and crop 
report compiled by the State Agricultural Society in 
co-operation with the U. S. Weather Bureau, James 
A. Barwick, Director : The record ends with the 
13th inst. t 

Sacramento Valley Counties. 

Teuama County (Coming).— Weather fine for harvesting. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 103° and 53°. 

Butte County (Chico).— Work in many harvest fields has 
had to be discontinued earlv each afternoon, so oppressive was 
the heat on laborers and the stock. Thermometer ranging 
from 10S° to 110° in the shade, and the nights are little better. 
(Pent?.).— Highest and lowest temperatures, 10f>° and 72°. 
(Gridley).— Grain turning out hotter than expected. 

Colusa County (Colusa).— We have the largest crop of bar- 
ley that has ever been produced in this county and the quality 
is'good, and it is being sold as fast as it can be sacked. Wheat 
is turning out well and the quality is good. (Grimes).— The 
thermometer registered 114°. (Grand Island).— Grain is far 
above the average : barley especially so. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 103° and 67°, with a sprinkle of rain. 

Sutter County (Pleasant Grove)— Grain is turning out a 
fair average. . 

Placer County (Newcastle)— Such a prolonged spell of ex- 
tremely hot weather has not been known for years, but as yet 
no injury has been done to fruit, which is ripening rapidly. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 104° and (58°. (Sheridan)— 
The grain is much less shrunken than it was thought before 
threshing; it is yielding well. 

Sacramento County (Orangevale)— Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 110° and 63°. 

Yolo County (Winters)— The excessive heat has ripened 
fruit rapidly ; quality fully up to the standard. In most of the 
orchards apricot drying is "about through with: the crop has 
turned out better than was expected, both in quality and 

.Napa, Sonoma and Santa Clara Valley*. 

Napa County (Napa City)— Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures, 98° and 52°, with a trace of rain. Grain is of good qual- 
ity and yield. Peaches are a small crop. 

Alameda Cot -sty (Irvington)— Barley crop is turning out 
better than for years past, both in quantity and quality. The 
grape crop will be the largest ever raised in this locality. 

Santa Clara County (San Jose).— Weather has a tendency 
to check the growth of fruit, particularly apricots and cause 
them to ripen prematurely. Highest and lowest temperatures, 
08° and 60°. No drying or canning peaches has as yet been 
harvested. Prunes are dropping in places and the aggregate 
loss in this way will be considerable. The total crop will be 
considerably less than last year. 

San Benito County (Hollister).— The yield of grain in this 
valley both in quality and quantity is exceeding expectations. 
The grain crop of this county will be very much greater than 
that of last season. Highest and lowest temperatures, 00° 
and 44°. 

San .Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaouin County (Lodi).— The hot week has done some 
damage to corn and young melons in contact with the 
hot earth were cooked. Highest and lowest temperatures, 
105° and 01°. 

Stanislaus County (Westley). — Weather very warm, 
harvesting is progressing rapidly and the yield is holding 
quite well. Highest and lowest temperature, 113° and 70°. 

Fresno County (Reedley).— There was a thunder storm and 
a shower on the tith. Highest and lowest temperatures, 
110° and S4°, with a trace of rain. (Fresno).— Weather good 
for harvesting and maturing fruit, light showers on the 6th. 
Highest and lowest temperatures. 112° and 70°. 

Tulare County (Lime Kiln).— Highest and lowest temper- 
atures 113° and 70° (Tulare).— The wheat crop is turning out 
much better than was supposed. (Monson). — Wheat yield is 
good and the quality extra. (Traver). — The thermometer 
registered 110° here and 115° at Dinuba. 

Southern California. 

Santa Bariiara County (Santa Maria).— Some bean fields 
are nearly entirely destroyed by birds. (La Craciosa). — All 
kinds of crops seem to be fully up to the average here so far 
this season, except fruit which was injured by the late frosts. 
(Carpenteria).- The foggy mornings are fine for beans and all 
other crops as everything is looking exceedingly well. 

Ventura County (Santa Paula).— Apricot crop will be very 
light. Beans are doing fairly well. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 84° and 47°. 

Los Angeles County (Los Angeles).— A light sprinkle of 
rain fell at Los Angeles on the 5th and tith and occasional 
thunder storms occurred. Beans and corn were benefited by 
the damp nights. Highest and lowest temperatures, 80° and 
58°, with .02 of an inch of rain. 

Coast Counties. 

Humboldt County (Eureka).— Feed drying up on the south- 
ern exposure. Main is badly needed. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 06° and 51°. 

Mesdocino County (Pomo).— The hot weather has been 
damaging to the wheat crop and also to oats. Most of the 
summer crops are short. Grasshoppers are becoming numer- 
ous. Highest and lowest temperatures, 98° and 56°. 

San Luis Obispo County (San Luis Obispo). — Barley is a 
very heavy crop, but fogs have delayed heading so that it is 
badly down in some places and consequently there will be 
quite a loss. Apricots are a very scarce, and light crop, as is 
also the peach, and the apple will only be a small crop. Pears 
will be a full crop. Cool weather and no heavy dews have 
kept pastures in good order, so that there are few deaths 
among cattle. Highest and lowest temperatures, 100° and 
50°, with .04 of an inch of rain. 

What a London Fruit Dealer Thinks. 

H. M. Isaacs of M. Isaacs & Sons, London, whose 
firm handled a portion of the California fruit shipped 
to London last year, has just returned to London 
from an extensive trip to California. To a reporter 

he said : 

My mission to California was simply in the inter- 
ests of the fruit business. I made an extended tour 
of the country and I must say that my impression is 
that it is still rather young as regards export busi- 
ness. By this I mean that fruit growers generally 
do not seem to consider the desirability of combining 
for the purpose of finding fresh outlets for their con- 
tinually increasing product. The amount of fruit 
grown in California, of course, is enormous, but some 
of the earlier results of shipments to London seem 
to have somewhat disheartened the shippers. 

The causes that lead to these early unsatisfactory 

results were the causes usual to the introduction of 
a new business. Experience and organization have 
already removed many of them. I think it was a 
great mistake for the California fruit to be con- 
signed for sale to Covent Garden, as this market 
depends almost entirely for its support upon sup- 
plies of similar fruit from England and France, and 
I think this interfered considerably with California 
having a fair field. 

As a proof of this I may mention that California 
people who were over here last season became con- 
vinced of this themselves and placed their later con- 
signments in private hands and at once expressed 
their satisfaction with the better results obtained. 

Their pears are well liked with us, and are now 
well introduced, and I am sure will always find good 
sale on this side. I think the fine California plums 
will also give satisfaction to shippers. Apricots, 
on the other hand, are not an article in much favor 
with us, and I do not think there is much prospect 
in shipping this article in the green state. 

In regard to peaches, the condition in which this 
article arrives seems attended with more risk than 
pears or plums. As regards the quantities, I think 
it will be some time before we can give satisfactory 
results for any large shipments. 

For all varieties our London market is as variable 
as all other fruit markets, but we are quite con- 
vinced that the average results to California ship- 
pers would be satisfactory, besides further helping 
to relieve the glut in their own markets. 

Continuing, Mr. Isaacs says: I think the dried 
fruit industry in California will also find a larger out- 
let here, but only the best fruit and packing should 
be shipped. The only exception as regards dried 
fruit I make is raisins. This article I consider has 
no chance in our market unless the crop of Spain 
should in any year prove a failure. 

Swine Plague in Sacramento Valley. 

To the Editor : — I have a herd of hogs seriously affected 
with a disease similar if not the same as the swine plague 
mentioned in the Rural Press of May 30, 18!)6, page 340. The 
hogs become sluggish, refuse to eat, and even the wildest can 
be approached and handled without any protest on their part. 
They often lay on the belly and refuse to move until forcibly 
aroused, when they seem to be unable to walk well. They 
have no control over their hind legs, but use their front legs 
as usual. The eyes are often gummed shut by a yellowish 
secretion, and diarrhu'a is common in the herd. Just before 
dying the animals are taken with a violent shivering fit. The 
pigs and old hogs are both affected, but the mortality is 
greatest among the young pigs. I have just hauled away 
eleven to-day and the preceding days have not been much 
better. Kindly let me know any remedy you can think of. as, 
at the rate mentioned, the whole herd of three hundred or 
more will be gone. Reader. 

Yolo County. 


This disease is swine plague in the pulmonary 
form, and this form prostrates quicker than any 
other. The article mentioned (in the Rural of May 
30th) describes the disease, its causes, symptoms and 
treatment. I might add that I have been exceed- 
ingly successful in handling this disease, and my suc- 
cess has been due to keeping up their strength by 
the use of stimulants and using powerful germicides. 
Have two hospitals; the bad cases keep in one hos- 
pital and other sick ones in the other hospital. One 
ounce of prevention is worth one pound of cure. Be- 
gin by treating the well hogs. The instant one gets 
sick immediately remove it to hospital, and have 
hospital as far removed from healthy hogs as pos- 
sible. The very worst cases should be kept in hos- 
pital No. 2. When any die it is necessary to bury 
very deep. Spread chloride of lime around the place 
and keep as dry and clean as possible. Take one 
pound of boracic acid, dissolve in two gallons of hot 
water and wash eyes and nose with the wash several 
times daily. If the hospital is roofed and closed 
medicated steaming is indicated several times daily. 
Get a can holding four or five gallons of water (an 
ordinary coal oil can will do), put a hot fire under it 
to cause steam to rise, and into the water put one- 
half cupful of Little's soluble phenyle, costing $1.50 
per gallon, or, in the absence of phenyle, creosote or 
carbolic acid will do. Steam them thoroughly; it 
would not hurt to steam the well ones, providing 
they can be kept under cover for one hour after- 
wards. Internally give : Quinine sulphate, 1 ounce; 
acetanilide, 3 ounces; sulphate iron, i ounce; nitrate 
potash, 2 ounces; sodium hyposulphite, 2 ounces; 
gentian root, 4 ounces; soda bicarbonate, 3 ounces. 
Give a heaping teaspoonful to a dose three times 
daily, or it can be mixed with "honey or molasses and 
spread on tongue with a flat stick. 

E. J. Creely, D. V. S. 

510 Golden Gate Ave., S. F. 

An Invitation. 

Haywards, Cal, July 9, 1896. 

To the Editor: — Will you kindly ask your sub- 
scribers for a recipe for making sweet pickles of 
gherkins, using mace ? If you will, I and perhaps 
others will thank you. Sincerely yours, 

C. P. Nettleton. 

[Who will answer this query ? That there are 
multitudes of women in California who know per- 
fectly how to make sweet pickles, we have the best 
reason for knowing. Will not some of them instruct 
our correspondent? — Ed. Rural.] 


California Apples. 

C. H. Shinn, Inspector of the University Experi- 
ment Stations, has been writiug some California ap- 
ple gossip for the readers of the N. Y. Independent, 
which will be found interesting to our own people as 
well as to the folks on the Atlantic side. 

California Can Grow Good Apples. — California is a 
large State, possessing a greater range of climate 
than any other State in the Union. Every one is will- 
I ing to admit that we grow good oranges, prunes, 
almonds, walnuts and apricots. Our peaches are 
said by some to lack flavor, though of surprising 
beauty. But criticism seems to center on our ap- 
ples. A California horticulturist is an especially 
difficult person to please in the line of fruit. He 
knows that everything depends upon the place where 
fruit is grown. He has learned that certain valleys 
or districts are best adapted to cherries, others to 
prunes, and soon through the entire list. He has 
also learned that the rich valleys, warm and shelt- 
ered, where his semi-tropic fruits succeed, are not 
the best apple countries. But the first commercial 
apple orchards were planted in the lowlands and by 
the rivers (excepting the small orchards of the old 
mining camps). Hence arose the quite justifiable 
idea that California apples were soft, insipid and 
altogether inferior. Very fair apples came from 
Oregon to San Francisco, in early days, quite out- 
selling the native products. At times, apples have 
been brought by the car load from Kansas, Missouri 
and other Mississippi Valley States. All the while, 
however, thousands of acres of mountain land, emi- 
nently adapted to the growth of apples, have been 
neglected and forgotten. 

The Mountain Apple Region*. — Many years ago 1 
traveled through a number of mountain counties. 
The old apple orchards attracted my attention. 1 
noticed that in a multitude of districts, at altitudes 
ranging from 1500 to 4500 feet, and scattered along 
the Coast Range and the Sierra, all the way from 
San Diego to Siskiyou, the quality of the apples was 
extraordinarily high. This seems to be the view of 
the best apple authorities in America. No finer, 
higher flavored apple, no cleaner, better colored 
apple can be grown anywhere in the world than on 
the isolated benches, or in these mountain valleys 
and heads of canyons, rich with every requirement. 
Here are the cold nights, the crisp winters, the per- 
fect summers. Here the famous old apples of nota- 
ble quality, long forgotten, appear to renew their 
youth. Here are many promising seedlings of which 
the world may yet hear. 

The total area of the apple country of California is 
impossible to determine as yet ; it is large enough to 
supply, if need be, the markets of America. But so 
many other fruits attract planters, that the apple 
will long receive less attention than it deserves. 
Those who have good apple orchards, however, are 
sure that they are profitable. 

In April and early May, the best, and indeed the 
only fine apples in San Francisco came from moun- 
tain orchards in the higher fruit districts of Toul- 
umne, Placer, El Dorado ; from Franktown, over the 
line in Nevada, on the eastern slope of the Sierras ; 
and, to a very limited degree, from Lassen and Sis- 
kiyou counties, from which transportation is difficult 
and expensive. These apples were Newtown Pip- 
pins, Winesaps, York Imperials and other fine late 
varieties of high rank in point of quality. There is 
little sale for the poor varieties. Five dollars per 
box (of fifty pounds), is cheap at this season, and six 
or seven dollars is often paid. At that price, or half 
that, mountain apple growing has a brilliant future, 
if the location is well selected. The transportation 
problem is very difficult of solution, however, and a 
large part of the income from the remote apple 
orchards must be paid to the railroads. There are 
localities high overlooking the valleys and yet so near 
the markets that freights will always be low. Such 
places can still be found within a 100 miles of San 
Francisco or Sacramento or Los Angeles — all great 
shipping centers. 

The other day I met a gentleman who has been a 
large buyer of California apples. He bought up the 
entire crop of one mountain district last year, and 
sent it to New York, where it sold at very high 
prices. "The truth is," he said, "we don't grow 
enough of this gilt-edge stock. We can't have too 
many such apples — not for years to come." So, as I 
understand, the business of apple growing has taken 
a start. 

Apples at the Experiment Stations. — The University 
of California's Agricultural Department has been 
collecting varieties of apples for experiments at its 
stations throughout the State. It has about 600 
kinds already, and in a few years will have twice as 
many. Perhaps forty of these kinds are promising 
seedlings that have originated in California. Its 
lists include varieties- of all the classic types — Rus- 
sets, Pearmains, Reinettes, Pippins, Calvilles, Rose 
apples and the rest. There are German, French, 
Russian, English and ItaliaD varieties of note, as 

July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

well as the standard American sorts. It has been 
said that 3000 distinct varieties of apples are de- 
scribed in pomological works ; but all the commer- 
cial orchards in America hardly plant fifty sorts to 
any notable extent, and few private or family 
orchards contain a 100 sorts. Now and then one 
hears of a collector or private experimenter who has 
several hundred varieties of apples. When its trees 
reach bearing age, the university collection will be 
one of the largest in the country. 

The Life of the Horticulturist. 

One of the most valuable addresses delivered be- 
fore the Chautauqua assembly in Oregon was that of 
Mr. Henry E. Dosch, commissioner of the first hor- 
ticultural district of that State. The following is 
an appreciative paragraph which we know many 
readers of the Rural will enjoy: 

The first thought that enters one's mind is, 
" What is horticulture ? " If we look into Webster's 
dictionary we find "The art of cultivating gardens 
and orchards," and a horticulturist is one who is 
skilled in the art of cultivating gardens and 
orchards." If we look into the Encyclopedia Britan- 
nica we find " Horticulture embraces the art and 
science of the cultivation of flowers, fruits and veg- 
etables " (please note the emphasis placed on the 
words "art" and "science"), the subject being 
treated from a scientific and practical standpoint, 
covering eighty-five pages of nicely printed matter. 
But does it not mean more ? 

When the Creator of this universe laid out the 
Garden of Eden, and planted trees for ornament as 
well as fruits, he placed therein the first couple, and 
intended them to be horticulturists. They were 
happy as long as they remained in their country 
home ; but at an evil hour they were driven out, and 
ever since man has striven to place those who were 
given him to love and care for in a similar Garden 
of Eden. 

Why People Turn to Horticulture.— Many of you 
may be dissatisfied with your farms or orchards, 
but you do not seem to know how very much better 
you are situated than your city friends. It is not 
all gold that glitters, and I am in a position to know 
whereof 1 speak. During my eight years' service as 
horticultural commissioner I have received hundreds 
of letters from all classes of city people — lawyers, 
doctors, bookkeepers and other clerks — yes, even 
from typewriters — asking my advice about horticul- 
ture as a better employment for them. And why 
have these people sought my advice ? Not because 
I have made a success of horticulture, but because 
the politician has found that office-seeking and polit- 
ical power is a snare and a delusion ; others have 
found that the chase after geld is delusive and sel- 
dom reached, and many others have found that social 
position is but a bubble, after all; and, finally, after 
their varied disappointments, sick at heart and ill in 
body, they turn to nature for their solace. It brings 
them nearer to their Creator, and the nearer they 
come to Him the less disappointments they meet, 
and the more peace, happiness and contentment 
they find. He speaks to them through the flowers 
and vegetables they grow in their gardens ; through 
the fruit trees they plant and cultivate and through 
the songs of the birds that fill the air. Ah, my 
friends, there are very few men, even if they do 
achieve all their heart's desires — be it money, politi- 
cal power or social position — that will not sooner or 
later turn to nature. Many of these people have 
since become thorough and successful horticultur- 
ists, regaining health in body and peace of mind. 

Occasionally I am asked by a city friend this ques- 
tion : "I- cannot understand how you can live in 
the country when you can live in the city." And 
my reply is, "I cannot understand how you can live 
in the city when you can afford to live in the coun- 
try, for it is a privilege, and some day you will 
find it out." 


In the course of Mr. Dosch's address, to which we 
have alluded, there is a picture of the present situa- 
tion in fruit growing which is so true to the facts 
that too much emphasis cannot be given to it. 
He said : 

Horticulture, as we understand it, is no longer a 
problem, thanks to the scientific investigation of the 
professors of our Experiment Stations throughout 
the United States and practical fruit growers ; we 
know the soils best adapted for the various fruits, 
the best varieties to plant for family use or commer- 
cial purposes, and know how to evaporate them ; we 
also know what varieties to plant together for pol- 
linating purposes ; we know the diseases and insects 
infecting trees and fruits, and how to combat them, 
but the marketing of our products to advantage is 
the greatest problem that confronts us. There has 
been written and said a great deal on this subject, 
much of which is true and much false. After a good 
deal of study and careful consideration, I came to the 
conclusion that co-operation is the only way to solve 
it. Fruit growing communities must form local 
associations and send representatives to form county 
associations, they in turn send delegates to form 
State associations, and these must form a great 

United States association. This may seem impos- 
sible to you, but I assure you nothing is impossible 
to the intelligent American citizen in this age. It 
is absolutely necessary to bring the producer and 
consumer closer together, so the former will receive 
remunerative prices for his products, and the latter 
will not have to pay the existing exorbitant prices. 

Fruits must be brought to a common center and 
there properly graded and packed and honestly 
marked on the outside of its contents. Apples and 
pears should be of uniform size in each box, and 
marked how many in each box, as oranges are now 
marked, so the purchaser knows what he is buying ; 
for hotel and boarding house keepers will pay more 
for smaller-sized fruits, if uniform, than larger ones 
or mixed, as they are more profitable to them, while 
families prefer the larger ones. Hence it is really a 
gain to grade them. 


Outlines of the Lectures at Camp Roache. 

As Rural readers are aware, the summer school 
of agriculture and economics opened at Camp 
Roache, near Wrights, in the Santa Cruz mountains, 
on July 6th. The institution is directly conducted 
by Highland Grange, and is under the auspices of 
the State Grange committee on education. The 
attendance of students from the outside is rather 
small, but a very attentive and interested audience 
is furnished by residents and their summer guests. 
The young scribes of the locality, who are very 
handy with their pens, furnish outlines of the lec- 
tures, and to this source we are indebted for the 
following : 

How Insects Injure Plants. — The summer school 
opened with a lecture by Prof. Woodworth of Berke- 
ley on the subject of " How Insects Injure Plants." 
It is the first of a series of three lectures intended 
to give such ideas as to the nature of insects, their 
means of livelihood and the precise methods by which 
they injure plant life that orchardists can carry on 
the warfare against them intelligently and success- 
fully. The foundation of the lecture was a descrip- 
tion of the processes of the death of a plant. Begin- 
ning with a normal condition, a lack of water caused 
by drought, or injury to the root, -results in a grad- 
ual closing of the pores in its endeavor to save its 
life by stopping the evaporation of its moisture. If 
the lack of water continues the cells will become 
flabby and the leaves will wilt. This condition, how- 
ever, it can usually endure a long time, generally 
reviving in the night and sustaining no permanent 
harm. If, however, at this time the plant is covered 
with scale, lice or other sucking insects, the drain of 
moisture continues in spite of the closing of the 
pores, and the plant passes into the death stage, 
when the tissues become dry and hard, no longer 
permitting the passage of water, and from which it 
cannot recover. The injurious effects of insects, 
therefore, depend largely on the external conditions 
of the plant, which vary with localities, seasons and 
even the time of day. Scale may during the year 
cover a tree and do it no harm, while the next year 
it may be killed by no great number. 

Relations of Seasons to Insect Injury. — In his second 
lecture Prof. Woodworth traced the growth of the 
plant from the increase of sap in the spring to the 
starting of buds, leafing out, until evaporation 
equals the absorption of moisture by the roots, stor- 
ing of food under the bark, which forms a layer 
there, and then to the final stimulation of root 
growth and increase of root absorption, which leads 
to the increased leaf growth. 

He spoke of the primitive cycle of insect life, and 
divided it into three stages, viz., egg, nymph or in- 
termediate stage, and imago or adult stage, and 
stated that when the insect was in the nymph stage 
it is particularly susceptible to disease. He spoke 
of different ways in which the seasons affect the 
growth of the insect, stating that the condition of 
the season does not alone affect insect life, but a 
combination of climatic conditions with the condi- 
tion of the plant and the insect produces the inju- 
rious results. Seasons containing no quick changes 
in temperature were, he said, those in which insects 
thrive best. The speaker urged careful watching of 
orchards during spring months in order that the 
growth of the insect might be carefully noted and 
effective steps taken toward exterminating it at the 
most opportune time. 

Insecticides. — Prof. Wood worth's last lecture was 
upon insecticides. He gave a short description of 
many insects, showing their manner of growth and 
methods of attacking the tree, and also the proper 
insecticides and manner of application. The exact 
formulas, he said, could be obtained by addressing 
the agricultural experiment station at Berkeley. 
Among those touched upon are the following: For 
codlin moth, spraying with pure Paris green, being 
sure to apply during the work of the second and 
third broods. For woolly aphis, which does injury 
to the crown of the tree only, scattering of wood 
ashes or gas lime around that portion of the tree. 

For black and brown scale he urged irrigation and 
thorough cultivation, in order to secure a good sup- 
ply of moisture. For the red spider, which is dan- 
gerous only in time of drought or in dry localities, a 
thorough drenching with water. Sulphur applied as 
on grape vines is also good. For the pear slug one 
application of Paris green is sufficient. 

Up to Date Viticulture. — On Thursday the subject 
changed and the lecture was by Instructor Hayneof 
the State University upon " Up to Date Practice in 
Viticulture." Mr. Hayne began with the statement 
which has been so frequently made of late that our 
viticulturists must look forward sooner or later to 
the death of every vine not upon resistant stock. It 
is true that there are insecticides which will kill the 
phylloxera and not kill the vine, but none has been 
found nor is there any reason to expect that any will 
be discovered that will cure the pest so effectually as 
not to require annular treatment. Annual treatment 
will cost more than the vines are worth. 

The cheapest effectual preparation for this purpose 
is bisulphide of carbon. This can be applied every 
year only to vines producing wines of great price, 
like the well-known chateau wines of France. For 
ordinary vineyards the treatment will not pay. 
What, therefore, the California vineyardist can do is 
to carefully watch for the appearance of the pest, 
fight it promptly and vigorously from the start, keep 
it back as long as possible and when it begins to in- 
crease rapidly change the resistant stock. 

Mr. Hayne gave the history of the introduction of 
resistant stock and the immense losses by errors in 
planting. The conclusion is that phylloxera will kill 
any vine which is planted in a soil or climate which 
is unfavorable to it, but will not kill certain varieties 
when planted in favorable situations. Individual 
growers, therefore, must study their own conditions 
in the light of the best advice obtainable, and make 
some experiments before planting largely. They can 
succeed in the end by taking pains. 

The groups riparia and rupestris have after 25 
costly years of French experience been found the 
most satisfactory of American wild vines, and in se- 
lecting the right varieties of these the greatest care 
should be exercised. Varieties with small leaves and 
slender canes are worthless. This spring the State 
University imported several thousand of the resist- 
ants found most satisfactory in France, and will dis- 
tribute them throughout the State. Each man must 
experiment and find out what is best for his own par- 
ticular locality. Mr. Hayne recommended grafting 
in nursery, instead of in the field. He also recom- 
mended that, to prevent the spread of the Anaheim 
disease, the importation of cuttings from infected lo- 
calities should be prohibited. 

Foes of the Olive Manufacturer. — In his address on 
the olive and its products, Mr. Hayne emphasized 
the need of extreme care against the intrusion of un- 
friendly influences. His first caution in handling the 
olive, either for oil or pickles, was to guard against 
mould. He said that if he were buying olives and 
found fifty mouldy olives in a wagon ioad offered he 
would reject the whole lot. 

He then proceeded to discuss moulds. They all 
come from spores which are always present in the 
air and cannot be exterminated. The only way is to 
prevent their germination or to kill the plants which 
they form after germination. There are many kinds 
of moulds. For their development they all require 
heat and moisture. These they always get when 
they are lodged on picked olives packed in barrels or 
placed in deep piles. 

The reason all olives do not mould under such con- 
ditions is that, although the spores germinate, their 
roots cannot penetrate the skin of a sound olive and 
they die. But they do penetrate the bruised or 
broken olives and live and grow, and their product 
taints the whole mass. A bad taste thus communi- 
cated to olive oil can never be removed. 

In the manufacture of oil, absolute cleanliness 
must be maintained in regard to all implements used, 
amounting to absolute sterilization of all surfaces 
coming in contact with the olives or their product. 


The subject of economics occupied by Prof. E. A. 
Ross of Stanford University each afternoon during 
the two weeks of the school. The first week was 
given to five lectures on transportation. 

Effects of Improved Transportation Facilities. — The 
effects of improved methods of transportation are the 
building up of large industrial centers, the speciali- 
zation of farming communities upon one or more 
crops, keener business competition, resulting often- 
times in trusts and greater sympathy between prices 
in different markets. The transportation agencies 
of the country form a system of related parts, from 
the pack mule to the double-track railroad. The 
canals and the country road are not absolute as some 
suppose. The transportation system must include 
all grades of agencies, because of the diversity of the 

Water Transportation. — After giving several funda- 
mental principles of transportation and describing 
their manner of growth in the United States, Prof. 
Ross spoke of waterways, and divided them into 
natural waterways, which he defined as oceans and 
rivers having a depth of 30 feet and over, and arti- 
ficial waterways, such as ship canals connecting two 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 18, 1896 

systems of natural waterways and inland canals con- 

TSSSSSk he thought, should be under control of 
the public, through either the State or nation as 
their being controlled by private corporations, which 
constantly tend toward combination would lessen 
their power as the best and most satisfactory regu- 
lator of railroad rates that has ever been found. A 
complete system of waterways, he thought, was an 
almost perfect regulator of railroad rates Besides 
being under public control, they should be public 

bl fn touching on the Nicaragua canal, Prof. Ross 
showed how England could undersell our country at 
present in western South American countries, and 
how the building of this canal would greatly benefit 
the agricultural interests of the Pacific coast and the 
manufacturing interests of the Eastern States. He 
said that the sentiment in favor of building this 
canal was rapidly growing and predicted that within 
five years the shovels of Uncle Sam would be found 
undertaking this great enterprise. 

Railroad Corporations.— Professor Ross next dis- 
cussed the railroad corporations and their relations 
and methods of dealing with each other and the pub- 
lic. In part he said that in the corporation the 
moral element is at a minimum, and hence railroads 
often refuse to protect their patrons, employees or 
the public by the abolition of car stoves, link couplers 
or grade crossings until compelled by law. The pres- 
ence of conflicting financial interests in the corpora- 
tion has in the absence of stringent corporation laws 
resulted in a shameful disregard of the stockholders' 
interests by railroad managers. 

The manipulation of rates and accounts, in order 
to affect the price of stocks, and the formation of 
profit-seeking parasite corporations by an inside 
ring, have made such a scandal that European visit- 
ors have become shy of American railway securi- 
ties. The building of a road with the proceeds of 
bonds sold, often at a discount, instead of with money 
paid in on stock, has resulted in enormous over-capi- 
talization, which furnishes an excuse for high rates. 

The mortgaging of so much of the railway's reve- 
nue in advance for the payment of interest on bonds 
must, if the regime of falling prices continues, in- 
evitably carry the majority of our railroads into 
bankruptcy. Not until complete financial reorgani- 
zation has been secured can stability be maintained. 

Railroad Rates. — Professor Ross next dealt with 
railroad rates. He declared that " no single formula 
affords the basis of a just system of rates. Neither 
charging according to cost of service or according to 
ton per mile or according to distance yields a satis- 
factory schedule." 

The main principles for a system of rates are that 
charges should take into account the value of the 
goods. They should favor the broadest development 
of agriculture and the mining industry. Personal 
discrimination should not be allowed. Large centers 
should not be favored to the injury of smaller towns. 

The principle of charging " all that the traffic will 
bear " was roundly condemned, while it was admitted 
that charges should have some reference to what the 
traffic could endure. Railroad competition, he said, 
terminates naturally in bankruptcy or consolidation. 
Pooling was defended as necessary in some cases and 
allowable under proper supervision. 

Control of Transportation C vmpaaies. — Professor 
Ross next discussed the practical methods by which 
it is in the power of the public to control railroad 
corporations and assure good service to the public 
with proper compensation to the companies. He 
first described the Massachusetts plan of a railroad 
commission with power only to investigate and 
recommend. In his opinion, while that plan worked 
and still works well in Massachusetts, it was not 
suited to the Western States, the reason being that 
in Massachusetts the stockholders who own the 
roads are part of the people to be served, living in 
their midst and amenable to public opinion, while the 
Western railroads are owned and often managed by 

In the Western States, therefore, strong commis- 
sions have been found necessary with full power. 
The peculiar situation in California was described. 
He said that under the law as now existing and in- 
terpreted by the Supreme Court, the commission 
may fix rates, but must not make them so low that 
they will pay no interest on the investment. Under 
this ruling the railroad shows the record of stock 
and bonds outstanding and claims the right to earn 
interest on their face. 

The people, on the other hand, claim that the face 
of these securities does not represent the actual 
money put into the roads. This is the question in 
dispute between the companies and the public, and 
its treatment involves the discussion of so many sub- 
ordinate but intricate subjects as to make it exceed- 
ingly difficult of just solution. 

The reasons were explained why it was not in the 
public interest that railroads should drive each 
other by competition into bankruptcy; and as this 
result seems inevitable under present conditions, the 
professor believed that pooling under national con- 
trol should be permitted. In general, it was his be- 
lief that, for the immediate future, it should be our 
policy rather to perfect State control than to seek 
for State ownership. 


Anothor Way to Make a Round Silo. 

We have recently described two forms of silo con- 
struction—one used in Minnesota and another in 
southern California. Still another is described in 
the Southern Planter as having rendered several 
years satisfactory service in Virginia. 

A Hundred-ton Round Silo.— This silo has a diame- 
ter of eighteen feet inside measurement and a depth 
of twenty-one feet. The foundations for the building 
were laid in a circular trench three feet deep and oue 
foot wide. This trench was filled with small stones 
and good mortar well grouted together, thus practi- 
cally making a concrete foundation. Upon this wall 
so built the sill was laid and bedded in the mortar to 
its full depth (three inches). This sill was made from 
three-inch boards one-half inch thick, four of these 
being nailed together round a circle of stakes eigh- 
teen feet in diameter, with the joints of the boards 
broken in each layer. This practically made a hoop 
of the size required for the sill. The plate was built 
up in the same way, but was reduced in width to two 
inches. After the sill had been bedded down on the 
foundation, the studs, 2 by 4, were set upon it two 
feet from center to center and spiked to the sill and 
plate. The frame was now ready for boarding, and 
this was commenced on the inside at the level of the 
sill. The outside boarding was not commenced 
nearer the sill than nine inches. This nine inches 
was closed by continuing the foundation wall or con- 
crete in a sloping form from the outside of the wall 
to this height, thus carrying off water running down 
the outside of the silo and keeping it from the sills 
and studs. The boarding of the silo, both inside and 
outside, was half-inch weather boards. No difficulty 
was experienced in bending these boards round the 
circumference of the silo. Joints were broken every 
course, and the inside boarding was always kept two 
boards ahead of the outside, thus keeping the stud- 
ding firm and straight. The space between the in- 
side and outside boarding was filled as the boarding 
proceeded with well-mixed mortar made of good 
lime and clean sharp sand. In this way the walls 
were made solid and air-tight. The roof was circu- 
lar, covered with boards twelve feet long ripped 
cornerwise, and was strengthened with two rims 
around the rafters inside between the plate and the 
apex of the roof. These rims were built up in the 
same way as the sill and plate. The roof was then 
covered with two thicknesses of tarred paper, break- 
ing the joints, and afterwards painted with two coats 
of tar and well sanded. The openings into the silo 
are three in number, each two feet by three feet, one 
over the other, and two feet apart, between two of 
the studs. These have outside doors hung on hinges, 
and are closed inside with loose boards as the filling 
proceeds, the space between the inside and outside 
doors being packed with sawdust. After the build- 
ing was completed, the ground inside was excavated 
two feet deep, thus increasing the depth to twenty- 
one feet. 

The Materials Required.— The materials required 
for the building of this silo were as follows : 
Lumber— 28 pieces 2 by 4, 18 feet long . . . 336 feet 
8 pieces 2 by 4, 12 feet long ... 9(5 feet 
2200 feet half-inch weather boards 2200 feet 
32 pieces 1 by 12, 12 feet long . . 384 feet 

Total 3016 feet 

One hundred pounds nails (8's) and a few pounds 

of spikes. 

Six barrels of lime and as much good clean sand as 
necessary to make a strong mortar. 
Three rolls of tarred paper. 
Half barrel of gas tar. 

The inside of the silo was painted with two good 
coats of tar. 

If kept regularly painted with a mixture of boiling 
tar and pitch, to which a few pounds of rosin should 
be added, the silo will last for twenty years. 

Rearing Calves With Creamery Skim Milk. 

The best way to raise calves with the separated 
skim milk brought back from the creamery is a mat- 
ter of much importance to our dairy readers in view 
of the multiplication of these establishments in Cali- 
fornia. At a recent Farmers' Institute in Wiscon- 
sin the procedure above mentioned was discussed by 
A. M. Stevens, and very pertinent suggestions were 
made : 

The Creamer;/ Calf. — It has been said that " the 
calf is the mother of the cow." And if intended for 
the dairy it should be specially bred for the particu- 
lar line of dairying in which it is expected to be used. 

Whole milk is their natural food, but too expen- 
sive, and as skim milk may be considered a by- 
product of the dairy it is the most available, as well 
as the most natural food we have for the calves. 

Composition of Skim Milk. — In skimming average 
milk, say testing 4.2% fat, about one-fourth of the 
total solids is removed, and the skim milk will con- 
tain about 19.6% solids not fat, and from .1% to .2% 

of fat. The most important part of the milk for 
feeding purposes is still left in the skim milk, that is 
to say, the protein (the per cent of which is a trifle 
larger in the skim milk), and the most of the fat, a 
portion of the heat-producing elements, is removed in 

As the bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons, nerves, 
and internal organs are largely made up of protein 
and albuminoids, and as the per cent of protein is a 
trifle larger in the skim milk than it is in the whole 
milk, and a small per cent of the carbohydrates, or 
heat-forming elements, is still retained in the skim 
milk, we still have a good basis for a ration for 
calves in skim milk. 

The lack of heat-making elements may be largely 
compensated for by furnishing the calves warm, dry, 
sunny quarters, where they will be comfortable and 
not exposed to cold weather and driving winds. 

Hon- to Feed Skim Milk. — In feeding skim milk to 
calves, and especially after it has begun to sour, 
the most important thing to mix with it is. common 
sense. And an inspection of the calves reared on 
skim milk, on some ranches, show by their scrawny 
appearance, an evidence of indigestion which is too 
plain to be mistaken, the entire absence of the above 
mentioned ingredient in their ration. 

The most common mistake made in feeding skim 
milk is to feed too much of it. The stomach is over- 
loaded and the food ferments, and scours is the re- 
sult. The calf dwindles and then we hear the com- 
plaint, " That milk is pretty thin, boys; the calves 
are not doing well ; give them more milk " — not per- 
ceiving they are already being fed more than they 
can digest. 

How tin Cains arr Handled. — We shall not attempt 
to give a balanced ration, but will give our method 
of feeding calves, and invite an inspection of the 
calves as evidence of the success of the method. The 
calves are allowed to suck their dams twice a day 
for one or two days. If the dam's udder is much 
swollen they are allowed to suck somewhat longer. 
Then they are taken from the cow and kept in a 
portion of the barn devoted to their use. This 
apartment is kept clean and well bedded with straw. 
They are fed their dam's milk for about one week ; 
then we begin to add a small quantity of skim milk, 
and by the time they are four weeks old they are 
taki lg skim milk straight. As to the amount each 
calf is fed, that depends entirely upon the'calf. Feed 
each just what it can digest, and no more. 

Each calf is confined in a stanchion while being 
fed, so that each gets its allowance without interfer- 
ence from the other. A small box is placed in front 
of the stanchion, and a handful of ground oats, or 
barley, or mill feed, whichever is at hand, is placed 
in it. And it is surprising to see how young the 
calves will begin to eat it, and are given of these 
feeds all they will eat up clean. We do not mix the 
ground feed with the milk, preferring to feed it dry. 
Hay is kept within their reach in winter, and when 
grass is not convenient a lot is fixed so the calves 
can bask in the sunshine and get exercise. 

Wanning the Food. — Our milk is sent to the cream- 
ery and skim milk is returned about noon, which is 
too late for the morning meal, and by evening, in 
warm weather, it is more or less sour, but it is fed 
all the same as if it was sweet. We do not send the 
milk to the creamery on Sunday, and have to save a 
double portion Saturday so as to have enough for 
Sunday. And by Sunday evening, in warm weather, 
it is loppered, but the calves do not seem to know 
the difference. In cool weather, and especially in 
winter, the skim milk is warmed by putting enough 
hot water in it to warm it up to 70 to 80° F., as it 
is as bad to feed chilled milk as it is to over feed. If 
scours occur, cut down the amount of feed until the 
calf can digest what is fed. 

Treatment for Scours. — Last September we had our 
first round with scours. A new man thought he 
knew more about feeding calves than we did, so in- 
creased the feed for them, and in a few days the 
calves were " performing the garden hose act," 
each trying to outdo the other. We went to the 
barn at feeding time to find out what the trouble 
was, and watched. In a few minutes he came with 
a bucket in which was 14 pounds of rich milk to give 
to a calf two weeks old. There was nearly 1 pound 
of butter in the milk. It is needless to say he did 
not feed the calves any more, and we got some ex- 
perience. Well, we got hot water, some fresh milk, 
and some charcoal, and fresh eggs. We gave the 
smaller calves 1 pint fresh milk, 1 pint warm water, 
2 eggs, beaten up, and 1 tablespoonful of charcoal, 
all mixed together. To the larger calves we gave 
1 quart milk, the same of water, 2 eggs, and 1 
spoonful of charcoal, to start with, and then slacked 
some lime and made lime water and added about I 
gill to the above allowance ; fed the above twice a 
day, and in a few days the calves were all right. 
The feed was gradually increased until they were 
getting their allowance. Each calf's miik is meas- 
ured to it. There is no guessing. They get from 2 
to 4 quarts each, according to age and size, at a 
feed. As each should be fed according to individu- 
ality, we will repeat, feed ail they will digest, so 
they keep thrifty, and if they are intended for dairy 
cows they should not be fed enough to fatten them. 
That you may judge something of the condition of 

July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


our calves, will say that by coaching them a little 
our grade bull calves are sold for veal. 

We would prefer to feed the milk sweet if we 
could so get it. 


Interesting Experience in Sacramento County. 

S. W. Palin, of Gait, who has been in the poultry 
business in California for more than a quarter of a 
century, writes a very interesting letter to the Poul- 
try Monthly, and his incisive comments will be en- 
joyed by many other growers in this State. 

A Long Systematic Effort.— I have been in the poul- 
try business more or less extensively since 1870, hav- 
ing raised large numbers of turkeys in the seventies 
— as high as 1300 in a flock — therefore, I am no 
novice in the business. From turkeys I got to chick- 
ens, and for many years have raised from 200 to 400 
annually — all thoroughbreds — from the best stock 
obtainable. Of the different varieties I have tried 
(and I have tried quite a number), I find the S. C. 
White Leghorn gives the best satisfaction, as their 
eggs are a good size and bring the top price in the 
market, that being my line. 

During all these years I have not gone on blindly, 
but have kept close account with each breed sepa- 
rately, and I can assure you that, while my loss and 
gain account is an interesting study, it is by no 
means a pleasant one. It shows my loss one year to 
have exceeded my highest gain in any one year ; 
and yet I have had no epidemic of roup, cholera, 
gapes or any contagious disease. Sporadic cases 
have occurred, but I have had no heavy losses from 
that cause. 

The Business Not Over- Profitable.— Day after day, 
Sunday and week-day, early and late, year in and 
year out, I devoted all the time I could possibly get 
from my business to my fowls in my efforts to make 
them pay. I also made slaves of my family, with the 
result that my better half has years ago been dis- 
gusted, my children wish they bad never seen a 
chicken, and I have come to the conclusion that the 
same amount of energy put into any other business 
would have given much better results financially. 

The amount of bosh written on the poultry busi- 
ness is enough to disgust anyone who has had any 
experience. Profits of $2 and $2.50 per hen ; hens 
laying 150 and 200 eggs ; eggs averaging 25 or 30 
cents a dozen ; capons at $18 per dozen ; all such is 
misleading. No doubt hens have laid 200 eggs each. 
I have had them myself, and I have sold eggs at 75 
cents per dozen for market purposes ; also young 
roosters at $13 per dozen, and hens at $12 per dozen. 
But when I figure out the average yield of eggs from 
hundreds of hens, I find the best yield I ever had to 
be 111 per hen for twelve months from S. C. B. Leg- 
horns. I also find that the average price received 
per dozen for 1895 was 16o cents (this year it will be 
lower) and the average cost per hen 85 cents, and 
still I get as many eggs as any of my neighbors, and 
more than nine-tenths of them, and always get the 
highest market price, often a trifle over. I also find 
that in figuring my stock (all thoroughbreds) on the 
first of January at 30 cents each, that I have over- 
estimated them ; that what I sell of them during the 
year do not average that much. Last week I sold 
some fine Plymouth Rock hens in the San Francisco 
market at $4.25 per dozen ; they netted me 29£ cents 
each ; some fourteen -weeks-old broilers brought $2.50 
per dozen, and have heard of capons being sold as 
old hens. 

Still, There May be a Living in It. -Still, I believe a 
living can be made from fowls, but only by hard work 
and untiring application. No widow, invalid or crip- 
ple need undertake it, and I say it is wrong to lead 
such to invest their small hoard in a business from 
which the returns are so inadequate to the amount 
of labor. 

As an adjunct to the farm, fowls are invaluable, 
and more attention should be paid to them by farm- 
ers. They are a success, if only half attended to ; 
but as a business of itself, I think a good deal as an 
acquaintance of mine once said. Several years ago 
he came here from the East, where he had been en- 
gaged in the poultry business, but, so far as I could 
find out, it had not been a financial success. Still, 
he was very enthusiastic and believed he could make 
it pay well on this coast, where everything, as he 
termed it, was so favorable. Both fowls and hens 
were much higher then than now. So, together with 
his brother, he embarked in the business. He was a 
good judge of fowls and seemed to know what he 
wanted. Bought Plymouth Rocks, from which to 
raise broilers, and S. C. W. Leghorns for eggs. The 
brother took a position, I believe, in San Francisco, 
and my friend ran the business. For some time I 
lost sight of him, when one day he turned up smiling 
and apparently prosperous. After the usual greet- 
ing, I asked him how the poultry business was pro- 
gressing. He replied : "Oh, darn the poultry busi- 
ness ; it is too expensive a luxury. We could not 
earn enough on the outside to keep the business run- 
ning, so closed out." And yet this man is successful 
in other lines. 

A Good Word for Ducks. 

Under certain favorable conditions, says M. S. 
Dixon in the Poultry Monthly, the breeding of ducks 
is very profitable, and there are few farms or small 
country places upon which a few ducks could not be 
kept with both pleasure and profit. Of course, these 
birds belong to the classes of water fowl, and there- 
fore it is desirable to have a pond, spring, brook, 
lake, or some small, clean body of water, in which 
the ducks may bathe and freshen their plumage 
(which soon becomes soiled and dirty), as well as 
secure considerable food in the shape of water plants, 
insects, worms, etc. Wherever a duck plant is lo- 
cated near an arm of the sea, the ducks secure much 
food in shape of fish, quahaugs, clams, etc., at each 
ebb tide. But notwithstanding the desirability of 
water privileges, ducks will get along and do very 
well with only enough water for drinking purposes, 
and indeed thousands upon thousands of ducks that 
have graced tables of hotels, epicures and others, 
never saw more water than their drinking dishes 
held, from time of hatching until death ended all. 

That roast duck is fine eating cannot be denied, 
and that duck eggs are large and very nutritious al- 
so cannot be gainsaid. Hence a flock of a dozen, or 
less, of ducks will go quite a distance in keeping the 
family in the best of provision. One very important 
item about the duck is that, when properly cared for 
in a small flock, she will continue laying for three or 
four months a fine, large egg, just as truly as the 
day comes around. The hen is satisfied to lay every 
other day, or even less, but the duck carries on ac- 
tive business every day. It is not a good plan to 
pen ducks in very large flocks. Twenty-five ducks 
to a pen is plenty, and four lively drakes about right 
for the twenty-five ducks. During the laying season 
keep the ducks confined during the forenoon, when 
the eggs will have been about all dropped; then set 
them at liberty during the afternoon. Ducks are 
great eaters, but luckily not over particular. They 
seem to crave bulky, filling food; so boil roots for 
them, such as beets, carrots, onions, potatoes and 
turnips. Mash these and add a mixture of ground 
grain composed of bran, ground oats, corn meal and 
linseed meal. Mix the grain something as follows: 
One peck bran, one peck oats, one peck corn meal 
and two quarts linseed meal. Do not forget oyster 
shells for grit and to help form the egg shells, for 
the making of which a great deal of carbonate of 
lime is needed. The young ducklings are at first 
quite tender, and must be kept from rains, water 
and all dampness. Feed them milk with the regular 
foods, if possible, and force rapid growth. As soon 
as they acquire regular feathers they are hardy and 

Selected Suggestions. 

Males iu Laying Pens. — The advice is very com- 
monly given by modern poultry writers that where 
eggs "are wanted for the table simply, and not for 
breeding purposes, keeping a male in the flock is not 
only useless but a positive disadvantage, the reason 
assigned usually being that the eggs will keep longer 
if no male is kept in the pen. The reason is doubt- 
less a good one, but it is not the only one. A series 
of experiments covering the point, undertaken at 
the New York Experiment Station, made it very 
conclusively appear that where hens were kept with- 
out a male eggs were produced at about 30 per cent 
less cost than exactly similar pens where cocks and 
cockerels were kept. In some pens, too, the pro- 
duction of eggs was nearly a third larger in pens 
where no males were kept than in others of precisely 
the same kind, managed in the same way, except 
that the presence of the male was permitted. Keep- 
ing males in laying pens, therefore, except where 
fertile eggs are wanted for setting, is a mistake in a 
variety of ways. The eggs are produced less eco- 
nomically, they are liable to be fewer in number, and 
they are not as good keepers. 

Meat for Fowls. — It is acknowledged by all who 
breed poultry that meat is not only necessary but 
essential, especially if the flock is confined. The 
difficulty is how to procure a supply. The scraps 
from the table are sufficient for a small number, but 
amount to nothing for large flocks. The ordinary 
pressed meat from bone-boiling establishments has 
served an excellent purpose, but too much labor is 
required to chop it, especially in winter, when it be- 
comes frozen. There are ground meats prepared 
for fowls, but farmers are adverse to buying arti- 
cles put up in such condition, for fear of adultera- 
tion. If near a market-house, the- refuse portion of 
slaughtered animals may be used; but when this is 
inoperative the farmer can make no substitute in 
the shape of meat, but he can make a substitute in 
the shape of butter-milk, oat meal, linseed meal and 
other materials rich in nitrogen. The best of all 
substitutes is milk, whether in the full or skimmed, 
and it may be placed where the fowls can drink it, 
or it may be mixed with their soft food. About one 
ounce of meat three times a week is sufficient for one 
hen or about two pounds weekly for a flock of ten. 

When To Use Soft Food. — One meal of soft food is 
sufficient, and it should be given early in the morn- 
ing, warm. No meals are necessary at noon, as it is 

better to allow the hens to be hungry so as to coi 
pel them to scratch than to keeps their crops full, in 
which case they become very fat. At night scatter 
the grains so that the hens will have a job searching 
for them. Should any be left over they will be found 
by the hens the next morning. Soft food may con- 
sist of anything that can be fed in that condition. It 
is the meal to which all the extra foods are added. 
It should never be very soft, but of a consistency to 
allow it to be crumbled. 

Mode of Feeding. — If whole grains are given scatter 
them over as. wide a space as possible, so as not to 
crowd the hens while eating, and also to prevent the 
greedy ones from taking an advantage. The soft 
food is best given on boards one foot square, using a 
number for that purpose, so as to place the food at 
wide intervals for the same purpose. 

Vices of Hens. — The reason why hens eat their eggs 
is often due to an insufficiency of egg-producing food. 
True, they may acquire the habit from others, but 
as the eggs must be produced from any substances 
which are difficult of procurement by the hens, they 
find such in the ready food of the eggs eaten by 
them, for nature prompts them to appropriate any- 
thing that serves to increase their capacity for per- 
forming the duties assigned. To prevent the hens 
eating the eggs, they should be fed on a variety of 
food — milk and meat at least three times a week be- 
ing excellent. Construct the nests so that they will 
be secluded and dark and the temptation wiil de- 
part. The fowls that are prone to foraging, such as 
Leghorns and Hamburgs, are more subject to this 
vice than other kinds, for confinement requires a 
supply for all, or the equivalent of that which the 
fowl secures when on the range. The Brahmas, be- 
ing somewhat phlegmatic in disposition and less ac- 
tive than the smaller breeds, bear confinement well, 
but even they will indulge in egg eating when con- 
fined too closely on one kind of food. The same cause 
is attributable to the pulling of feathers, which is one 
of the most detestable crimes that a hen can be 
guilty of, as the feathers contain nitrogen, phos- 
phorous, sulphur, potash and carbon, the two for- 
mer being often deficient in the food given on most 
farms. It is much easier to prevent vices than to 
cure them, for fowls, like humans, are sometimes ob- 
stinate, and the best way to prevent egg eating and 
feather pulling is to remove the necessity for it by 
feeding food containing all the elements that serve 
to nourish both the body and the embryo egg. 

Importance of Gritty Material. — Because the flock 
has the run of a field is no reason for supposing that 
a plentiful supply of gritty material is found by the 
hens. A calculation will show that when the hens 
are searching daily over every portion of the range 
that only a short time is required for them to ap- 
propriate all the gritty material that can be utilized. 
It is not every kind of hard substance that will an- 
swer the purpose. Round gravel is not suitable. 
The hens should have sharp, cutting material, such 
I as flint, broken china and earthen ware, or even 
| glass. Where they are confined it is still more im- 
portant that the matter of providing grit should not 
be overlooked. Grit is the teeth of fowls, and with- 
out it they cannot masticate their food and thereby 
prepare it for digestion. 

The Distribution of Agricultural Documents. 

The Division of Publications of the United States 
Department of Agriculture sends us the following 
statement about the limitations imposed upon de- 
partment publications by the printing bill. It may 
explain why some of our readers are disappointed: 

The correspondence of the Department of Agricul- 
ture indicates that very few people realize the lim- 
itations imposed upon the publications of that de- 
partment under the printing bill of January 12, 1895. 
Constant complaints are being received of the limita- 
tion of certain bulletins of a very popular character, 
such for instance as that on Nut Culture and that on 
the Honey Bee, of which only 1000 copies — not one- 
twentieth of what is needed to supply the demand — 
were printed, and the so-called policy of the sec- 
retary in limiting the number printed and in turning 
over the bulletins remaining in his hands after pro- 
viding for those required for the official use of the 
department, is the subject of frequent criticism. As 
a matter of fact, under the law referred to the sec- 
retary is obliged to turn over to the superintendent 
of documents all copies of every bulletin over and 
above those required for official use, and the law is 
quite clear that "official use" does not include a 
general distribution. This applies to all publications 
save those whose distribution is otherwise provided 
for by law, such as farmers' bulletins. As to the 
publication of small editions of 1000 copies, that is a 
matter regulated by this law, which provides in 
terms for the limitation to 1000 copies in any one 
I year of any bulletin published which shall exceed in 
bulk 100 octavo pages. Members of Congress fre- 
quently prefer requests for documents which the 
department can not under the law comply with, but 
not frequently they criticise what they call the 
policy of the department in regard to the sale of 
its publications, which is a matter strictly belonging 
to the jurisdiction of the superintendent of documents. 

The Pacific Rural Press 

July 18, 1896. 

Why Stone Walls are Damp. 

The walls of a stone house and some- 
times of a brick house, are covered 
with dampness. This is due to the 
very same causes by which dew is de- 
posited on grasses or moisture on the 
side of a glass or pitcher that is filled 
with ice water and brought into a warm 
room. The walls become cold, and as 
stone is a nonconductor of heat, they 
vemain cold for a long time. When the 
weather changes suddenly from cold to 
warm, the air becomes filled with moist- 
ure, for the warmer the air is the more 
moisture it will absorb. When this 
warm air strikes the cold walls the mois- 
ture is deposited on it from the air, 
which is suddenly cooled by contact 
with them, and as the warm air is con- 
tinually coming in contact with the cold 
walls, the dampness accumulates until 
it appears like dew upon them, and 
pours down in streams at times. It is 
easily prevented. No plaster should 
be put directly upon brick or stone but 
furring strips should be nailed to the 
wall and the laths put on these. Cel- 
lars are frequently made very damp in 
the same way by too much ventilation 
in warm weather. 

In every commercial transaction in- 
volving any semblance to a contract, it 
is always best to have a definite under- 
standing between the parties, and, if 
possible, that understanding should be 
in black and white. He who borrows 
even $5 should insist on giving a note 
therefor, and the lender ought not to 
refuse it. As far as possible, payments 
should be made in bank checks, and re- 
ceipts invariably given and required. 
In extending credit it is especially 
necessary that a day of settlement 
should be fixed, and that the debtor, as 
well as his creditor, should understand 
that the designated day is to be a day 
of settlement. No one should enter the 
employ of another, nor should anyone 
receive service, until the question of re- 
muneration has been definitely de- 
cided. In business it does not do to 
take things for granted. People are 
very likely to form different ideas of 
the meaning of a verbal agreement, 
and any man's memory is treacherous 
at times. If men would only insist 
upon understanding the contracts be- 
tween them as they were made, there 
would be no necessity of appealing to 
the law for an interpretation. No one 
knows how much litigation, and loss, 
and dishonesty, and trouble, would be 
obviated if business people strictly ad- 
hered to the rule of undertaking no 
obligation without first arriving at a 
mutual conclusion as to the exact limits 
of that obligation. 

A medical authority says celery is 
a cure for rheumatism, and asserts 
that the disease is impossible if the 
vegetable be cooked and freely eaten. 
The fact that it is almost always put 
on the table raw prevents its ther- 
apeutic powers from becoming known. 
The celery should be cut into bits, 
boiled in water until soft, and the 
water drunk by the patient. Put new 
milk, with a little flour and nutmeg, 
into a saucepan with the boiled celery, 
serve it warm with pieces of toast, eat 
it with potatoes, and the painful ail- 
ment will soon yield. Such is the decla- 
ration of a physician who claims to 
have tried the experiment with uni- 
form success. He adds that cold or 
damp never produces, but simply de- 
velops, the disease, of which acid blood 
is the primary and sustaining cause, 
and that while the blood is alkaline 
there can be neither rheumatism or 
gout. English statistics show that in 
one year (1876) 3640 persons died of 
rheumatism, and every case, it is 
claimed, might have been cured or pre- 
vented by the adoption of the remedy 
mentioned. At least two-thirds of the 
oases named heart disease are ascribed 
to rheumatism and its agonizing 
ally, gout. 

A New York paper gives the follow- 
ing figures relating to electrical de- 
velopment: The capital invested in 
electric lighting is put at $325,000,000; 
invested in private plants, $200,000,000; 
number of arc lights in use, 250,000; 

capital invested in electric mining ma- 
chinery, $100,000,000; invested in 
500,000 stationary electric motors, 
$60,000,000. Concerns that use from 
50 to 100 motors each are very numer- 
ous. It is estimated that more than 
90 per cent of all the street and subur- 
ban roads are operated by electricity; 
number of trolley cars, 25,000; total 
miles, 12,000; combined capital of elec- 
trical railways, $700,000,000; total in- 
vestment in electrical industry is 
placed at $1,410,000,000, covering a 
period of fifteen years; number of men 
estimated to be "employed in electrical 
industries, 2,500,000. 

One feels chilly when lying down be- 
cause nature takes that time to give 
the heart rest, and that organ conse- 
quently makes ten strokes less a min- 
ute than when one is in an upright 
posture. Multiply that by sixty min- 
utes, and it is six hundred strokes. 
Therefore in eight hours spent in lying 
down the heart is saved nearly five 
thousand strokes, and as the heart 
pumps six ounces of blood with each 
stroke it lifts thirty thousand ounces 
less of blood in a night of eight hours 
spent in bed than when one is in an up- 
right position. As the blood flows so 
much more slowly through the veins 
when one is lying down, one must sup- 
ply then with extra coverings the 
warmth usually furnished by circula- 
tion. — Harper's Bazar. 

To distinguish between iron and steel 
tools, quickly place the tool upon a 
stone and drop upon it some diluted 
nitric acid (four parts of water to one 
of acid). If the tool remains clear, it is 
of iron; if of steel, it will show a black 
spot where touched with the acid. 
These spots can be easily rubbed off. 



Is an excellent institution, beautifully located 
at Burlingame, San Mateo County, California. 
Nowhere do boys receive more careful super- 
vision or more thorough training and instruc- 
tion. The school is accredited at both of our 
universities, and prepares boys equally well 
for business. The mention of the name of 
Ex-State Superintendent Ira G. Hoitt as its 
master is a guarantee that it is a first-class 
home school. 

William McKinley 

Is the Republican standard bearer and the 
champion for protection. If he is elected we 
hope it be for the country's welfare. This, 
however, is a matter of conjecture; but it is a 
dead nun th i ng that if you buy your supplies 
through the Home Library and Supply As- 
sociation you will save from 10 to 40 per cent. 
We furnish everything at deeply cut prices : 
but some of our specialties are Buggies, 
Bicycles, Barb Wire, Clothing, Furniture, 
Groceries, Musical Instruments, Shoes, Sew- 
ing Machines, Watches, etc. 

Write for terms of membership and get our 
prices before buying elsewhere. Address 

J. H. WOOD & CO., Managers, 

14 Sansome St., San Francisco, Cal. 



Width of tiro, 6 in. ; height of bolster, 30 in. Car- 
ries any size platform or bed. Wheels turn under 
the load. Nothing equal to it for Farm, Orchard 
and Vineyard. Four sizes, one horse to six horses. 
Fully guaranteed. Write for Catalogue. Agents 
wanted. W. C. KAKKi, General Agent, 157 
New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 













Why Did They Do It? 

George H. Curtis, farmer, lives 2% miles from 
Adrian. Eight years ago put up Page fence along the- 
highway. This spring he took it down and replaced 
it with a Page of finer mesh to match his elegant 
dwelling. Three times he was offered half price for the 
old fence, by as many different farmers, who had seen 
it in service all that time. 

See picture in Hustler. 


"California Fruits and How to Grow Them." 

Practical, Explicit, Comprehensive. 
PACIFIC RURAL PRESS, 820 Market St., S. F. 



j Certain in its effects ami never blisters. 
4 Read proofs below : 


Shelby, Mich., Dec. 16, '93. 
Dr. B. J. Kendall Co. 

Sirs : — I have used your Kendall's 
|| Spavin Cure with good success for |j 
curbs on two horses and it is the best It 
Liniment I have ever used. ] 
Yours truly, AUGUST Fredrick. m 

For Sale by all Druggists, or address B 



PRICE Traction Engine — 80 Horse. 
HAY PRESS — 30 Ton Day Capacity, 

6 Home Tower. Sold low. 




Hew and Second 


I. J. Truman & Co., 

Office. Mills Building. SAN FRANCISCO. 

Monarch «« Junior Monarch 

Manufactured in San Leandro by L. C. Morehouse, 
under an assignment of patents from the 
patentee, Jacob Price. 


(Two Sizes.) 


WM. H. GRAY Oeneral Agent. 

Write to 

Stanton, Thomson & Co., 


Sacramento, Cal., 

For Catalogue 
and Prices. 

Hay Rake. i J 

STANDARD of the 

World— the 
Model for others to 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
7:23 market street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Tear. : A. VAN DER NAILLEN, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, 125; Bullion and Ch lor i nation 
Assay, $25; Blowpipe Assay. 110. Full course of 
assaying. 150. Established 1864. Send for Circular. 

tt nvi 

Patent Cent rif iigal. Steam and l'ower Pump- 
ing Machinery. Simplest, Cheapest and Best. 
Orchard Trucks, Grape Crushers, 
Wine Presses. Wine Filters. 
l"p-t€>-I>atc Repair Shop for All Kinds of 
I'linipH and Other Machinery. 
It will pay you to get our prices. 
11(5-117 First St , San FraneUco. 

A user in Hollister says: We bought a High 
Grade belt of you last season, 160 ft. long. 8 ins. 
wide, 4-ply, lacing it with Kerr's Wire Lacing, and 
it run on our machine without Interruption during 
the season, without stretching or breaking, and 
apparently it is good for another season's run. 

Genuine Dodge Wood Split Pulleys; 
Grant Corundum and Detroit Emery Wheels. 

Hlmnndtt Saws, Simouds Genuine Babbitt. 

Only the l)t*t. 


31 Main Street, San Francisco. 

'W ind power 

** may be turned to good account by 


HacK (jewel or I'irect stroke. Madeof Galvan- 
i zed Steel or Wood. Sizes 6ft. to 18ft. Equipped 
with governors that govern. No weight*, no 
springs. Simple, durable, strong and effective. 
use in one township alone. 

For deep or shallow wells; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,000 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A.T. AMES;Galt,Cal. 

we riAVK riTTT TL ir nrrc'^- 

Sweep Powers, 2 to 8 horse; Tread Powers. 1, 2 
and 9 horse, and the famous SUCCESS 1 horse 

Trea.l Power adapted to use of cream separators, 
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ot tell you he 
Catalogue. It is FREE, SEND NOW F< 

appears in our New IfiO page 
~ " OB IT. 


T^rVM r V^rT^rT^rVWrW¥¥¥ ¥ l 





A substitute for Oil Paint and Whitewash. 
Fire-proof and Weather-proof. Whiter (unless 
tinted) than any oil paint can be. Cheap, durable, 
and easily applied by anyone. An Excellent 
Priming Coat for oil Paint, and an Incompar- 
able Wall Finish, killing water Stains and work- 
ing well over old kalsomine. Made in White and 
Colors. WM. Ill'KI), Sole Agent for Pacific 
Coast, 23 JJ a vis St., Kootn 1 l,San Francisco, Cal* 


Owing to old age and inability to work. I would 
now sell a half Interest in two or three Navel 
Orange Groves, near town, at much less than 
their value and on very easy terms to the right 
kind of a younger man, to work and manage them. 
An unequaled opportunity for an industrious man 
to secure a competence without risk. Address 

GBN. J. B. lot .\T A I \, Riverside, Cal. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

Sole Agents. - - No. 826 Market Street, 


July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific 

Rural Press. 


Mysteries in Science. 

What we do know Is so little in com- 
parison with that which baffles us, that 
the pride of man is humbled when he 
contemplates the fact. Here before us 
is a white pine tree in which the lead- 
ing shoot that forms the trunk ulti- 
mately goes so straight upwardly that 
a plumb line can show no deviation 
from the perpendicular, while the lat- 
eral branches push out at a right angle 
with the stem. The power which di- 
rects these different directions is wholly 
unknown, and then note how this di- 
rection varies in different trees. While 
the leader in a Norway spruce is di- 
rected as truly perpendicular as the 
white pine, the lateral branches are at 
an acute angle — and the angle of nearly 
the same degree in all the individuals of 
the species. If we then compare the 
angular divergence with other species, 
we find that most have a plan of their 
own, which is followed through all the 
individuals of the species, — nearly all, 
for "never" is a word unknown to 

Of the atmosphere around us we 
know scarcely nothing. In other eyes 
than ours it would look like a huge 
aquarium in which myriads of forms of 
plants and animals are floating, while 
man would look like a little streak of 
black sand strewn along the bottom. 
Even the elements of which this atmos- 
pheric sea is composed are in a measure 
unknown, judging by discoveries con- 
tinually made. We had thought we 
knew, and that oxygen, hydrogen, ni- 
trogen and carbonic acid gases alone 
constructed it — but now we have found 
another, which has been named argon. 
Once we had concluded that hydrogen 
was the mother of all the other gases. 
It looks as if argon was, in the new 
light, but then even argon may have to 
go. — Thomas Meehan. 

Mountain Ranges. 

The origin of what is termed the 
"American theory" of the formation 
of mountain ranges is largely due to 
Prof, le Conte of Berkeley, at the State 
University. It is known as the con- 
traction theory, which assumes that 
the earth was once an incandescent ball, 
now cooling, a coolness which compels 
yielding along its lines of weakness. 
An interesting investigation of the 
phenomenon of mountains has led to the 
opinion that they are born of sea margin 
deposits, observation showing that ex- 
isting off-shore deposits are coarse at 
the top shading down to that which is 
fine by the same law as that marked in 
the structure of mountains, but the 
enormous mountainous deposits would, 
it is argued, have been possible only 
where there was a corresponding 
subsidence of sea bottom. 

That the earth sinks by loading and 
rises by unloading is illustrated by the 
Colorado plateau. Originally 20,000 
feet high, 12,000 feet have been removed 
by erosion, which has caused the re- 
maining 8,000 feet to rise above the 
general level. It is claimed to be 
proved that the cosmic behavior of the 
earth is that of a rigid solid — that as a 
solid globe of glass 6 feet in diameter 
will change shape by the pressure of 
its own weight the earth does the same. 
The earth, however, not being homo- 
geneous, accounts for its radical con- 
traction being in ridges. 

The new highway is a gutter steel 
track one-fourth of an inch thick, five 
inches wide, flat on the bottom, with 
sides half an inch high, then extending 
outward 1J inches, then down 1* inches. 
It is spiked to a longitudinal timber 
laid on cross ties. No spike heads are 
on the surface, and the track is per- 
fectly smooth. The track is laid 4 feet 8* 
inches from center to center — the stand- 
ard gauge of all wagons and railroad 
cars." The middle and sides are filled 
in with stone — in fact, is a macadamized 
road with steel tracks for the wagon 
wheels. On this steel track one horse 
will draw 20 times as much as on a 
dirt road. Freight can be hauled on a 
steel track road for less than half aver- 
age charge on lateral roads. This 
means an economic revolution. The 
practice of all trunk lines, in the lan- 

guage of one of the highest railroad 
officials in the nation, is to charge "all 
that the traffic will bear," to meet the 
fierce competition of rival routes to the 
seaboard, and the freight along lateral 
roads is charged enough more to make 
on the whole a satisfactory profit. 

An Unprecedented 

Gain in Weight. 


One of t he Most Remarkable Results on 

From the Gazette, Yonkers, N. ¥. 
"I don't look much like a living skeleton 
now, do I? And yet two years ago I weighed 
just seventy-two pounds," said Mrs. J. W. 
Coffey of 55 Warburton Avenue, Yonkers, 
N. Y., to a reporter. And we agreed with 
her, for she certainly looked anything but a 
living skeleton, but rather bore the appear- 
ance of a plump and attractive lady in ex- 
cellent health and spirits. Continuing, she 
said : 

"I had lost my appetite and was wasting 
away in flesh, losing some fifty pounds in a 
few months. Doctors said I was threatened 
with consumption. I was under what was 
regarded as first-class medical treatment, 
but it had apparently little or no effect, for 
I kept getting worse until I was so weak 
that I could not attend to my household 
duties and could hardly walk. My husband 
and everybody who saw me thought surely 
that I would die, and there seemed no help 
for me. 

"Tonics and stimulants and medicines all 
seemed useless, and I grew worse and worse 
until at last J resolved to seek some new 
remedy — one entirely out of the usual line of 
nauseous drugs and doses of stuff which 
seemed to take away what little relish I 
might perhaps otherwise have had for food. 
A friend told me of some wonderful cures 
effected by Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for 
Pale People and I bought a box. The effect 
from their use was noticeable from the first 
and soon appeared almost miraculous, for it 
seemed pretty nearly like the raising of one 
from the dead. 

"I soon commenced to eat, something I had 
scarcely done before for weeks, and soon be- 
gan to gain in flesh and strength. I went one 
day to the doctor's office and he was surprised 
at the change in me for the better. I had to 
confess that I had been taking the pills, and 
he was broad-minded enough to advise me to 
continue what was evidently doing me so 
much good. I took, in all, six boxes, and in- 
creased in weight from 72 to 125 pounds, which 
is my regular and normal weight." 

" Are you sure the cure is permanent i " 

"Well, yes. My work is that of a trained 
nurse, which means, as you probably know, 
irregular hours and at times great exhaus- 
tion. During the two years since my re- 
covery I have had many engagements, and 
through them all have continued in good 
health. I take pleasure in bearing testimony 
to the remarkable power of this great medical 
discovery. I know of other cures effected by 
it. A friend of mine suffered greatly at her 
monthly periods. One box relieved and three 
boxes cured her. But I know of no case equal 
to mine, for my situation was critical, des- 
perate and almost hopeless." 

Mrs. Coffey has lived in Yonkers for sixteen 
years, and for twelve years has followed the 
business of attending the sick, excepting only 
the period of her illness. She has hundreds of 
acquaintances and friends who know her to be 
capable and trustworthy. Many of them 
know how very ill she was and how remark- 
able was her recovery. The pills have a large 
sale in Yonkers and Westchester County, 
which will be greatly increased as their 
merits become better known, for they seem to 
be one of the medical marvels of the age. 

Dr. Williams' Pink Pills contain, in a con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
give new life and richness to the blood and 
restore shattered nerves. They are an un- 
failing specific for such diseases as locomotor 
ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, nervous 
headache, the after effect of la grippe, palpita- 
tion of the heart, pale and sallow complexions, 
all forms of weakness either in male or fe- 
male. Pink Pills are sold by all dealers, or 
will be sent postpaid on receipt of price, 50 
cents a box, or six boxes for $2.50— (they are 
never sold in bulk or by the 100) by address- 
ing Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y/. 

Horse Owners! Try 



A Safe Speedy and Positive Curd 
The Safeat, Best BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Horses 
OR FIRINC- Impossible to produce scar or blemish. 

Every bottle sold Is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $1.50 per bottle. Sold by druKKlsts, or 
sent by express charges paid, with full directions 
for Its use. Send for descriptive clroulars^ 


rune Machin 



The Fruit at one Operation. 
Different Sizes and Prices; with or without Grader. Hand and Power Machines. 

Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. 

J. B. BURRELL, 44T-449 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 


Fruit Driers' and Packers' Supplies. 



For Illustrated Catalogue of General Orchard Supplies, Address 


338 and 340 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 



"Light Weight" 
Horse Fork. 


need no introduction, as they 
have been the only fork on the 
market for the past lifteen years, 
them are in daily use all over 

Reduced Prices. 

3 and 3!4-foot, 4 tines $12 50 

4 and 4'/ s -foot, 4 tines 15 00 

5 and 6- foot, 6 tines 20 00 

Liberal discount to dealers. 


Lightness, Strength and Durability. No pains are spared to make them perfect in i 



Every Farmer should have at least one of these Forks. 
We also manufacture Centrifugal Pumps and Compound Steam Engines; and in the near 
future will place upon the market OIL MOTORS of latest design and greatest economy and 

"Byron Jackson flachine Works, 






M. O'BRIEN, Agent, 509-513 Mission St. write for circulars. San Francisco, Cal. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 18, 1896. 


His Mother's Songs. 

Beneath the hot midsummer sun 

The men had marched all day ; 
And now beside a rippling stream 

Upon the grass they lay. 

Tiring of games and idle jests, 

As swept the hours along, 
They called to one who mused apart, 

"Come, friend, give us a song." 

" I fear I cannot please," he said ; 

" The only songs I know 
Are those my mother used to sing 

For me long years ago." 

" Sing one of those," a rough voice cried, 
"There's none but true men here; 

To every mother's son of us 
A mother's songs are dear." 

Then sweetly rose the singer's voice 

Amid unwonted calm, 
"Am I soldier of the cross, 

A follower of the lamb* 

"And shall I fear to own his cause I "— 

The very stream was stilled, 
And hearts that never throbbed with fear 

With tender thoughts were filled. 

Ended the song the singer said. 

As to his feet he rose, 
'• Thanks to you all, my friends— good night ; 

God grant us sweet repose." 

" Sing us one more," the captain begged ; 

The soldier bent his head ; 
Then, glancing 'round, with smiling lips, 

" You'd join with me," he said. 

" We'll sing this old familiar air, 

Sweet as the bugle call, 
'All hail the power of Jesus' name, 

Let angels prostrate fall.' " 

Ah ! wondrous was the old tune's spell, 

As on the singer sang. 
Man after man fell into line, 

And loud the voices rang! 

The songs are done, the camp is still, 
Naught but the stream is heard ; 

But ah ! the depths of every soul 
By those old hymns are stirred. 

And up from many a bearded lip, 

In whispers soft and low, 
Rises the prayer the mother taught 

The boy long years ago. 

— Chicago Inter Ocean. 

Getting Acquainted With the 

" Mother, tell me a story,'' and Har- 
old threw himself at full length on the 
piazza floor and looked up at his mother 
with listless eyes. He had been three 
whole days in the country and was get- 
ting tired of it and wanted to be 

' ' Have you been out to see the calves, 
Harold ? " 

"Yes, the pigs and the hens, and 
down to the pasture to see the sheep. 
They are all stupid. I thought the 
country was going to be prime fun, and 
it is — awful — poky." He yawned and 
crossed his arms above his head, "I 
wish there was a boy here to play 

"I wish so, too, Harold." Mrs. 
Haines looked down at him with an 
expression of perplexity on her face. 
She had been brought up in the coun- 
try, and loved it much better than the 
city, and she wished her boy to feel 
the same. He was such a manly fel- 
low and of such inquiring, sympathetic 
nature that she was sure he would feel 
just as she did if only he could be 
brought into touch with the things 
around him. 

"Have you been down to the woods 
and along the brook ? " she asked. 

"Yes; I took my rod and tried to 
catch some fish, but they wouldn't bits. 
Uncle Will says I had better wait for 
a cloudy day." 

Mrs. Haines knit her brows thought- 

"See here, Harold," she said, her 
face brightening with sudden inspira- 
tion, " are you willing to help me do 
something— even if it is considerable 
trouble and takes a good deal of your 
time ? " 

" Why, of course, mother," sitting up 
with interest, "that's just what's the 
matter, I've got more time than I 
know what to do with." 

"Good ! You remember I've told you 
how interested I used to be in birds 
and insects and plants when I was a 
girl on the farm. I studied about them 
and watched them until I got to be 
quite a naturalist. That was quite a 
good many years ago, but now I am 

back here I feel as though I would like 
to take it up again. But I cannot move 
about as briskly as I could then, and 
my eyes are not quite as good. I shall 
need an assistant with nimble feet and 
bright eyes. Will the job suit you ? " 

Indeed i\ will," cried Harold, heart- 
ily. He was on his feet now and all 
the listlessness was gone from his face. 
" If I can find some of the queer things 
you've told about, mother, it'll be no 
end jolly. When shall we begin ? " 

"Not to-day. I have all these let- 
ters to answer. But I'll tell you what. 
Suppose you take this notebook and 
walk along the brook and through the 
woods and back by that pasture where 
we saw the bluejays yesterday. I 
would like to know how many of my 
old friends are still in the neighbor- 
hood. Do you know many of the birds 
by name ? 

" I know the crows and bluejays and 
robins and — and — I guess that's all," 
replied Harold, doubtfully, "and, oh, 
yes ! I know hens and turkeys." 

"Well, suppose you watch every- 
thing closely; birds and insects and 
whatever you find that is curious. 
When you come back you can tell me 
all about them, and I think I may be 
able to recognize them from your de- 
scription. Make notes in the book so 
you can remember. I will go with you 

"All right! Good-bye, mother. I'll 
be back in half an hour," and disdain- 
ing the steps Harold sprang over the 
piazza railing and hurried away, his 
own bright self once more, now that 
there was something definite in view. 

There was a tender, unfathomable 
smile on Mrs. Haines' face as she 
turned back to her writing. Nor did 
she seem at all discomposed when a 
half hour, an hour, two hours, went by 
and Harold did not return. Indeed, it 
seemed almost as though that puzzling 
expression on her face deepened and 
her eyes grew brighter as she waited. 

It was well on in the afternoon when 
Harold returned — breathless, glowing, 

" Oh, say, mother ! " he called, before 
he reached the piazza, " what are 
those jolly clown birds with bright eyes 
and funny tails who turn somersaults 
in the air and do all sorts of fool 
tricks ? " 

"Bobolinks, I suppose you mean," 
answered his mother, trying in vain to 
keep her face calm. 

" Well, they're the biggest show out. 
Half a dozen of them just spread them- 
selves to entertain me; and I tell you, 
mother, I almost had to stuff a hand- 
kerchief in my mouth. They're regular 
born clowns." 

Mrs. Haines laughed and began to 
gather up her letters. When she had 
put them away she came and sat down 
on the step beside Harold. 

"Now I will look at the note book," 
she said. 

The boy flushed and looked em- 

"Why, I — I — really I took no notes 
for a while, mother — about dragon flies 
and crows and a funny little red squir- 
rel and about a fat, scolding, brown 
bird who wouldn't help his mate build 
a nest. And then I run across those 
clown birds — bobolinks, I mean — and 
forgot all about it. I expect the book- 
is down in the field somewhere. I'll go 
and find it," and he snatched up his 
cap from the piazza floor and hurried 
away in search of the forgotten note 
book. Mrs. Haines watched him with 
mirthful eyes until he disappeared; 
then she entered the house and hunted 
up an old collecting box and a micro- 
scope and some thick shoes for the 
morrow's expedition. And it is need- 
less to add that Harold did not find 
any more fault with the country. 

The Usual Question.— Sprockitt: "I 
don't believe that Spencer is much of 
a bicyclist." Sprint: "Why not?" 
Sprockitt : " When I told him I had a 
wheel, he did not ask me whose make 
it was."— Brooklyn Life. 

Wholly Distinct: "What's the dif- 
ference between your sacred and your 
secular concert programme ? 1 can't 
see any." " Whj, the sacred concerts 
are given on Sunday ! "—Selected. 

A Mission. 

Small as I am, I've a mission below — 
A mission that widens, and grows as I grow, 
'Tis to let alone cider and brandy and gin ; 
'Tis to keep well away from these potions of 

'Tis to make myself noble and manly and 

'Tis to touch no tobacco, not smoke and not 

That unhealthy weed that true women de- 

And all people know is a filthy old pest. 

'Tis to say unto all what I say unto you, 

Let these things alone, if you would be true, 

They are foes to all virtue, and lead down to 


Shun drink and tobacco, and keep your good 

Cold water that comes from the well is my 

The healthiest, purest and sweetest, I think; 
It never makes drunkards, it never brings 

woe — 

I'll praise it and drink it wherever I go. 

—Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 


Discretion in speech is more than 
eloquence. — Lord Bacon. 

As you learn, teach; as you get, give; 
as you receive, distribute. — Spurgeon. 

It is exercise alone that supports the 
spirits and keeps the mind in vigor. — 

Patience cannot remove, but it can 
always dignify and alleviate misfortune. 
— Sterne. 

A noble nature can alone attract the 
noble and alone knows how to retain 
them. — Goethe. 

There is only one real failure in life 
possible, and that is not to be true to 
the best one knows. — Farrar. 

There is nothing so minute or incon- 
siderate that I would not rather know 
it than not. — Samuel Johnson. 

The most certain sign of being born 
with great qualities is to be born with- 
out envy. — La Rochefoucauld. 

Be your character what it will, it 
will be known, and nobody will take it 
upon your word. — Chesterfield. 

I have watched a good many brooding 
hens, but I never saw one facilitate the 
hatching process by pecking the shell. 
The chick on the inside will get out if 
he is worth it. — Parkhurst. 

Man, in society, is like a flower blown 
in its native bud. It is there only that 
his faculties, expanded in full bloom, 
shine out; there only reach their proper 
use. — William Cowper. 

Who is a true man ? He who does 
the truth, and never holds a principle 
on which he is not prepared in any 
hour to act, and in any hour to risk the 
consequences of holding it. — Thomas 

More men are injured by having 
things made easy for them than by 
having their path beset with difficulties, 
for it encourages them to stay them- 
selves on circumstances, whereas their 
supreme reliance needs to be on their 
own personal stuff. — Parkhurst. 

For the Woman. 

Woman — God bless her, the queen of 
all creation. 

Woman — The tyrant we love, the 
friend we trust. 

Woman — The sweetest creature the 
Lord ever made. 

Woman — The source of help, happi- 
ness and heaven. 

Woman — She needs no eulogy; she 
speaks for herself. 

Woman — Once there was a woman, 
sir, and here she is. 

Woman — A creature "nobly planned, 
to warn, to comfort and command." 

Woman — The fairest work of the 
great Author; the edition is large and 
no man should be without a copy. 

"Mike," said the superintendent, 
" there is a dead dog reported in the 
alley between Illinois and Meridian 
streets. I want you to look after its 
disposition." An hour later the intel- 
ligent officer telephoned, "I have in- 
quired about the dog, and find that he 
had a very savage disposition." — In- 
dianapolis Journal. 

Fashion Notes. 

Moire is again in demand. This beau- 
tiful fabric is the most unstaple of all 
handsome materials. One month it will 
be simply the rage, the next it may be 
flung on to bargain counters to be got- 
ten rid of at any price. No sooner is it 
entirely out of market, than up it pops 
again, like a jack-in-the-box. Just now 
it is in good demand, and certainly 
makes the most elegant skirts to be 
worn with fancy waists. 

Knife-plaiting has come around again. 
Narrow ruffles of this sort appear on 
skirts, up and down the edges of the 
box-plaits on the waists, and the batiste 
blouse has a basque made of a double- 
frill of knife-plaiting. 

New sleeves show the contour of the 
arm nearly to the shoulder, where some 
width is given by the addition of ruf- 
fles and bows and occasionally a pretty 
draping of stuff. The close part of the 
sleeve is not always left plain, but ar- 
ranged in a various number of compli- 
cated ways. Perhaps this is out of con- 
sideration for the thin-armed woman 
who has reveled in large sleeves so 

A pretty and stylish cape is made of 
broadcloth. The edges are stitched 
with a band of the material, and wide 
points, stitched and finished with but- 
tons, run back from either edge of the 
front over the fabric. The collar is 
high and rolling and finished with points 
stitched down. 

A handsome finish for a bodice is a 
wide collar rolling back to the tops of 
the sleeves and extending to the bust 
in front, and in a deep curve over the 
shoulders at the back. The points in 
front are finished with very large, 
handsome buttons. There is a vest of 
contrasting fabric and a full ruffle of 
hemstitched lawn from the velvet crush 
collar down to the bust. 

A handsome cape is made of black 
velvet in straight breadths, sewed to a 
fancy yoke of puffed satin. The velvet 
is box-plaited, and the outside of each 
box plait has a design in embroidery. 
Around the edge of the yoke is sewed a 
cape-shaped section about five inches 
wide in front and running to a point on 
either shoulder. These points cover 
half the length of the velvet. A collar 
of the same shape rolls out from the 
neck. In the front there is a wide scarf 
of Dresden ribbon, the lower ends of 
which are finished with a frill of lace. 

Tan, in all the varying shades, is still 
a popular color for canvas gowns, and 
made over pale blue silk, with a wide 
black satin belt, and a vest front made 
of a black Madras silk handkerchief, 
covered with a cone pattern in blue, 
green and red, the gown is stunning. 
Two ends of the handkerchief, trimmed 
with black lace, fall below the belt. 

Pink is the prevailing color in much 
of the summer millinery, and pink 
straw hats, pink roses and pink tulle 
abound. Another popular color is 
green, in all the divers shades imagin- 
able, and pale lime green straw trimmed 
with blue or purple is one of the pictur- 
esque effects commonly seen this sea- 

A dressy little wrap is made of side- 
plaited lace gathered into a narrow 
lined yoke. This yoke is of passemen- 

A warded 
lighest Honors — World's Fait 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 



Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard. 

July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


terie. There are wide epaulettes of 
passementerie, which extend down the 
front at either side, and where the 
yoke and plaitings join the seam is al- 
most concealed by rosettes of ribbon 
set close together. The very high full 
collar is of plaited silk muslin, and the 
same plaiting trims the deep epau- 

In a matter of neck dressing for 
athletics, or as the accompaniment to 
tailor-made gowns, one cannot do bet- 
ter than to follow the reigning fashions 
for men. 


Curious Facts. 

Probably the oldest timber in the 
world which has been subjected to the 
use of man is found in the ancient tem- 
ples of Egypt, in connection with stone- 
work, which is known to be at least 
four thousand years old. This, the 
only wood used in the construction of 
the temples, is in the form of ties, 
holding the end of one stem to another. 

A railroad man has compiled statis- 
tics which show that there is only one 
railroad passenger killed out of every 
1,985,153 carried on the railways, and 
that for every 183,822 carried only one 
is likely to be injured. He bases his 
calculations on the fatalities and cas- 
ualties on railroads during the last 
twelve years. His figures further show 
that a man's chances are such that he 
would have to travel 4,406,659 miles 
before getting hurt, and go 47,588,966 
miles before being killed. 

In China the hen is kept constantly 
busy. When not engaged in hatching 
her own brood she is compelled to hatch 
fish eggs. The spawn of fish are placed 
in an egg shell, which is hermetically 
sealed and placed under the unsuspect- 
ing hen. After some days the egg 
shell is removed and carefully broken, 
and the spawn, which has been warmed 
into life, is emptied into a shallow pool 
well warmed by the sun. Here the 
minnows that soon develop are nursed 
until strong enough to be turned into a 
lake or stream. 


First Moth: "How are the chil- 
dren?" Second Moth: " All well, 
thank you. We were a little worried 
about Flossie this morning. She ate 
too many fresh camphor balls. Some- 
how, I haven't the heart to deny the 
dears the delicacies of the season." — 
New York Press. 

"For my part," remarked Mrs. Pil- 
kington, decisively, "I can't see why 
people are so anxious to make silver 
free. I should much rather have free 
gold myself." And she resumed work 
on her embroidery with an air of hav- 
ing said something that even Mr. Pil- 
kington couldn't controvert. — Ex- 

"Mr. Moddlin," said that gentle- 
man's wife, in a horrified tone, "you 
are drunk." 

"Guesh I musht be," assented Mod- 
dlin, cheerfully, "or else I wouldn't 
(hie) let you shee me in this (hie) c'o- 

"Well, you may say what you please 
about our cooking class, Harold, but 
there is one man who knows how to 
appreciate it." 

" Our family physician, I suppose ; 
but he only looks at it from a profes- 
sional voint of view." 

" I thought Miss M. taught you in 
kindergarten not to tell the bad things 
about your little friends," I said, as my 
little daughter was making some dis- 
paraging remarks about a little play- 
mate. " Yes, she did teach us that," 
was the frank reply; "but we didn't 
learn it hardly at all: we didn't seem 
to pay any attention to it." — G. S. S. 

Tablecloths should be so ironed that 
the folds or creases may be as far as 
possible in the lengthwise direction. 
The best effect is that produced by only 
one fold through the center. This, how- 
ever, necessitates considerable room in 
the linen closet. Many housekeepers 
have for each tablecloth a stick as long 
as the cloth is wide when folded through 

the center lengthwise ; these sticks, 
which are about the thickness of a 
broom-handle, are covered with several 
folds of flannel and then with muslin. 
When the cloth has been folded and 
ironed well on each side, one end of it 
is pinned to the covered stick, and it is 
then rolled up loosely, so as not to 
crease it ; it is then slipped into a long, 
narrow bag and laid in the linen closet. 

"A striking illustration of the in- 
fluence of fatigue upon the nervous sys- 
tem," says Modern Medicine, "is af- 
forded by an experiment conducted by 
an Italian physician some months ago. 
Twenty-four bicycle riders, who had 
ridden 32 miles in two hours and a quar- 
ter were examined with reference to 
their hearing, and it was in nearly 
every instance found to be defective. 
After two hours' rest the hearing had 
become normal in most of them." 


Kitchen Lore. 

Ginger Snaps. — One pint of molasses, 
one teacupful of sugar one teaspoonful 
of ginger, one of allspice, one cup of 
butter, five cups of flour. Roll thin 
and cut into small cakes. Bake in 
quick oven. 

Creamed Shrimps. — Mix the yolks 
of two eggs with a teaspoonful of an- 
chovy sauce and a gill of cream. Lay 
in some bottled shrimps, allow them to 
heat, not allowing the eggs to curdle, 
and pour over strips of toast. 

Parsnip Fritters.— Boil parsnips 
till tender, cool and remove pith and 
skin; mash fine. To every teacupful 
add a beaten egg; add flour to thicken 
and salt to taste; a sprinkle of sugar 
improves them. Drop into boiling lard 
and brown. These may also be baked 
like potato cakes. 

Chocolate Icing. — Grate two ounces 
of chocolate and set over hot water 
until melted. When perfectly smooth 
cook together one cupful of granulated 
sugar and one-half cupful of water until 
it hairs. Pour this in a fine stream 
over the melted chocolate, stirring and 
beating until the mixture begins to 
thicken. Use immediately. 

Potato Omelet. — One cup of mashed 
potatoes, three eggs, yolks and whites 
beaten separately, a scant teaspoonful 
of salt, a dash of white pepper, half 
cup sweet milk, heaping teaspoonful of 
flour. Heat and grease a large sauce- 
pan or frying pan and pour the mixture 
into it. Keep on top of stove at mod- 
erate heat till set and browned on 
under side, then set on the rack in the 
oven to brown on top. 

Banana Salad. — Put into a small 
bowl or saucepan the yolk of one egg, 
one saltspoonful salt and half a tea- 
spoonful powdered sugar. Stir in oil 
slowly till one cup has been used, add- 
ing two tablespoonfuls lemon juice as 
needed to thin it. Color a teaspoonful 
of the dressing with a tiny bit of pre- 
pared green color paste, and then stir 
this into the whole, using only enough 
to give a pale tint of green. Just be- 
fore serving add two tablespoonfuls 
thick wipped cream. Cut four bananas 
twice lengthwise and then each piece 
into quarters. Put two small lettuce 
leaves together, lay several pieces of 
banana on the lettuce and cover with 
the dressing. Arrange these portions 
on a large platter and garnish with the 
tiny center leaves. 

Custard Pie. — One generous pint of 
fresh, sweet milk, two eggs, three- 
fourths of a cupful of sugar, a little 
salt, a rounding teaspoonful of flour. 
Beat the eggs, salt, sugar and flour to- 
gether. Add the milk. Do not heat the 
milk before adding it to the eggs, sugar, 
etc. Bake in a deep plate. A table- 
spoonful of sweet cream added to the 
custard improves it, but it is very good 
without it. Have the oven very hot 
when the pie is first put in, so that the 
custard will brown and the crust will 
not fall over. The custard must brown 
or the pie will not look or taste so rich. 
If your oven does not brown quickly 
(we find there is a great difference in 

ovens), beat the yolks, and whites of 
the eggs of the sugar separately; beat 
the yolks of the eggs and sugar together, 
add the stiffly beaten whites, stir in 
lightly, next add the milk. In this way a 
light froth from the whites of the eggs 
rises to the top of the pie which browns 
quickly. After the first few minutes 
the oven should cool quite rapidly so 
that the pie will bake slowly at the 
last; it must never boil. Watch it 
carefully and take it from the oven the 
moment it is done. A custard pie 
which bakes so long that it "wheys 
off " is a failure. After the pie is taken 
from the oven grate nutmeg over the 
top. Sometimes, for a change, add a 
little cinnamon to the eggs and sugar 
before the pie is baked, but never put 
in the nutmeg till the pie is baked. 
There are several other ways of making 
custard pies which are very nice espec- 
ially in winter and spring, if the supply 
of pumpkin and squash is gone. The 
rule given above for baking should be 
followed in all these recipes. 

House-cleaning Hints. 

The wise housekeeper cleans from 
the top toward the bottom. If the 
lower rooms are cleaned first, they 
will be more or less soiled later with 
the dust from the upper regions, which 
has an unpleasant habit of sifting 
through closed doors. The garret is 
the first part of the house which should 
receive attention, says an exchange. 

According to the same principle, 
ceilings and walls should be the first 
part of each room to be renovated. It 
requires only a little common sense to 
see that the kalsomining of a ceiling 
after carpets have been laid or floors 
polished is apt to be disastrous to the 
carpets or floors. 

Those parts of the house which are 
used as store rooms, such as attics and 
cellars, require particular attention. 
They need more soap and water, more 
quick lime and more dusting than the 
rest of the house to counteract the 
effect of lack of air and sunlight 
throughout the year. When the gar- 
ret is to be cleaned, therefore, the 
hygienic housewife removes, if possi- 
ble, everything from the room. Gar- 
ments should be shaken vigorously in 
the air and hung out in the sunlight. 
Chests should be carried into the yard 
and dusted out with a cloth, dampened 
in a mild solution of carbolic acid. 
They should then be exposed to the 
sunlight until they are perfectly dry. 
As much as possible of the clothing 
should be disposed of and that which 
remains should be wrapped in paper 
and returned to the chests. The lid of 
each chest should have pasted or 
tacked inside a list of its contents. 

While the contents of the garret are 
being freshened in the back yard or on 
the roof, the store room itself should be 
thoroughly cleaned. If it is plastered, 
a coat of whitewash will do wonders 
toward clearing the atmosphere. If it 
is merely lathed, the laths should be 
swept and dusted with a cloth wrung 
out in a solution of carbolic acid. The 
floor should be treated in the same 
way. Then when the room is dry its 
contents should be returned to it and 
placed as neatly as possible in a well 
regulated attic. 

The bedrooms, which should be taken 
in order, and not all at once, should be 
examined for useless or decrepit furni- 
ture. The former should be disposed 
of in whatever way the thrift of the 
owner may decide. The disabled furni- 
ture should be sent to a repairer's. 

If carpets are used in the bedrooms — 
which is something hygienists forbid — 
they should be taken up and not cleaned 
on the floor. They may be sent to the 
renovating establishment or restored 
to their original state at home. A 
thorough shaking and beating prepares 
them for the removal of stains. Grease 
spots may be removed by chloroform. 
An old-fashioned, but effective method 
of cleaning an entire carpet which has 
grown dingy is to spread it on the 
floor, sprinkle it with pared and grated 
raw potatoes and to rub these over it 
with a stiff new broom. When the 
potatoes are removed the carpet should 
be allowed to dry thoroughly. 

Another . 


Lot . 

Of ladies' russet or tan Oxfords, 
3 to 7, standard width, round 
toes, not real pointed, not quite 
as good a shoe as the last, and 
we make the price 

45 CENTS. 

Child's oxfords, tan, 5 to 8 45c. 

Infant's tan shoes, 3 to 554 25c. 

Infant's tan shoes, 3 to 6 45c. 

Infant's black shoes, 3 to 6 35c. 

Infant's double sole, 5, 554, narrow 55c. 

Child's stout shoes, 4 to 8 60c. 

Child's heavy goat, heels, 5 to 854 65c. 

Shoes for weak ankle, 3 to 8 $1.25, W1.50. 

Black Oxfords. 

Ladies' Mayflower — A neat, 
stylish Oxford, both square and 
opera toe (not real pointed), 3 to 
6, few 7, all standard width, no 
narrow ones, no extra wide; 
you'll be delighted with them — 

55 CENTS. 

Postage 15c. to 1 8c, as to size. 

The above shoes can be seen 
on bargain tables all over town 
at $1.50 a pair. 

Russet hose to match russet 
shoes, at 10c, 14c, 23c. 

Button Shoes 

Are a little out of fashion and 
have to go at any price. 

Boys' button shoes, 5, 554, 6 81.15 

Boys' finer button shoes, 5, 554, 6 1.35 

Men's finest button shoes. 5 to 10 1.37 

Men's lace or congress shoes, closing 1.35 

Men's higher grade Sunday shoes 2.00 

r\ ^^l^ for our Complete List of shoes and 
* Mkta— » other bargains; we should be glad 
to send it to you without cost. It tells about 
things to eat, to wear, and to use in every calling 
of life. You can save an average of 25 per cent, 
and on many things 100 per cent, by paying cash, 
and that saving would make you rich in a little 

. Underwear. 

Sleeveless for ladies 10c, 22c, 39c. 

Long sleeves 19c, 22c, 29c, 39c. 

Stout merino, gray or white 39c. 

Children's reduced 25 per cent. 




414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., Gal. 



The Pacific 

July 18, 1896. 

Best Patterns at a Low Price. 

The Rural Press has arranged with 
a leading New York pattern house to 
supply its readers with patterns in the 
latest fashion at prices very far below 
the ordinary retail cost. These patterns 
sell as high as 50 and 25 cents elsewhere. 
The Rural is enabled to furnish them 
to its readers at 10 cents apiece, post- 
paid, for all sizes and designs. The pat- 
terns are handsomely put up in a sepa- 
rate envelope containing illustrations 
and descriptions and mailed for 10 
cents each to those who order them 
through this office. Address Pattern 
Department, Rural Press, 220 Market 
street, San Francisco, giving number 
and size of pattern wanted. 

943-Kariijah House Jacket. 
Sizes for 34, 36,38 and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 

This pretty negligee is made of 
figured blue India silk, the full front of 
plain silk, and the trimmings, blue 
ribbons and wide plat Valenciennes 
lace. Soft cashmere and challies are 
also very pretty for these jackets, and 
for hot weather dainty lawns and dim- 
ities are used. These jackets may be 
worn with various skirts or with skirts 
made of the same material as the 
jacket. These skirts are not quite as 
full as dress skirts, and yet are made 
fuller than petticoats. They may be 
trimmed with ruffles of lace to match 
the jacket. Our model is fitted in the 
black with the usual seams, and has a 
Watteau fold in the center. A fitted 
lining crosses the front and holds the 
back and full front in place. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

060— Oellcia Waist. 

Sizes for 14 and 16 Years. 
This charming gown is made of light 
silk-striped challie, combined with ba- 
tiste. The cape fichu is made of the 
latter material, also the long tabs on 

the skirt which suggest fichu ends. 
The skirt is the " Amity," which is de- 
scribed below. The corsage, the "Deli- 
cia," is slightly fulled over a fitted lin- 
ing, and the fichu is a deep round collar 
in the back. The sashes which fall at 
the side of the skirt are included in the 
waist pattern. The model is com- 
mended for all light silks, fine organ- 
dies and lawns, also for light-weight 
woolens. The fichu may be of some 
contrasting material and is made ad- 
justable, so that various changes may 
be made. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

959— Amity Skirt. 
Sizes for 14 and 16*Years. 

A graceful model, having eight gores 
and measuring nearly five yards at the 
foot. It may be lined or finished with 
a deep hem, but should have no inter- 
lining or stiffening. Any of the popu- 
lar silk, woolen or cotton fabrics may 
be chosen for this model and can be 
worn with any style of waist or coat. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on tha envelope in which it is inclosed. 

953— Eretrla Blouse- Waist. 

Sizes 34, 

I and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 

Fancy waists still find favor for both 
dressy and general wear, according to 
the materials selected. Our model is 
quite simple, and depends for its at- 
tractiveness upon its trim fit and the 
beauty and becomingness of the silk. 
It is suited to all the pretty striped 
silks, and also to every description of 
figured India or taffeta silk. A fitted 
lining holds the fulness of both back 
and front in place. The finish of the 
neck and the shirring in front are 
especially effective and becoming. 
This is also a good model for washable 
fabrics, and can be completed with 
linen collar and cuffs. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

952— Ariola Frock. 
Sizes for 8 and 10 Years. 
The absence of elaborate shoulder 
trimming on children's frocks this sea- 
son renders them very attractive, be- 
cause of their dainty simplicity. The 

model illustrated is of India silk. The 
skirt is gored, and it may be lined with 
percaline, or finished with a deep hem. 
The back of the corsage is like the 
front, except, of course, that the full- 
ness is drawn down smoothly, and a 
fitted lining holds the fullness in place. 
The yoke can be made of velvet, plain 
silk, or batiste, and trimmed with a 
frill of embroidery or lace. The sash 
may be of the material itself or of 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less in this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. 1SUKKE, K26 Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
steins ; Grade Milch Cows. Pine Pigs. 

JE KSK YS— The best A. J. C C. registered prize herd 
is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Pine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danvllie. Cal. 

PKTEK SAXE & SON, Lick House. S P.. Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle, Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 


Vale. Cal. Barred Plymouth Rocks. Black Mlnor- 
cas. White Leghorns. Brown Leghorns. Eggs for 
sale. Send for circular. 

Prop., Sacramento. Cal. Breeder of high-class 
Black and White Langshans: Brown. Buff and 
While Leghorns; Black Spanish; Black Mlnorcas; 
Barred Plymouth Rocks and Pekln Ducks. Write 
for circular. 

R. G. HE AO. Napa, Cal., breeds all leading vari- 
eties pure-bred poultry. Eggs, 11.00 a setting. Send 
for new catalogue. 

J. W. FOROEUS * CO., Santa Cruz. Cal. Pine 
Fowls and EggB. Write to us 

Bros.. San Jose, Cal. Barren eggs replaced. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps It. 

MANHATTAN EGG FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale. Tillman & Bendel, S. P. 

Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S. P.— BERK9HIRES. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose. Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex HogB. 

A. P. HOTALING — Berkshlres from Imported 
stock— Mayneld, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAs. A. STOWE, Stockton, Reglst'd Berkshlres. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing. Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep; also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

C. P. BAILEY, San Jobo. Cal. Pure bred Angora 
Goats and Persian Pat Tailed Sheep. Send for 
catalogue and price list. 

You Can Get $'s for Cents. 


Is producing $1,000,000 per month and the output is 
steadily increasing and making fortunes for in- 
vestors in Mines and Stocks. The Cripple 
Creek and California Gold Mining and Milling 
Company of San Francisco are rapidly developing 
their group of Mines located on Little Bull Moun- 
tain, near the city of Victor, in the gold-bearing belt 
of the greatest Gold Camp in the world. A limited 
number of the Shares of the Treasury Stock will 
be sold for the purpose of development at the 
price of 10 cents per Share. The Par Value is $1.00, 
and under the laws of Colorado are absolutely 
non-assessable. For prospectus and full particu- 
lars call or address 

E. B. MYERS, Sec. 

Room 30, 139 Post St., San Francisco. 

Improved Pacific Incubator. 

Absolutely Self-Regulating. 
Hot Water. 

Send stamp for our catalogue 
of Incubators, Wire Netting, 
Blooded Fowls and Poultry Ap- 
pliances generally. Remembtr 
the Bat it the Chtapett. 

1817 Castro St., Oakland, Cal. 

Short=Horn Bulls 



Baden Station, San Mateo Co., Cal. 
The Baden Farm Herd was established In 1867, 
with cows from then recent importations of the 
best English Milking Shorthorns, since which 
time improvement in dairy qualities has been 
steadily kept in view. 


The German Savings and Loan Society, 

For the half year ending June 30, 1896, a dividend 
has been declared at the rate of four and twenty 
six hundredths (4.26) per cent per annum on Term 
deposits, and three and fifty-five hundredths (3.56) 
per cent per annum on Ordinary deposits, free of 
taxes, payable on and after Wednesday, July 1, 
1896. GEO. TOURNY, Secretary. 


that's one reawn why it WILL BALE THREE TONS MORE 

nay in 10 hours than any two horse \>r*>s* made. The 
a superior baler. I or circular*, prices, etc, write 


The leading paper, and only weekly: 16 large pages. 

Be stre to §ee It before subscribing for any other 
G. w. York ft Co., 56 Fifth Ave.. CHICAGO, 111. 




bU. 16.18 DRUMM STREET, S. F. 

Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 


Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 


5000 Green Gage Seedlings 

For piece grafting; one bushel Green Gage seed. 
ALT A LOMA NURSERIES. Alta Loma. Texas. 

Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 









Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 080, Los Angeles, Cal. 


We have several fine litters coming on. Book your 
orders for choice pigs. Write for prices and get our 

July 18, 1890. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Produce Market. 

San Francisco, July 15, 1896. 

Prices quoted in this review are intended, 
unless otherwise specified, to represent whole- 
sale values, obtainable on offerings from the 
producer, and on round lots delivered at San 
Francisco. The reviews of the markets are 
for the week ending Wednesday noon 
while quotations are based on values current 
at the close. It is the aim of The Pacific 
Rural Press to have its quotations represent 
as nearly as possible the existing values. It 
should be remembered, however, that at 
times, owing to superior merit of offerings, 
undue competition between buyers, or other 
reasons, higher figures are realized than are 
justified as quotations. On the other hand, 
produce of decidedly inferior quality is apt to 
be sold at less than lowest figures. 

Receipts and exports of leading cereals and 
other California products for the past week 
and for the season to date, as compared with 
corresponding time the previous year, are as 
follows : 



Flour, i^-sks 108,523 

Wheat, ctls 73,087 

Barley, ctls 18,029 

Oats, ctls 15,162 

Com, ctls 1,082 

Rye, ctls 285 

Beans, sks 4,011 

Potatoes, sks 16,014 

Onions, sks 3,227 

Hay, tons 2,301 

Wool, bales 1,198 

Hops, bales 16 


Same Time 

July 1, '96. 

Last Year. 















21 ,093 









Flour, M-sks 29,704 

Wheat, ctls 17,712 

Barley, ctls 1,420 

Oats, ctls 

Corn, ctls 87 

Beans, sks 13 

Hay, bales 550 

Wool, fi>s 

Hops, Bis 1,504 

Honey, cases 1 

Potatoes, pkgs 28B 

July 1, '96. 



Same Time 
Last Year. 





Grain Freights and Charters. 
Not much business reported in this line. 
Ship owners are in the main contending for 
higher figures than are obtainable, their 
views being about 30 shillings per ton for 
wheat in iron ships to Cork for orders. An 
iron ship of handy size arrived this week un- 
der charter and is now loading at 35 shillings 
to Cork for orders. Another iron ship arrived 
under wheat charter for same voyage at 27s. 
6d. A fine schooner, with a carrying capacity 
of about 1000 tons, was engaged at private 
terms to load wheat for Australia. 


Tonnage engaged. Disengaged. 




To arrive 


During the past ten cereal years wheat ex- 
ports from San Francisco and valuations for 
the same were as follows : 

Season. Centals. Value. 

1895-96 10,293,957 $10,629,629 

1894-95 - 9,605,296 8,607,1:55 

1893-94,....- 8,966,268 9.449,612 

1892-93 10,553,619 13,825,632 

1891-92 13,092.364 28,089,788 

1890-91 13,828,701 20,1X19,223 

1889-90 18,704,338 17,986,701 

1888-89 13,292,127 19,634,652 

1887-88 8,773,887 13,075,008 

1886-87 12.334,114 18,064,082 

Of the 10,511,188 centals wheat received the 
past season, 448,533 centals were from Oregon 
and Washington, against 1,583,379 centals in 
previous season. Included in the total re- 
ceipts of flour— 1,417,071 barrels— there were 
received from Oregon and Washington 270,936 
barrels, against 178,397 barrels in previous 
season. Total shipments of wheat and its 
equivalent in flour from this State for past 
year aggregate 657,841 short tons, with a 
valuation of $12,603,152. Vessels to the num- 
ber of 174 were dispatched with wheat con- 
stituting the entire or main cargo. 

The local wheat market has been devoid of 
excitement the current week, either for spot 
offerings or in the speculative field. There 
was a little firmness reported in Eastern and 
foreign centers, but it was not sufficient to 
disturb values to any very appreciable de- 
gree either here or abroad. Speculative val- 
ues here kept within a cent fluctuation during 
the latter part of last and the early part of the 
current week, and as well may be inferred, 
quotations for immediate deliveries of actual 
wheat were not disturbed. Exporters have 
been proceeding very slowly, as is shown by 
the outward movement for the season to 
date— less than 200,000 centals— while for cor- 
responding time last year over 1,000,000 cen* 

tals had been forwarded. The heavy outward 
movement of July, last year, was mainly of 
the accumulations of the Fair wheat deal. It 
was necessary to hurry it to market to pre- 
vent weevils from destroying it. This year 
the carry-over stock was light, less than 150,- 

000 tons, and with only a fair crop in this 
State this season, farmers have not been dis- 
posed to crowd offerings to sale very rapidly 
at existing low values, although prices are at 
a slightly higher range than they were a year 
ago. Market at close was quiet and barely 

California Milling $1 00@1 10 

Cal. No. 1 shipping, alongside 95@ 97(4 

Oregon Valley 95® 1 00 

Walla Walla Blue Stem 1 00@1 10 

Walla Walla Club 95@1 00 


On San Francisco Call Board prices for No. 

1 white wheat per cental for the week were 
as follows for the options named : 

December, 1896, delivery, 97%@98->8C. 

May, 1897, delivery, «1.02 1 4@1.02^. 

Wednesday, at regular noon session of 
Call Board, December wheat sold at 98%@ 
D 8%c ; May, 


There is no scarcity of supplies of either 
local or outside brands. Export trade is of 
fair proportions, but a greater demand could 
be easily accommodated. The market, while 
not particularly weak, has been more favor- 
able to the buying than to the selling interest. 

Superfine, lower grades $2 25® — 

Superfine, good to choice 2 40@2 50 

Country grades, extras 3 00@3 25 

Choice and extra choice 3 25@3 50 

Fancy brands, jobbing 3 50@3 75 

Oregon, Bakers' extra 2 75@3 00 

Walla Walla, Bakers' extra 2 75@3 00 


This market is not showing much activity. 
There are one or two ships at Port Costa tak- 
ing New Brewing for England, but there is 
very little being done on local account. Little 
or nothing has been yet done in this season's 
Chevalier, and any quotations for the same at 
this date would be wholly nominal. Bright 
and heavy Chevalier, suitable for export, is 
very likely to receive attention at an early 
date at fairly profitable figures to the pro- 
ducer; but dark colored, light weight and foul 
cannot be depended on to bring more than 
prices for ordinary feed. Market for low- 
grade barley ruled quiet, although for stock 
suitable for tender on Call Board contracts, 
or which would pass inspection as No. 1 feed, 
values were tolerably well sustained. 

Feed, No. 1 to choice 70 @— 

Feed, fair to good 65 @67!4 

Brewing, No. 1 to choice new 75 @77V4 


On San Francisco Call Board prices for No. 1 
feed barley, per cental, for the week ranged 
as follows for the options named : 

December, 1896, delivery, 69; 1 + @70%c; May, 
1897, delivery, r3) c. 

Wednesday at regular noon session of the 
Call Board December feed was offered at 
70%c, with 70%c bid. 


Arrivals from Oregon and Washington, the 
main sources of supply, are showing some de- 
crease, and the quantity in warehouse here is 
not large. There are more than enough, how- 
ever, of the ordinary run of offerings to accom- 
modate the existing demand, and market for 
common qualities is devoid of firmness. 
Choice Surprise and fancy White oats are 
scarce and incline in sellers' favor. 

White Oats, fancy feed 92^@— — 

White, good to choice 85 © 90 

White, poor to fair 77!4@ 82(4 

Gray, common to choice 7714® 8214 

Milling 85 @ 87(4 

Surprise, good to choice 97(4® 1 02V4 


Stocks in this center are mainly Large 
White, for which there is little demand at 
present. Large Yellow now here is mostly 
Eastern and is rather firmly held. Small 
Yellow is not in heavy stock, neither is it in 
active request. 

Large White, good to choice 77%® 82% 

Large Yellow 92'/,® 95 

Small Yellow 95 @ 97(4 


There is not much coming forward, but de- 
mand is insignificant, and free sales would be 
possible only at low prices. 

Good to choice 72%® 733t£ 

Business in this cereal is so lifeless at pre- 
sent that values are very poorly defined. 

Good to choice 80 @ 95 


Stocks here and in the southern portion of 
the State are quite heavy. The demand is 
light, both on local and outside account. Hold- 
ers are anxious to realize, and under the cir- 
cumstances the market could not be otherwise 

than weak. Values are irregular, and quota- 
tions for most descriptions are more in accord 
with asking rates than with figures readily 

Pea, fair to good. 100 fts $1 20 @1 35 

Small White, good to choice 1 00 ©1 15 

Lady Washington 75 @1 00 

Butter, small 1 10 ©1 25 

Pinks 65 ® 80 

Bayos, good to choice 85 ®1 00 

Reds l 20 @1 30 

Red Kidneys l 25 ®1 50 

Limas, good to choice 2 25 @2 40 

Black-eye Beans l 25 @1 50 

Dried Peas. 
Recent offeriugs have been of small volume, 
but they have received very little attention. 
Buyers are few and indifferent about oper- 

Green Peas, California $1 15 @1 30 

Niles Peas l 20 @ 


While values for this product are still on a 
low plane, affording little encouragement to 
the producer, the market has presented a 
better tone during the past few weeks than 
for many months preceding. Scourers have 
purchased considerable wool lately, and a fair 
amount of business had been done in scoured 
stock on Eastern account. In addition some 
grease wools are going to the East by sailing 


Humboldt and Mendocino 10 ©12 

Northern California free 7 @9 

Northern defective 5'/£@ 7 

San Joaquin Foothill, good to choice 6 @ 7!4 

San Joaquin, 12 months 4 @ 6% 

San Joaquin and Southern, 6 months 4 @ 6 

Nevada, as to condition 7 ©9 

Oregon Valley, select 9 ®10V4 

Oregon Valley, low grade 8 @ 9% 


There is no evidence of any business of con- 
sequence being transacted in this center. 
Some inquiry for new hops is anticipated in 
the near future, but that bids will reach a 
very gratifying or specially remunerative fig- 
ure to the producer is not considered prob- 
able. Stocks of old hops throughout the world 
are heavy. A few new of favorite marks have 
been contracted for to arrive at about 7c. The 
following is a New York review of the hop 
market there and elsewhere: 

The volume of business is still very small. 
Brewers are well supplied and are very indifferent 
buyers, while exporters are getting so few orders 
that the demand from that source is of small im- 
portance. There does not. however, appear to be 
any occasion for changing values. Holdings here 
are not burdensome and the hops were secured at 
such a low cost that no one seems to fear carrying 
them over; at the same time business would be 
done on the basis o: late quoted prices. The coun- 
try is so well cleared that no further arrivals of 
importance are looked for. Nothing has occurred 
to change the outlook for the growing crop. Fine 
weather is bringing the vines along nicely in this 
State, and where proper care has been taken in 
cultivation the yards look exceedingly well. The 
total yield will be considerably below last year 
through plowing up and neglect of yards. Esti- 
mates of the entire crop of the Pacific coast are 
placed at about 120,000 bales— fully one-third less 
than last year. Present holdings are from 10,000 
to 13,01X1 bales, mostly in California. Vermin are 
still reported in the English plantations, but fre- 
quent rains have made further improvement in the 
condition of the yards. 

Fair to choice, 1895 crop 2 @4 

Hides, Pelts and Tallow. 
Only select hides, clean and trimmed, can 
be relied on to bring full figures. Culls of all 
kinds, either from grubs, cuts, hair slips, side 
brands or murrain, are not always readily 
placed at the lower quotations. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 lbs 7 @ 7% 6 fii< 6'/ 2 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lbs.... 6 @ 6% 5 @ 5% 

Light Steers, under 48 lbs — ® 5 — ® 4 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs. 5 ©554 4 ©4% 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 lbs. — (n 5 — ® 4 

Wet Salted Kip — @ 5 — @ 4 

Wet Salted Veal — C" 6 — ft 5 

Wet Salted Calf 7 @8 6 ©7 

Dry Hides, round lots, 9@I0c. ..10'/ 2 @11 8 @ 8!4 
Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs . 8 ®9 — @7 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs — @15 — ®10 

Pelts, long wool, per skin 50 ®60 

Pelts, medium, per skin 40 ®50 

Pelts, short wool, per skin 20 ®35 

Pelts, shearling, per skin 10 ®15 

Deer Skins, best summer — @30 

Deer Skins, good medium 15 @25 

Deer Skins, thin winter 7 ®10 

Elk Hides 8 @9 

Tallow, good quality 3 @ 

Tallow, No. 2 2'/,@ — 

Goat Skins, perfect 20 @35 

Goat Skins, damaged 10 ©20 

Kid Skins 5 © — 

Hay and Straw. 
Hay receipts have aggregated tolerably 
large, and for other than choice wheat the 
market was devoid of firmness. Straw fav- 
ored buyers. 


Wheat 7 50® 1! 00 

Wheat and Oat 6 50® 8 50 

Oat 5 00® 7 50 

Barley 6 00® 7 50 

Clover 5 00© 7 00 

Stock Hay 4 00® 5 00 

Alfalfa, first cutting 4 00® 5 00 


Wheat, fair to choice 8 00®U 50 

Straw, ft bale 30® 40 


Market is amply stocked with most descrip- 
tions, and is in the main easy in tone. 

Bran. ft ton 13 50® 14 50 

Middlings 15 50® 17 50 

Barley, Rolled 15 50@16 00 

Cornmeal 19 50© 80 00 

Cracked Corn 80 50®21 00 

There is little doing in any variety. Mus- 
tard seed crop is not turning out well, and 
market is likely to be firmer than last season. 

Per ell 

Mustard, Yellow l 40@1 60 

Mustard, Trieste Seed 2 50@2 65 

Mustard, Wild Brown l 50@1 75 

Flax 1 70@1 75 

Per lb. 

S^ary 2%®2^ 

Rape. 2 ®2M 

Hemp 3M(6'3i4 

Alfalfa, Utah 7 @7H 


Common qualities from Sacramento river are 
in heavy stock. Choice to fancy Burbanks are 
not plentiful and command good prices. 


Early Rose, ft cental 35® 50 

Peerless 50® 75 

Garnet Chile 70® 80 

Burbanks 35@i 00 


Early Rose, ft cental 35® 60 

Peerless River 50® 75 

Burbanks, River 40@1 00 

Burbanks, San Leandro 1 00@1 25 


With this year's crop in California almost 
a total failure, there will be little chance for 
business this season. Prices now existing 
are too high for any export trade. 

White Comb, 1-B> frames 9!4@11 

Amber Comb 5 ©714 

Extracted, White Liquid 5 ©514 

Extracted, Light Amber 4*4® 4% 

Amber Colored and Candied 33£@ 4 

Dark Tule 2£® 3 


Not much offering, neither is the demand 
very brisk. 

Fair to choice, ft lb 22@26 

Live Stock and Meats. 
Following are wholesale rates in the San 
Francisco markets : 

Beef, 1st quality, dressed, net ft lb 5 ®— 

Beef, 2d quality 4V4© 4$£ 

Beef, 3d quality 314® 4 

Mutton— ewes. 4!4(ffi5c: wethers 5 @ 5(4 

Hogs, hard grain fed, light fat 33£@ 37g 

Hii^'s, large hard 3)4® 3(4 

Hugs, soft and feeders 3 @ 

Hogs, country dressed 4(4© 43£ 

Veal, small, ft lb 5 @ 6 

Lamb, spring, ft lb 5 @ 6 


Although a carload of Eastern poultry ar- 
rived, and another carload was announced 
near at hand, the market was in a little bet- 
ter shape for sellers than during the preced- 
ing week, especially for full-grown chickens of 
desirable size and in prime condition, these 
selling at a moderate advance. Fat young 
turkey gobblers were inquired for, but were 
not on market; they would probably have 
commanded an advance on quotations. Ducks 
were in poor request at low prices. Geese did 
not receive much attention. 

Turkeys, live hens, ft lb 14® 16 

Turkeys, live gobblers 13® 14 

Hens, Cal., ft doz 4 00@5 00 

Roosters, old 4 00@4 50 

Roosters, young, (full-grown) 5 00@6 50 

Fryers 3 50®4 00 

Broilers, large 3 00®3 50 

Broilers, small 1 50@2 50 

Ducks, young, ft doz 3 00@4 50 

Ducks, old 3 00®3 25 

Geese, ft pair 90@1 25 

Goslings, ft pair — @ — 

Pigeons, ft doz 1 25@1 50 


Stocks of fresh are tolerably large for this 
time of year, both creamery and dairy pro- 
duct. Owing, to feed being rather poor in 
some localities, as is invariably the case at 
this advanced date in the season, and also 
owing to hot weather, considerable of the 
butter now coming forward is showing rather 
serious defects in color, flavor, solidity, etc., 
and market for this defective stock is weak. 
While choice to select was not quotably 
higher, the market was firm at existing rates, 
with prospects of better figures in the near 

Creamery extras, ft lb — @15 

Creamery firsts 14 @ — 

Creamery seconds 12Vi@13 

Dairy select 13!4@14 

Dairy seconds 11 ©12 

Dairy, soft and weedy 9 ©10 

Mixed store 10 ©11 

Creamery in tubs 14 @15 

Dairy in tubs 13 ©14 

Firkin, Cal., choice to select 12(4@14 

Firkin, common to fair 11 ©1154 


The wholesale depots in this center are 
lightly stocked, and market is firm at the 
quotations, with small sales at higher 
figures. Should prices be advanced at pres- 
ent, business would in all probability have to 
be confined to small jobbing operations, as it is 
doubtful if buyers could be induced at the 
advanced rates to take hold in anything like 
wholesale fashion. 

California fancy flat, new 6>4® 7 

California, good to choice 5(4© 654 

California, fair to good 5 ®6 

California, "Young Americas" 6 @ 8 


Market has shown some improvement this 
week for strictly fresh stock, prices for the 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 18, 1896. 

% The 43rd Great State Fair of California 




September 1st to lQth, 

Th . soil Products or this great agricultural State will be a leadiDg feature. 

The Mechanical DUpliy will be as attractive as unual, and made up of live exhibits of machin- 

Cry Xl?ve d |rock R will^; a most important division of this season's exhibit; competitive tests 
will be held amonc the various dairy and beef breeds of cattle. 

ThePoi trvhWhlblt will form one of the most interesting features of the fair. 

The Racing Programme will be of unusual excellence, inviting contests between the highest 

Cli> The Exposition Building will be a blaze of electricity, affording every advantage for the exhibi- 
tion of all kinds of articles. 

EDW/1N F\ SMITH, Secretary. 

Electric Motive I'iiwit generated at Folsom, twenty-two miles distant, will turn every wheel and 
furnish brilliant lights for the entire exhibition. Space, power and light furnished free to all exhibitors. 

Athletic Sports, Bicycle Races, Ladies' Tournaments, and other entertainments will occupy 
the mornings at the park. 

Cassasa's (.n ut Exposition liand will give high-class concerts at the pavilion each evening. 

The Manufactures of California can meet the consumers to a better advantage at the State 
Fair, by reason of its varied attractions, than at any other public gathering in the State. Exhibit 
your goods and let the people know what is made at home. 

Free transportation for exhibits, and reduced rates of fare will be given on all railroads. 

Address the Secretary for information of any character. Premium lists now ready. 

C m. CHASE, President. 

same advancing about a cent, with receipts 
rather small. Some extra large, clean and 
uniformly white, went to special custom at a 
moderate advance on top quotation. Com- 
mon qualities sold at about as low figures as 
at any previous date this season, the supplies 
of this sort being greatly in excess of the de- 
mand. Eastern eggs have stopped coming 
forward, but there are liberal quantities here 
in cold storage. 

California, select, large white and fresh. 15 ®I6 
California, select, irregular color & size . 12 @U 

California, good to choice store ID @H 

California, common to fair store 8 @10 

Oregon, prime 1° & } \ 

Eastern, as to section and grading 10 012V4 

Eastern, seconds 8 @ j> 

Duck eggs, dull and weak 12 9"> 

Bags and Bagging. 
The season's demand for grain bags has 
been about satisfied, but stocks are not yet 
exhausted. Prices have ruled very steady for 
several months past and are not likely to show 
much fluctuation during the balance of the 

Grain bags, 22x36, spot 4K@ W 

Wool sacks, 4 lb 28 

Wool sacks, 314 lb 

Gunnies t 12 9~ 

Bean bags 4 @ 4^ 

Fruit sacks, cotton 5V4(m 7 

Kruit Market. 

Most varieties now in season are coming for- 
ward quite freely. The recent warm weather 
has been maturing fruit rapidly in most local- 
ities. With the market liberally stocked, or- 
dinary qualities were not eagerly sought 
after, and there was a considerable proportion 
of arrivals only common to fair quality. Fruit 
which was too green or too ripe was wholly 
neglected by the better class of buyers. 

Apricots of select quality brought £10 per 
ton from canners, but sales were more com- 
mon within range of *22.50ffi'27.50, and some 
would not command over $15. 

Peaches made only a fair display, and 
arrivals included few which could be termed 
choice. Desirable qualities brought moder- 
ately good figures. Early Crawford's are be- 
ginning to come forward, and are receiving 
the preference where they are sufficiently 
ripe to be attractive. 

Plums are not in heavy receipt and are 
meeting with fairly good custom. Choice 
Peach plums sold especially well, this being 
about the most popular of the varieties now 

Prunes of the Tragedy and German varie- 
ties are now arriving, and are not lacking for 

Pears, Bartlett, No. I, per box 65@ 85 

Pears, Bartlett, No. 2, per l»x *Kg> 50 

Pears, early kinds, box 25@ 60 

. Plums, Peach, # box 50® 75 

Plums, other kinds, 8> box 35fa 50 

Plums, > crate 40® 75 


Currants were in sufficient supply for exist- 
ing needs and the market was barely steady. 
Blackberries were rather plentiful and cheap. 
Raspberries sold at a wide range, owing to 
great difference in quality. Strawberries 
were in ample stock to keep the market favor- 
able to buyers. 

Blackberries, V chest 2 00® 3 00 

Currants, Red, $ chest 2 50® 4 00 

Raspberries, V chest 2 00® 5 00 

Strawberries, Longworth, "t> chest 4 00® 5 00 

Strawberries, Large, ¥ chest 2 50® 3 50 


Grapes of the Muscat variety arrived in a 
small way from Palm Springs and sold at 12 
per crate. A few grapes, mostly green, were 
also received from Vacaville and other points. 
Watermelons were offered in moderate quan- 
tity, mostly from Tulare, at *I0 to *20 per 100. 
Dried Fruit. 
The local market is dull and devoid of en- 
couraging feature. Apricots are the only va- 
riety of this season's fruit which is yet offer- 
ing. Prime qualities were this week obtain- 
able at 6c free on board cars at common coast 
points, and met with very few buyers at this 
figure. There appears to be an entire ab- 
sence of speculative demand. It is feared 
there will be further declines in values before 
there will be any special activity. The fol- 
lowing from an Eastern house shows one 
cause for the existing dullness and weakness: 

The latter part of this mouth the Kastern peach 
casou will be at hand, when this market will be 

terior, mainly in the hands of one party. One 
operator is reported to have purchased 100 car- 
loads of coming crop at 9%o. per lb. in the 
sweat boxes at Fresno. Some report the 
price at 2 ' 4 c, but the lower figure is gener- 
ally regarded as the correct one. This is a 
marked advance on last season, when pur- 
chases were made at \%o. 

Boxes, London layers, 20-11. box 75® 85 

(Usual advance for fractions.) 

Loose Muscatel, 4-erown, V tb 3 3 4 @4 

Loose Muscatel, 3-erown 3M@SK 

Loose Muscatel, 2-crown 3 ® — 

Sultanas 4(4® — 

Citrus Ernlt. 

Oranges are nearly out of stock, the season 
being practically ended. A few odds and ends 
are still offering, hardly sufficient to warrant 

Lemons are in fair supply, but there are no 
large quantities of choice to select. A well 
sweated and thin rind lemon is not plentiful, 
and indications are it will be a long time be- 
fore the market will be glutted with this 
sort. Select qualities favor sellers, but com- 
mon are cheap. 

Limes are scarce and market firm. 
Oranges— Wash. Navels, ~? box 3 00<« 3 50 

Cal. Mediterranean Sweet 2 (JOm 3 00 

Cal. Seedlings 1 25® 2 50 

Lemons— Cal., select, ~f box 2 50ra 

Cal., good to choice 1 50® 2 00 

Cal., common to good 1 (Xk.i 1 50 

Lemons— Mexican. V box @ 

Cal.. small box 1 0OY« 1 50 


There is some inquiry for almonds of coming 
crop, but prices have not yet been established. 
Buyers could not be found at present at other 
than decidedly low figures. The market is 
practically bare of domestic white walnuts, 

List of U. S. Patents for Pacific 
Coast Inventors. 

Reported by Dewey A Co., Pioneer Patent 
Solicitors for Pacific ast. 

■t}B THE WEEK ENDING JUNE 30, 1896. 
563,111) — Amaixjamator — F. B. Austin, Tempe. 
A. T. 

563,216— Key Fastener — J. A. Beebe, Tacoma, 

563,007 — Pump — H. 0. Behr, S. F. 
562,794 — Bottle — A. D. Boardman, Sumner. Wash. 
563.128— Car Uni.i'ADEH— P. E. Boyce, Snohomish. 

563,132— Stopper— E. L. Brown, S. F. 

563,012— Pepper and Salt Box— J. C Campbell, 

Spokane, Wash. 
563.022— FREfc.HT Car— G. B. Davis. Sierra Madra, 


562.951— Flushing Bowls, etc.— E. Douglas, S. F. 
563,028— Cooking Stove— W.C. Eymann. Anaheim, 

582.895— Water Tower— D. D. Hayes, Oakland, 

562,963— Dredger Sleeve— A. L. Horner, Seattle. 

563,181— Orb Crusher— E. P. Jones. S. F. 
563.244— Trolley System— W. C. Keithlv, S. F. 
562,901— Desk Hinge— EL M. Lambert, Portland, 

563,IM6— Cold Separator — J. Malt, Oakland, Cal. 
563,069— Soldering Machine— H. Scbaake, S. F. 
562. 936— Thill Coupling— O. Taber, S. F. 
563.101— Anvils— C. E. Van Coughnet, Fort Bid- 
well, Cal. 

25.728— Bed Pan Design— W. M. Searby, S. F. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign patents fur- 
nished by Dewey II Co. in the shortest time possible 
(by mall for telegraphic order). American ami 
Foreign patents obtained, and general patent busi- 
ness for Pacific Coast inventors transacted with 
perfect security, at reasonable rates, and in the 
shortest possible time. 

Hooded for 30 to 60 days with an excellent quality j but five or six carloads of French product have 
of peaches at ridiculously low prices, which does 
away temporarily or until about the middle of 
August with other dried fruit. 

Of last season's stock of dried fruit there is 
very little now here of any sort and scarcely 
any wanted. Quotations for the same are 
little more than nominal. 

The last issue of the I'rmtiH ers' PriM Dur- 
rani, of New York City, has the following 
concerning the dried fruit market in that 


Evaporated apples remain about the same as 
previously quoted, and while the demand con- 
tinues very moderate it is generally thought that 
the stock of '95 apples will be about exhausted by 
the time the new crop appears. Jobbing sales of 
fancy fruit are at about 6^e and very little of 
that is left in first hands. Choice lots when wanted 
bring about 5V4c, and average prime Sc.; strictly 
prime dry fruit is not at all plenty and occasion- 
ally reaches 5?b(«5!<c. A few carloads of two- 
I year-old stock are seeking an outlet, but the 
Pears of the early small varieties were demand for it is sma n. Lower grades are greatly. 

rather plentiful, and Bartletts are commenc- 
cing to come forward in wholesale quan- 
tity. Market was in the main weak, particu- 
larly for other than choice. Large quantities 
of this fruit are expected during the next few 

Apples now offering are mostly rather ordi- 
nary, Ked Australian being the most promi- 
nent variety, and these not showing a high 
average as to quality. Their poor keeping 
qualities also operate in many cases against 
their being sold to advantage. A few green 
Gravenstein have been received. 

Figs were in lighter receipt, both black and 
white, than during the previous week, and 
the market ruled firmer. Black of small to 
medium size received the preference. 

Tree Kruit. 

Apples. Red Astrachan, 50-Ib box 25c 75 

Apples, Gravenstein, 50-B> box 75® 1 00 

Apples. Green. y 50-lb. box 30® i!ti 

Apricots, K* ton 15 00(«27 50 

Apricots, Royal, ¥ 6-in. box 40® 50 

Apricots, Royal, r 1 22-in. box 25fa 40 

Apricots, Roval, y crate 50(,i 60 

Figs, Black, f 2-tier lb-lb box 50(« 75 

Figs, Black, "t> 1-tier box 25<n 40 

Figs, White, fi Ikix 25(" 40 

"'•aches, Early Crawford, per box ?5(» 85 

jaches, fancy wrap] >x OOQ 75 

Peaches, good to choice, $ box 2.Vn 60 

neglected, and some very poor southern are offer 
lng at 3<a 3i4c without having any sale. Exceed- 
ingly favorabb- crop reports come from all the 
northern States, but especially New York and 
l Michigan. Very little inquiry for sun-dried sliced 
apples and though not quotably lower are easy iu 
tone. Less call of late for coarse cut and the 
feeling is scarcely so firm as last week. Chops are 
practically gone and we drop the quotation. 
Buyers have been in search of cores and skins aud 
have bid higher prices without securing the goods. 
No Interest in peaches. Raspberries still very 
dull. Cherries held with some confidence but 
nothing doing. Huckleberries and blackberries 
have small jobbing sales at 5>4®6c. California 
prunes have a very good consumptive trade at 
firm prices; other fruits about steady. 

kvapohated or mleached. 

Apricots, Royal, in sacks, per D> 5X9 6 

Apples, in boxes 3%@ 4V4 

Peaches, unpeeled 3H(S) 5 

Peaches, peeled 9 ®1! 

Pears, peeled and sliced 4 @ 7 

Pears, quartered 4 @ 7 

Plums, pitted 3 ® 4 

Prunes, in boxes, 4 sizes 34® 4 

Prunes, in sacks, small sizes 1H® 3 


Apricots, ordinary — @ — 

Apples, sliced W,<« 2 

Apples, quartered — @ — 

Peaches, unpeeled 2H® 4 

Pears, quartered, P4®3c; siloed 3 @ 3V4 

Plums, unpitted I ® 14 


Last year's stocks are nearly exhausted. 
There are some 2-crown Muscatel in the in- 

been recently landed here, and these will in- 
terfere with the sale of domestic product 
later on. 

California Almonds, paper shell 7 @8 

California Almonds, soft shell 4 @ 6 

California Almonds, standard 3 @ 34 

California Almonds, hard shell 2 (a. 24 

Walnuts White, paper shell 11 ®12 

Walnuts White, soft shell 9 @10 

Walnuts White, Cal.. hardshell 7 @ 74 

Peanuts, Cal , fair to prime 54C" 6 

Peanuts. Eastern hand-picked 54® 64 

Pine Nuts 12 ("14 

> cgetables. 

Market is well stocked with most descrip- 
tions now in season, and it is the exception 
where easy prices do not prevail. 

Onions, Red, ~? cental 15® 25 

Onions, Yellow, good to choice 40® 50 

Asparagus, Fancy. ~p box 2 00® 2 50 

Asparagus, common to good, y box 75® 1 50 

Com, Alameda Sweet. Y crate 1 25® 1 75 

Corn, Berkeley, V crate 85(8. 1 00 

Corn, Vacaville and Winters, J crate. 50® 1 00 

Corn, Green, ■ sack 500 l no 

Cucumbers, Alameda, large box 1 (XX« 1 25 

Egg Plant, • box 1 00® 1 50 

Rhubarb, ¥ box 50® 75 

Beans, String, ¥ lb 14® 3 

Beans, Wax,* tb 14® 3 

Beans, Garden. $ lb 2@ 3 

Peppers, Green Chile, > box 50® 1 00 

Squash. Bay, > large box 15® 25 

Tomatoes, River, per large box 1 000 1 GO 

Tomatoes, Vacaville, ~? )>ox 2V« 50 

Garlic, y\b 2® 24 

Cauliflower, "f doz 40w 50 

Cabbage, ehoicegarden, > 10ft 80fc 60 




f\t Wholesale Prices, 

Send stamp for new Illustrated Catalogue. Home 
Supply Co., 18 Front St., San Francisco, Cal. 

m H.H.H. 

Horse Medicine! 

D. D. T" ., 1868. 

Will Remove All Callous Lamps. Spavins. 
Wind Galls. Ring; Bone, Pole EtII, and Will 
Cure Sweeney. Scratches, Sore Shoulders, Dis- 
temper, Contraction of Leaders, Fistula, and 
All Blemishes on the Horse. 


Do not be deceived by anyone who says he has as 
good or better liniment than the H.H.H., for he is 
an impostor and you will surely waste your money 
if you buy it. Insist on having the H.H.H. and no 
other. Examine every bottle to sec if the name of 
Henry H Moore is on label pasted on bottle, and 
the firm name is on outside cover of wrapper, be- 
fore you buy it. 

Manufactured by 

Cor. Sutter St. and Miner Ave., 


Blake, /VI o f f I 1 1 Sc Towne, 


812 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco. Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 







c DEWEY & CO. s - 

220 MARKET ST. S . F. 

One-third of all Harvesting Machinery in use Is 
made by the McCormick Co. of Chicago. 

July 18, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

Patrons of Husbandry. 

The Lecturer's Department. 

As was stated last week, the " Na- 
tional Grange Quarterly Bulletin " for 
the third quarter came to hand just as 
the Lecturer's weekly budget had been 
mailed, no room or time remaining for 
a review of the contents. The bundle 
of extra copies received have been dis- 
tributed to subordinate Lecturers 
whose names and addresses I was in 
possession of. From a careful reading 
of the Bulletin it seems inferable that 
the Lecturer of each subordinate 
Grange is entitled to and should re- 
ceive a copy of the paper, and if they 
do not it is because their names and 
addresses are unknown. The writer is 
in possession of about one-half of the 
names and addresses of the Lecturers, 
which could be supplied by a one-cent 
postal card, then any favors for the 
Lecturers could at once be forwarded 
as they appeared. The Quarterly Bul- 
letin can be ordered directly from 
headquarters by addressing Hon. Alpha 
Messer, Rochester, Vermont, and in- 
closing 10 cents, which will pay for the 
four quarters. The writer will order a 
further supply if his services are de- 
sired, but it is presumed that all are 
supplied with this issue. Taking it 
for granted that the paper is in the 
hands of every Master and Lecturer in 
the State, the writer will only refer to 
the contents instead of quoting them. 
The directory of the National Grange 
is given, and the names of the Masters 
of the State Granges. The resolutions 
by the last National Grange are given 
creating the "Quarterly Bulletin." 
The summaries for the second quarter 
are given. "Business Depression" is 
given as the general topic for July. 
First — What cause or causes have led 
to the present depressed condition of 
business affairs in this country, and the 
low prices for farm products ? Second — 
"What can farmers do towards effecting 
a change which will be favorable to the 
interests of agriculture? Extended 
suggestions are made on how the sub- 
jects may be considered. Then follow 
editorial commeuts, the Master's de- 
partment, and other contributions. 
For August we have the question of 
"Monopoly." First — What monopoly 
is most detrimental to farmers' inter- 
ests, and in what way or ways does it 
injure them ? Second — By what meth- 
od can the farmers best counteract or 
overcome the exacting power of mo- 
nopolies ? The topic for September is 
"Marketing." First — What changes, 
if any, are needed in present methods 
of marketing farm produce ? Second — 
To what extent should farmers place 
themselves in the hands of middlemen ? 
The supplementary questions are 
twenty-six in number and cover a wide 
range of up-to-date agricultural topics, 
written somewhat after the style of 
our own question cards. Reports from 
State and subordinate Lecturers follow, 
approving the Bulletin's plan of lecture 
work. Much substantial work is shown 
in this issue which cannot fail to be of 
great service to the Order, and par- 
ticularly to all Lecturers in the dis- 
charge of their duties. 

From Stockton. 

our country was declared free and independ 
ent of Great Britain, and only a few months 
ago war with her (over the Venezuelan boun- 
dary) was averted by enlightened and human 
diplomacy, showing the wonderful progress 
made in the p3wer of reason and the brother- 
hood of man. 

Yet, with all our progress, is the honesty of 
our forefathers waning in our homes and pub- 
lic life* Is reverence for the Sabbath, for 
age and for real merit slipping into the 
shadow of present success? 

Courage is here, but the economy of our 
fathers is needed, too. 

This Fourth of July precedes the fiftieth 
year of the raising of California's flag by 
Commodore Sloat over the custom house at 
Monterey, July 7th, when the energy of John 
Drake Sloat and his men and the swiftness of 
our fleet saved this fair land to the Union of 
forty-five States and enraged the British 
commodore. Forty-six years ago California 
was seeking admission under Zachary Taylor, 
and in the intense debates that followed 
| Henry Clay, then seventy- five years old, 
made his last great speech, conceding that 
California might come in free if in the rest of 
the territory acquired from Mexico slavery 
was unrestricted. 

In his 7th of March speech the peerless 
Webster dodged the issue by saying that the 
laws of nature and physical geography for- 
bade slavery in California. August 13th the 
Senate passed the bill by 34 to 18, and the 
House, on the 17th, by 150 to 56. 

The fugitive slave law followed, and the 
legislation of that Congress brought forth 
John Brown, the border war, election of Lin- 
coln, the bombardment of Fort Sumter, eman- 
cipation proclamation, the fifteenth amend- 
ment, and a united and great nation. 

Proud of our country, proud of our State, 
with its trade, agriculture and mines, let 
each voter do bravely what he believes best 
to supply labor with work in fields and shops, 
to the end that capital may find markets on 
which to base gainful wages. Let all citizens 
(all but one political party has accorded citi- 
zenship to woman) study the grave questions 
of to-day, revering the old flag that floats 
alike over the tramp and the millionaire. 

Stockton, July 6th. N. H. Root. 

To the Editor: — Stockton Grange 
met as usual on our national holiday, 
holding a short session. The doors 
were opened for a gathering of Pat- 
rons and friends to a goodly number, 
and a very entertaining and pleasant 
afternoon was passed by the rendering 
of the following programme : 

Song, " America" By the Grange . 

Day We Celebrate Lecturer 

Song, "On America" Anita Leadbetter 

The Fourth N. H. Root 

Mysterious Fireworks Sister S. L. Root 

Patriotic Extract Sister E. M. Stowe 

Piano Duet Anita and Flora Leadbetter 

Red, White and Blue Laura Root 

Little Women Maud Martin 

A Family Tragedy Mable Gann 

Piano Duet Sophie Root, Mrs. J W. Smith 

Women's Rights Flora Leadbetter 

Piano Solo, " March Through Georgia " 

Maud Martin 

The Youngest Native Burgie Harelson 

Essay Sister A. Ashley 

Piano Solo. Bertha Martin 

On the Shores of Tennessee Anita Leadbetter 

Concert Recitation— The Rising of 1776 

Mr. and Mrs. M. P. Noyes 

Piano Solo Prof. Schmal 


One hundred and twenty years ago to-day 

Fruit=Dryers' Supply House. 

L. Cunningham, of Saratoga and San 
Jose, the well known inventor and 
maker of labor-saving orchard machin- 
ery, including the celebrated Cunning- 
ham Dipper, has this season enlarged 
his business to include a general line of 
orchard supplies. He will make a spe- 
cialty of laying out and supplying dry- 
ing plants complete, and in this work 
combines his experience as a practical 
fruit grower and dryer and his skill as 
an inventor. Mr. Cunningham has es- 
tablished himself at 338-340 West 
Santa Clara street, San Jose (near the 
Narrow-gauge depot), where he can be 
personally consulted at all times dur- 
ing the coming fruit season. Mr. Cun- 
ningham's list of labor-saving machinery 
includes the Cunningham Dipper, the 
Cunningham Spreader, the Russell 
Hand Dipper, with a complete line of 
cauldrons, boilers, dipping baskets, 
trucks, transfer and field cars, turn- 
tables, elevators, orchard wagons, etc. 
Mr. Cunningham is also agent for the 
Gibson Patent Anti-Lye Compound, a 
substitute for lye in processing prunes. 
A complete catalogue, with full de- 
scription and list of prices, sent free to 
applicants. Write to L. Cunningham, 
338-340 West Santa Clara St., San 

$100 Reward, SIOO. 

The readers of this paper will be pleased to 
learn that there is at least one dreadful disease 
that science has been able to cure in all its stages 
and that is Catarrh. Hall's Catarrh Cure is the 
only positive cure now known to the medical fra- 
ternity. Catarrh being a constitutional disease, 
requires a constitutional treatment. Hall's Ca- 
tarrh Cure is taken internally, acting directly upon 
the blood and mucous surfaces of the system, 
thereby destroying the foundation of the disease 
and giving the patient, strength by building up 
the constitution and assisting nature in doing its 
work. The proprietors have so much faith in its 
curative powers that they offer one hundred dollars 
for any case that it fails to cure. Send for list of 
testimonials. Address. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O. 

4S~Sold by Druggists,75c. 

— Japan is sending 2000 laborers to the Bra- 
zil coffee plantations on a five years' contract 
The coolies will each receive $7.50 per month 
and everything found. 

The Best Horse Remedy. 

On the testimony of many horse owners, Tuttle's 
Elixir is the only horse remedy on the market 
that is invariably reliable. Read what one man 

"Sr. .S'. A. Tutrle— Dkak Sik: Will you send me 
another dozen bottles of your Elixir? I find it an 
excellent article. I have given several bottles of 
it to friends, which have proven satisfactory. 
Send as soon as possible. Fred McCarthy, 
" 1019 East 162d St., New York City." 

gage checks until you reach San Francisco, and 
you will save money by leaving same at any of our 
offices, our rates being lower than all others, viz., 
Trunks, 35 cents each. N. B. — We do not have 
any agents on the trains or steamers. MORTON 
SPECIAL DELIVERY, 408 Taylor St., 650 Market 
St., and Oakland Ferry Depot (foot of Market St.). * 

IN g [CYCLES ' 116 California st " San Francisco - cai - 


18»<; MODELS. 



majesties, $35. 

We Offer You the Entire Stock of the Majestic 
Bicycle Company at Above Prices 
While Stock Lasts. 


Retail Store, 1640 Market Street. 
Wholesale, 1 H Drumm Street. 



Consignments Solicited. Advances Made. 

Send for Catalogue. 




*ff General Commission Merchants, 41 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

<9~ Personal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 


ill Manufacturing: Co. 

Successors to 
The S. F. Tool Co. 

Builders of all kinds 
of Pumping; Machinery 
for Irrigation and 
Reclamation of Land. 

Triple - Acting Pumps, Deep Well Pumps, 
Windmills, Tanks for Water and Wine, Link 
Belt Elevators and Conveyors, Link Chain and 
Sprocket Wheels, Wine Presses (hydraulic or 
screw), Grape Crushers and Stemmers, Pipe 
and Fittings. 


51 Beale and 9 to IT Stevenson, 

San Fra n Cisco, Ca I. 


A foreman in a large prune orchard with nine 
years' California experience wishes a situation 
during the coming drying season. Is an expert 
on curing and packing the French Prune, either by 
pricking or dipping. The fruit in the orchard in 
which he is regularly employed has been destroyed 
by frost. Address A. B., care this office. 


A few applications. If your horse is lame and you cannot locate it 
apply the Elixir, which locates lameness by remaining moist on the 
part affected, the rest drying out. A few more applications will 
effect a cure. Never scars or changes the hair. 


Is the standard remedy for Colic, Curbs, Splints, Contracted and 
Knotted Cords, Shoe Boils, Callous of all kinds, etc. Will relieve 
all Spavins, Ring Bone, Cockle Joints, etc. It is warranted to give 
satisfaction. Highly endorsed by prominent horsemen. 

Tuttle's Family Elixir cures Rhumatism. La Grippe, Pneumonia, 
Lameness, all Joint Affections, etc Sample of either Elixir sent 
free for three 2-cent stamps to pay postage. Price of either Elixir 
is only 50 cents, and they can be bought of any druggist, or will be 
sent, charges paid, on receipt of price. 

DR. S. A. TUTTLE, Sole Proprietor, 

Express Co. 27 E. Beverly Street Boston, Mass. 


When you buy a Water Tank get one that will not 
dry out and shrink. 

P a J™ Non-Shrinking Water Tank, 

The only one suitable for dry, hot climates, 

Write for Catalogue and Estimate on any Kind of Tank Work. 


33 Beale Street San Francisco. 

The "ACME" Perforator and Grader, 

FOR PRUNES AND PLUMS. (Patented February 5, 1895.) 
No Bloaters, Better Fruit and More of It. It Saves You Time, Fuel, Lye and $s. 


Send for Descriptive Circular. 

H. Jl. BARNGROVER, Prop., 340 West Santa Clara St.. San Jose, Cal. 

(See large illustrated advertisement in next week's Rural.) 


Don't you get left, but order at once. $7.50 the 100. 

DO you live in a place where it is very cold and most of the orange family will not endure the 
weather? Do you want a tree that will live under very adverse conditions and at the same time give 
you some good fruit 1 Then send to us for the Wash. Navel on the Trifollata root. It will stand a 
greater degree of cold and more water than any other root. $15.00 and $20.00 the 100. 

Wash. Navels and Med. Sweets at your own price, from $10.00 to $30.00 the 100 for general stock 
Special sizes on application. 

ALOHA NURSERIES, Penryn Placer Co., Cal. 

FRED C. MILES, Manager. 



UP TO D/\XE ! 



P. & B. Manilla Roofing 

For Covering Poultry Houses, Sheds and Like Structures. 



Will furnish power for one-tenth of a rent per home power per hour. It la the cheapest 
power ever produred, as shown In the following table, and which Is based upon a test of ten 
hours' run with one of oar five-horse power Gasoline Engines, using gaRollne (74°). coal gas, com- 
mon domestic coal oil, crude petroleum, asphaltum base, crude petroleum, paraffine base, as follows: 

Coal Gas, ten hours' run, 1000 feet |2 00 

Gasoline (74 desr.). ten hours' run. 89< gallon <* 14c | 24 

Coal Oil, ten hours' run. "H k:\Wox\h (it 10c 75 

Crude Petroleum, asphaltum base, U gallons 8c 43 

Crude Petroleum (M deg.l. paraffine base. II callous @ 5c 06 

On the crude petroleum with asphaltum base we had an over-product of 7 gallons of asphaltum; the 
market price is 3 cents per gallon— 21 cents. This deducted from the Hrst cost of the crude petroleum 
for ten hours' run leaves a net balance of 27 cents. And from the crude oil with a paraffine base we 
had an over-product of 3 gallons of good lubricating oil, which we consider equal to any we have ever 
used, but will estimate its value conservatively at 20 cents per gallon, making 80 cents: this deducted 
from the first cost of the crude oil leaves a balance of 5 cents, total cost of running ten hours. 

It will be readily seen that the operation of these Engines with crude petroleum reduces the cost 
of operation to amintmum. Crude petroleum with paraffine base at 110c per horse power per hour; on 
crude petroleum, asphaltum base, Mc per horse power per hour; on domestic coal oil, IKc per horse 
power per hour ; and on gasoline, 24c per horse power per hour. 


THE BEST 7V\ ' E ' G CO., 

Snn Leandro, Cal. 

INo Equal on Earth! 



Gas or Gasoline Engine. 

2SO Square Feet, with Nails aud Paint Complete 


P A ft A EEINE ft A INT CC\ lie. Dattery St., Snn Francisco. 

I /ilY/irrlll L I /ill" 1 L.U., 524 S. Broadway. Los Angeles. 


Jones All-Steel Hay Rakes. . 
Morgan Spading Harrows. . . 

Morgan Grape Hoes 

Avery Chilled and Steel Plows 
Napoleon Gang Plows 


SIMPLE ANO -I i:- 1 \ M l II,. 

THE GOLDEN GATE GAS ENGINE has special merit in 
SJ works requiring variable power It can use uatural gas, water 
gas, coal gas, or gasoline, and will run anything on earth that re- 
quires power. 



211 and 213 Main Street, San Francisco. 


Powell Derricks and Nets. 


The Jones Chain (lower 

Stockton Reversible Gang Plows 





Almond Hulling and Shelling 




Union Gas Engine Co. 




For Pumps, Hoists, Launches, 




Vol. Lll. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

Two Beautiful Eucalypts. 

The two handsome plates on this page are repro- 
duced from the monograph on the Eucalyptus by 
Mr. Abbot Kinney, La Manda Park, Los Angeles 
county, to which we alluded at length in last week's 
Rural. These two species of eucalyptus are grow- 
ing at several points in the State, but they must be 
counted rare as compared with several species 
which have been more widely distributed throughout 
California. Eucalyptus calophylla should be the 
"beautiful leaved" tree, if we translate its specific 
name, but Mr. Kinney thinks that as an ornamental 
tree it has proven rather disappointing. The leaves 
he describes as rather dark green, somewhat 
glassy, with the veining often a rich yellow. The 
bark is rough, gray and persistent. The cream col- 
ored flowers are numerous. The fruit and seeds are 
the largest of the eucalyptus genus and the engrav- 
ing shows these well. They are somewhat urn- 
shaped, or perhaps bell-shaped, and it did not take 
long after their appearance on the trees in southern 
California before inventive smokers began to make 
pipe-bowls of them. With one of these trees and a 
clump of Himalayan bamboo to make stems of and a 
patch of tobacco all growing in his yard, a smoker 
becomes wholly independent of the tobacconist, for 
he can have home-made smoke all the way from the 
match up. The cups of the E. ficifolio also serve a 
good purpose for pipe making, but they are smaller 
and simpler to outline. 

Mr. Kinney notes that the calophylla is rather 


slow of growth in California, is rather subject to 
frost and the latest specimen at the Santa Monica 
forestry station is forty-five feet high while in 
Australia it rises from 100 to 170 feet. The timber 
is used in Australia for the purposes 
for which the hickory is used in the 
eastern United States. 

The ether species shown in the 
picture is Eucalyptus polyanihema and 
Mr. Kinney regards it as one of the 
most attractive of the eucalypts. In 
its home it sometimes reaches a 
height of 250 feet and is native to a 
rather dry, rolling country. The 
wood is red and very durable. The 
flowers are very abundantly pro- 
duced, are silvery, and with the 
same delicate powdering as those of 
the young blue gum. The foliage is 
a white-blue, silvery tinge and in- 
cluding both bloom and foliage Mr. 
Kinney remarks that this eucalyp- 
tus is far more a harmony in silver 
grey than any other plant he knows. 
Throughout its silvery foliage are 
scattered the delicate flower pani- 
cles still more silvery. This descrip- 
tion would seem to fit the tree for 
the insignia of one side in the immi- 
nent political campaign. 

The timber of the polyanihema is 
useful, being very tough and hard 
to split. The tree is a moderate 
grower and hardy enough to endure 
outdoor temperatures in the south of 
England. To these advantages Mr. 
Kinney adds its unique beauty, which 
includes more than color, for its 
growth is very graceful ; each leaf 
being attached to the branch by a 
slender stem. This grace of form 
and growth is well shown in the 
blooming branch of the engraving. 


TiiE- tieath of Mr. A. Mailliard 
of Marin county removes one of 
our pioneers in the introduction of 

improved cattle breeds to California. Mr. Mailliard 
took up the Jerseys, and a quarter of a century ago 
was perhaps the most prominent Jersey breeder in 
the State. Recently he has retired from public view 
and passed the closing ten of his 77 years on his 
dairy fa rm near San Rafael. Mr. Maillard was of 
honorable French lineage and occupied in his native 
country positions of high rank. His wife was a 
sister of Julia Ward Howe. His son, J. W. Mail- 
liard, is president of the California Dairy Association 
and a very energetic and progressive citizen. 

Seedless raisins are to be produced in quantity in 
a way quite new to California. It is currently re- 
ported that George W. Pettit, of New York, and 
Colonel William Forsyth, of Fresno county, have 
commenced the erection of a three-story mill in 
Fresno for seeding raisins. The plant will cost $10,- 
000 and will seed two carloads a day. The only other 
mill of the kind in this country is in New York and 
belongs to Mr. Pettit. The seeded product sells for 
three times the price of the unseeded. It is believed 
that the raisin business will be improved by this en- 
terprise, which will probably be extended next sea- 
son. The cost of seeding and packing raisins is 2h 
cents per pound. 

The "plant," which the California Wine Associa- 
tion is establishing in Fresno in connection with the 
recent purchase of the Madera vineyard by the 
Swiss-Italian Colony, promises to make a boom in 
the vineyard industry. The property bought 
amounts to 640 acres, of which 150 are in wine 
grapes. Three hundred and fifty acres additional 
are to be set out when the rainy season comes on. 
Meanwhile building is going on and machinery is be- 
ing set which represents an outlay of $30,000. There 
will be a distillery as large as that of the Wine As- 
sociation at Fresno, a wash tank of 50,000 gallons' 
capacity and a sherry house capable of containing 
30,000 gallons of wine. About thirty men are at 
work, and nearly that number will be given steady 
employment. Heretofore the people of Madera have 
had to ship their grapes a long distance to the 
wineries, and this expense, with the low price of 
wines, has caused a falling off of their production. 
They will now be able to sell to the Italian-Swiss 
colony at their doors. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 1896. 


Office, No. 220 Market St.; Elevator, No. 12 Front St. .San Francisco. Cat. 


Advertising rate* made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the Ritual 
Press, with a postage stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of the paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. P. Postofflce as second-class mail matter. 


E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, July 25, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS.— Foliage Bloom and Fruit of Eucalyptus Calo- 
phylla; Blooming Branch of Eucalyptus Polyauthema, 49. Knots 
and Splices in Manila Rope, 56. Fashion Cuts, 60. 

EDITORIAL. — Two Beautiful Eucalypts ; Death of Mr. A. Mailliard ; 
Seedless Raisins; "Plant" of the California Wine Association, 
49. The Week, 50. 

THE POULTRY YARD. — Rational Feeding of Poultry, 52. 

HORTICULTURE — Fungi Injurious to Fruits, 52. A Great Fruit 
Show at the State Fair; Ants and Fruit Trees, 53. 

ARBORICULTURE. — American Nut Crowing, 53. 

AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE. — Outlines of the Lectures at Camp 
Roache. 54 

THK ORNITHOLOGIST. Bird Day in the Schools, 55. 
THE DAIRY.— Hints on Swiss Cheese; The Filled Cheese Business 
Killed, 55. 

THE HOME CIRCLE— When Mary Was a Lassie; Mr. Meek's 
Dinner; When It Is Warm: Gems; Washing Lace Curtains, 58. 
Fashion Notes: Curious Facts; Cleaning Silk ; Sitting for a Pic- 
ture; Pleasantries. 59. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Hints to Housekeepers; Kitchen Lore, 59. 

PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From the Slate Lecturer, 61. 

MARKET REPORT.— The Produce Market; Dried Fruit Market; 
California Fruit Sales, 62-63. 

MISCELLANEOUS —Pith of the Week's News 50. Gleanings; 
General Fruit Outlook; The Eastern Fruit Market Unreliable; 
Wealher and Crops, 51. The Nicaragua Canal: That Fly Expel- 
lant, 55. Knots and Splices in Manila Rope. 56. Coal Tar for 
Coloring, 57. Home Dressmaking Made Easy, 60. 


{New this issue.) I'agr. 

" Acme" Perforator and Grader— H. M. Barngrover, San Jose 64 

Plows — H. C. Shaw Plow Works, Stockton 64 

Asbestine— F. L. Aldersou 63 

Smiths' Cash Store 59 

Rushford Farm Wagons— Hooker & Co 61 

Farms for Rent— Chas. Darling 63 

Fence Wire— JohD A. Roeblings' Sons Co 61 

The Week. 

Went her and Crops. 

There is quite an extreme contrast this week 
between coast and interior conditions. The coast 
has had abundant fogs and moderate temperatures 
while the interior heat and dryness have run high. 
In some places complaint is made of injury to orchard 
foliage and harm to fruit bereft of leaf-shade. Even 
where this has not occurred there has been quite a 
rush toward maturity and peach drying has gone 
forward. The harvest is proceeding favorably and 
threshing returns are often better than anticipated. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m. 
Wednesday, July 22, 189(1, are from official sources, 
and are furnished by the United States Weather 
Bureau for the Pacific Rural Press : 


Total Rainfall 
for the Week. . . 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall to 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall Last 
Year to Same 

Average Season- 
al Rainfall to 

Maximum Tem- 
perature for the 

Minimum Tem- 
perature for the 






Red Bluff 










San Francisco 










San Luis Obispo 





Los Angeles 









, 80 









* Indicates no record. 

Camp Koache Summer S hool. 

The two weeks' series of lectures on agricultural 
and economics at Camp Roache in the Santa Cruz 
mountains proceeded according to arrangements as 
the brief outlines of the lectures given in our columns 
show. So far as attendance was concerned it was 
almost exclusively a neighborhood affair ; and viewed 
as a neighborhood enterprise it was very interesting 
and successful. People attended with unusual reg- 
ularity, and listened with marked attention and 
entered into the discussions with vigor. It is the 
judgment of some at least in the neighborhood that 
the region is much benefited by the assemblages 
they have had this year and last, that important sug- 
gestions have been made to them and local improve- 
ment measures have followed. There is certainly 
discernible to a visitor a very commendable spirit of 
enterprise and community interest. The Grange 
hall nearly completed is a handsome and commodious 
structure. Preparations for road sprinkling are 
advanced. Progressive ideas on viticulture and hor- 
ticulture are leading to some changes in local views 
and practices. Whatever may be said about the 
apathy of the people on the outside, it is plain that 
the Santa Cruz mountains have taken a strong hitch 
forward by their co-operative educational work and 
they do not propose to abandon their summer school 
idea at all even though they may decide to have 

it all" to themselves and not invite the rest of the 
world at all. 

Ravages of the Army Worm. 

A telegram from Washington City quotes an offi- 
cial of the U. S. Department of Agriculture as fol- 
lows: " From Maine to Missouri come startling re- 
ports of the ravages of the army worm. According 
to reports received at the Agricultural Department, 
these pests have caused great devastation to crops 
in the Eastern States. They have been particularly 
abundant in New York, Massachusetts and Penn- 
sylvania. No estimate has yet been made of the 
total value of crops which have been destroyed this 
year, as the department has not received full par- 
ticulars from all localities where the worms have ap- 
peared. There is no doubt, however, that the losses 
will foot up into the millions." 

Drouth in Eastern Washington. 

A dispatch from Tacoma (19th inst.) thus describes 
the situation in Eastern Washington : 

crop will not be of good quality, and though plentiful in quan- 
tity, there will be the same difficulty in securing good can- 
ning stock as with apricots. 

Pears. — The crop is a disappointment as to quality, although 
the quantity is large except in the extreme North, the same 
trouble affecting quality as peaches and apricots, fruit run- 
ning small with much scab and scale-; good stock is command- 
ing a high price and will not be over plentiful, while low 
grades as to size and smoothness will go begging at buyer's 
price. / 

Plums. — Crop is maturing very short in quantity, as pre- 
viously advised, and there is no improvement worth noting; 
quality, however, will be quite up to the average. 

New Eastern Wool Rates. 

A Chicago dispatch of the 11th inst. says: 

The board of managers of the Joint Traffic Association has made 
the following rates on wool, to be in effect until August 15th: Wool, 
uncompressed, in carloads, minimum weight 10,000 pounds, from 
Duluth, Minn., and West Superior, Wis., via lake and rail, when 
originating at points in Montana and points north and west there- 
of, to New York, 45 cents per 100 pounds ; to Boston, 49 cents per 100 
pounds; to Philadelphia, 43 cents per 100 pounds; to Baltimore, 42 
cents per 1U0 pounds. 

Pith of the Week's News. 

The drouth of the past two weeks in this State has been un- 
precedented both east and west of the mountains. A gentle- 
man who recently made a trip through the Horse Heaven sec- 
tion in Yakima county says the heat is something terrible, 
Grain has been badly" burned and will not go twelve bushels 
to the acre. He was forced to drive thirty-three miles through 
the broiling sun and stopped at three or four houses to get a 
I drink, being refused each time. The water is so low that a 
padlock and chain is kept on the bucket, and wells go nearly 
dry each evening when water is drawn for stock, slowly fill- 
ing in at night sufficiently to provide water for the next day. 
In many portions of the Palouse and Walla Walla grain dis- 
tricts wheat is injured by hot winds 20 to 30 per cent, the 
damage being particularly heavy to spring grain. Up to July 
5th prospects were for the heaviest crop ever seen in the 
State. If the damage becomes no greater, there will in most 
sections still be an average crop, on account of larger acreage. 
A hot south wind began blowing across eastern Washington 
on July 4th, increasing next day to 108° in the shade. This 
hot weather has continued, except for a light rain which fell 
in some sections on July 12th. Grasshoppers have also ap- 
peared in Walla Walla county, and several fields of oats are 
already ruined. 

Murrain in Orange County. 

Dr. Garner, veterinary surgeon of Santa Ana, re- 
ports that upwards of 100 cows have recently died in 
Orange county of murrain. The disease, says the 
doctor, in an interview with the Santa Ana Blade, 
" is most liable to fasten itself upon cows of good 
flesh. Animals in poor condition stand an excellent 
chance of escaping. Wherever the disease strikes it 
generally proves fatal, he said. The only efficacious 
medicine is that applied to unaffected cows. It can 
be prevented, but very rarely cured." Dr. Garner 
thinks the disease of too thick blood, and his treat- 
ment is to bleed copiously. 

Grain Fire Near Oakdale. 

The Modesto Herald of the 18th inst. reports a dis- 
astrous grain fire near Oakdale as follows: 

The most destructive grain fire known to this part of the 
State in many years ranged over 3000 acres of land east of 
Oakdale last Saturday evening, destroying 1000 acres of grain 
and a number of buildings. As nearly as we can ascertain, 
the flames originated from a spark arising from the friction of 
a wheel of a header and a stone, on the Haslacher & Kahn 
land, known as the Middle Camp ranch. Gilbert Erickson is 
the lessee and was driving the header. He barely saved the 
outfit and his life, the flames rushing down upon him so rap- 
idly that he had no time to unhitch and flee. In his extremity 
he drove through a barbed-wire fence, the flames pressing so 
closely that the tails of the horses were scorched. All the 
houses (except the residence), barns and blacksmith shop on 
this ranch were destroyed. Erickson lost about 400 acres of 
grain, Owens Bros, about the same acreage, Dick Threlfall 60 j 
acres and John Connors 66 acres— the latter on land of the 
Oakdale Land and Improvement Co. On this land, too, 100 j 
cords of wood belonging to the Improvement Co. were burned. 
A large quantity of hay and more or less farming tools, imple- 
ments and appurtenances on the Erickson place were de- 
stroyed with the barn. 

The people of the entire county for miles around were out 
lighting the flames, but they did not succeed in checking 
them until the canal of the Stanislaus & San Joaquin Water 
Co was reached. 

The loss is estimated at from $10,000 to $12,000, pretty fairly 
covered by insurance. The grain was insured at from $5 to 
$7.50 per acre. It was nearly all wheat. 

One account is to the effect that the fire started on the 
Threlfall place and crossed to the Erickson ranch. 

Short .Supplies of Canners' Fruit. 

The vicissitudes of the season have resulted in a 
shortage of the fine fruits which canners need for 
high standards and extras. Supplies strictly fine in 
appearance and sound should bring good value. Cut- 
ting Packing Co. of this city, in their circular of 
July 23, show that canners have had to seek for good 
fruit this year. They say : 

Apricots. — We do not know of a season when the quality of 
apricots has become so poor as a general proposition. The ex 
treme heat has produced a great proportion of cracked fruits 
and sour pits, while the extreme cold weather noted all 
through the spring caused an equally large proportion of 
scrubby, scaly and smutty fruit; consequently, good canning 
stock has been growing scarcer up to about a week ago, when 
the unprecedented hot spell had an even more serious effect. 
The crop as a whole would have been equal to that of '!I5 had 
it not been for the above unfavorable conditions, but as it is, j 
fully one-half of those engaged for canning are being rejected I 
and turned into the dry yards, and the pack as a whole will 
doubtless not exceed 00 per cent of that of 1895. 

Peaches. — Hot weather has caused a considerable drop on 
the Sacramento river, where frees are short and quality much [ 
poorer than expected, on account of premature ripening, the 
heat preventing the growth to full size. Frees, however, will 
be much more plentiful in other localities, and the out-turn, 
as a whole, larger than in 1895. Clings are not turning out 
well at all, being more visibly affected by heat even than the 
frees, and they are dropping considerably. As a whole, the 

It costs Fresno county $20,000 per year to support its indi- 

Pai.m Valley sends San Francisco the first complete car- 
load of grapes this season. 

, In the encounter between Spanish troops and Cuban insur- 
gents on the 17th inst., 200 of the latter were killed. 

TnB daughter of Senator Tillman of South Carolina was 
killed by a thunderbolt last week while attending a picnic. 

Costa Rica has decided to adopt the gold standard. All 
other countries of Central and South America are on a silver 

Gov. Busd has appointed Lt.-Col. N. T. James Major-Gen- 
eral of the National Guard of California to succeed Wm. H. 
Dimond, deceased. 

The Tulare Grange has adopted a series of resolutions con- 
demning the system which connects the State Agricultural 
College with the State University. 

The work of organizing Ballington Booth's Volunteers in 
imitation of the Salvation Army is now going on on this coast. 
There appears to be no lack of recruits. 

In the opinion of the Governor the payrolls of the Napa and 
Stockton asylums are too large and the superintendents will 
I be required to find means of reducing them. 

The Superintendent of Government Buildings recommends 
the appropriation of $250,000 for the erection of an office build- 
! ing for the President in the White House grounds. 

The steamship Colombia which went ashore at Pigeon Point, 
San Mateo county, last week will be a total loss. She was a 
recent purchase of the Pacific Mail Co., and cost $680,000. 

Governor Budd has appointed Robert T. Devlin a member 
of the State Prison Board to succeed J. H. Neff. The majority 
of the board is still Republican and will be for two years more. 

The gold reserve of the U. S. Treasury recently for the 
third time replenished by sale of bonds, is again rapidly de- 
clining. A total of $3,000,000 was withdrawn last week for 
foreign shipment. 

Stories to the effect that Justice Field had suffered a phys- 
ical and mental collapse has been reported and denied during 
the week. In spite of the denial it is believed that the aged 
judge is nearing his end. He is now in San Francisco having 
just returned from a stay at Paso Robles. 

Those Democrats who decline to accept the results of the 
Chicago Convention have not yet settled upon a progrmme for 
the campaign. They are busily engaged in consultation and 
are expected to announce their plans before the first of August. 
Most of the bolting Democratic papers are supporting McKin- 

Wm. A. Clark, the Montana millionaire, is building a monu- 
ment for his wife at a cost of $100,000. Mr. Clark has the 
right, undoubtedl3\ to spend his money in the way which best 
pleases him, but it would be much better sense if he were to 
endow an orphan's home rather than build a useless pile of 

Wm. E. Russell, a prominent figure in the recent Chicago 
convention, was found dead in his bed on Thursday of last 
week. He was only 39 years old, but, in spite of his compara- 
tive youth, had served three terms as Governor of Massachu- 
setts. He was a close personal friend of President Cleveland 
and an ardent supporter of the gold standard. 

The salaries of San Francisco city employees foot three and 
a half millions of dollars per year. If the existing political 
system could be superceded by common honesty and business 
efficiency the cost would be reduced more than one-half. The 
salary list, of course, is only part of the general cost of the 
city government. 

TnE delegates from California to the Populist Convention at 
St. Louis held true to Populist traditions by making the trip 
in a plain immigrant car. A very small additional payment 
would have secured the substitution of a parlor car, but the 
delegation thought it would be in better keeping to go in 
simple and plain style. 

TnE Republican managers are planning to put their heavy 
oratorical guns in the field early in the campaign. Among 
those pledged to take the stump are Ex President Harrison, 
Chauncey M. Depew, Senator Foraker, Gen. W. H. L. Barnes, 
Thos. B. Reed, Senator Wolcott of Colorado, Stewart M. 
Woodford of New York, Senator Sherman and Gov. Hastings. 
Democratic campaign plans are held in abeyance, waiting upon 
the results of the Populist Convention at St. Louis. 

A committee of the Cape Town Assembly, appointed to in- 
vestigate the relations of Cecil Rhodes et al to the Jamison 
invasion of the Transvaal, has reported charging that Rhodes 
was at the bottom of the project and that his company sup- 
plied the funds. It would appear that upon the basis of this 
report the English Government would be compelled to proceed 
against Rhodes, but it is safe to say that it will not do it. It 
is, however, difficult to see a hole out of which Mr. Salisbury 
can crawl. 

The center of political interest this past week has been St. 
Louis, where the Populist and Silver Party conventions are 
just beginning as the Rural goes to press. The Silver Party 
men are almost unanimous for endorsement of Bryan, but 
there is serious division of opinion among the Populists. The 
greater number appear to be favorable to endorsement, but 
some of the strongest leaders, including Ignatius Donnelly, 
Secretary Taubeneck and many extreme men from the South- 
ern States, are earnestly, not to say passionately, opposed to 
it. They would, perhaps, be willing to come half way toward 
a compromise, but Bryan will not consider the matter. He 
declines absolutely to make any promises as to his Cabinet or 
as to division of patronage, declaring that he must be ac- 
cepted without conditions or not at all. The project of en- 
dorsement will probably win, but there will be, as in the case 
of the Republican and Democratic conventions, a bolt of 
greater or less magnitude. 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


to 200 or 300 women and children. I will not have them work 
at starvation wages either. I can afford to pay them well and 
then come out away ahead of what I am doing this year — 
sending my crop East and then trusting in the men in the 
Windy City, Gotham and the Hub to pay me living rates 
for it." 


The Wheatland Creamery finds a ready local market for its 
whole product. 

California fruit was cheaper last week in New York than 
at Sacramento. 

The apricot crop in the Pajaro valley is large and the 
greater part of it is being dried. 

A. B. Connelly, a well-known farmer living near Tracy, 
was killed in a runaway accident on Monday. 

The State Dairy Bureau is prosecuting an active crusade 
against bad butter in the San Francisco market. 

R. D. Stephens estimates that the American river district 
will have only 40 per cent of an average crop this year. 

There is talk at Sacramento of establishing a modern abat- 
toir. The local wholesale butchers are back of the project. 

Albert Gerberding, the well-known grain dealer, has been 
elected president of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

Somewhere from 1000 to 1500 sacks of wheat belonging to 
D. H. Hanno were burned by a stubble fire near St. John last 

Out of a herd of 58 cows on a dairy ranch on the San Bruno 
road near San Francisco, 35 have been condemned by the in- 
spectors and ordered killed. 

Comparison of the grain rates of the Valley road with the 
old S. P. rates, shows an average reduction of 20 per cent. 
The cut will be met by the S. P. Co. 

Walden & Co.'s large winery, north of Geyserville, will 
not be operated this year, owing to the scarcity of grapes and 
the high prices ruling. The distillery will remain idle also. 

The estimated yield of hops in Sonoma county this year is 
9000 bales. Offers of 3 cents per pound have been refused. In 
1894 the yield was 1554 bales, and in 1895 1050 bales. Owing 
to the low price this year many hop growers did not cultivate 
their yards. 

pose of their crop and ship direct to him, claiming they can 
net over 10 cents by so doing." 

The Wiizobius is again to the fore in San Bernardinocounty. 
In spite of the report of Inspector Havens condemning the 
bug as useless, the commissioners are colonizing them by the 
hundreds of thousands. The Riverside Press says that while 
the discussion was going on before the board "Supervisor 
Edmiston said that last August he colonized between 300 and 
400 of the parasites on some olive trees on his place that were 
very badly infested with black scale, and that now the trees 
were almost, if not entirely, rid of the scale." It is the 
j judgment of the Frees that "the authorities have been too 
i sparing in colonizing the Rhizohlus in this county to insure a 
practical test." 

Lompoc Journal: "The hay crop in this valley this year is 
good. There will be plenty for all purposes and some to sell. 
The barley crop is light. There will probably not be any more 
raised than will be needed for home consumption. The mus- 
tard crop is variously estimated at from 10,000 to 20,000 bags. 
We think 15,000 sacks is a conservative estimate. It is rather 
early yet to determine what the beans, potatoes, etc., will do. 
There is quite a large acreage planted and at this writing the 
prospect for a fair crop is good. It is an off year for fruit. 
Apricots and peaches are slim. Apples are some better but 
nothing to brag on. Some small fields of corn look well and 
the root and pumpkin crop will be fair. Lompoc apples should 
bring a good price this year." 

TnE extreme heat of the past two weeks has had the effect 
of ripening fruit in many orchards "all in a heap," and the 
result has been such a rush of work as the country does not 
often have to face. The Contra Costa Gazette, in describing 
the situation at Mr. Bancroft's Aloha farm, presents a picture 
which has been reproduced in a thousand instances. "The 
hot weather," says the Gazette, " has brought on the fruit all 
at once. Ten sulphur houses are kept running well along into 
the night. The fruit on the dry ground is handled on cars, 
which are rapidly and easily moved from place to place and 
work without a hitch. Twelve cars and a transfer car are 
used. The cutting is all done by neighborhood people— men, 
women and children. They come on foot and horseback, in 
wagons, buggies, carts and on wheels. There are several 
families of cutters camped under the large oaks which sur- 
round the drying ground. There are more than 100 busy peo- 
ple at work at the place on the apricot crop." So it is in all 
the fruit districts. 

General Fruit Outlook. 

Crop Reports from the East and from Foreign Countries. 

Washington, July 19. — A generally poor condition 
of fruit throughout the country is announced in the 
Agricultural Department report just published. 
Apples declined in condition from 71 to 61.6 during 
June. Prospects for excellent crops still continue in 
New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Michigan 
and Iowa. Conditions are also fair in Nebraska and 
several of the mountain States. 

In other parts of the country the condition of the 
crop is far below the average, being lowest in the 
Atlantic coast States, where the percentages are gen- 
erally below 50. In the Ohio valley and certain of 
the western States not yet referred to the figures 
are somewhat higher, but nowhere above 67, which is 
the percentage reported for Illinois and Missouri. 

The peach crop promises to be of good proportions. 
During the past month a fall of 12.9 has taken place, 
leaving the general average now 51.8. Goods crops 
are expected in Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, Illi- 
nois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri and Kansas. The 
crop has suffered considerably in California, as is 
shown by the condition of 77, which is lower than in 
any July condition in that State since 1890. In New 
Jersey the fruit is falling badly. The Connecticut 
and New York orchards promise very little fruit, and 
in Pennsylvania the condition is better than in con- 
tiguous New Jersey, standing at 52. 

In the European countries last month the con- 
ditions were highly favorable to growing grain. A 
summary follows : 

United Kingdom — All crops were greatly improved 
by the rains at the end of the month, and nearly all 
districts indicate an average crop. Hay making has 
been general, and the shortage on account of the 
long drought is not as great as was anticipated. 

France — It is expected that the wheat crop will 
considerably exceed that of last year. It is not yet 
safe to say that there will be a surplus, but it is con- 
fidently predicted that the wheat crop will be suffi- 
cient for home requirements. All other cereals are 
looking very promising. 

Germany — The month has been generally favor- 
able to the standing grain. Late telegraphic ad- 
vices are not couched in such sanguine words as 
those from France and Austria, but fair average 
crops are predicted. 

Holland and Belgium — Crops flourishing ; a good 
average expected and an early harvest. 

Spain — Favorable weather has materially improved 
the outlook for wheat and an average crop is ex- 

Austria-Hungary — An unusually favorable June 
encourages the belief in a large return of cereals, 
wheat and rye especially. The wheat is standing 
thin on the Hungarian plains and the harvest is ex- 
pected to be early. 

Italy — An average crop of cereals is expected. 

Bulgaria and Roumania — June weather has brought 
wheat along wonderfully, and the prospects are now 
good. Maize is also looking well. 

Russia — Reports give good average with crop con- 
ditions favorable, except as to winter wheat in Kher- 
son and Bessarabia. 

The Eastern Fruit Market Unreliable. 

(Sacramento Bee, 18th inst.) 

One year ago to-day the shipment of fruit from California to 
Eastern points was fifty-five carloads. To day it is only 
twenty-seven, not quite half as much. Up to this date last 
season, the total number of cars that had been forwarded 
East was 1039. Including the twenty-seven cars shipped this 
morning, the total shipments for the present season is only 
961, a difference of 78 cars in favor of last season. 

The difference will be largely increased, for the bulk of 
fruit that is fit for the Eastern market has already been 
picked and by the middle of next week the number of cars 
will be dropped below two figures, and the daily shipments 
can be counted on the fingers of one's hands. 

No one has got wealthy this season who grows fruit for a 
living, neither have the shippers and the middlemen waxed 
rich, for they had prepared for a large business, and had to 
put up with a very small one. Outside of two firms the fruit 
business so far as shipping was concerned has amounted to 
but little. Porter Brothers Company and the Earl Fruit 
Company, it will be seen by the daily published reports, are 
doing nearly all the forwarding, and they have had so little 
to do that they found it necessary to retrench expenses, and 
have dispensed with a considerable part of their clerical force. 

The remoteness of the Eastern markets, and the competi- 
tion with the Southern and Middle States, the unreliability 
of the market, the cost of transportation, etc., have caused 
many growers to turn their attention to the dry house and 
the cannery. 

An orchardist who has had many years' experience ; who has 
shipped thousands of cars of green fruit East; who has real- 
ized a $1000 profit on a single car ; and who has had many re- 
turns written in red ink, signifying a total loss, and compell- 
ing him to pay freight and charges on his consignment, was 
interviewed this morning by a Bee reporter. He said : 

"Some have made money shipping fruit East, but I can say 
without fear of contradiction that there is no orchardist in 
this State but who would be better off to-day if he had never 
shipped a pound of green fruit across the mountains. Men 
with fine orchards have shipped hundreds of tons annually, 
and if they had enough left to pay their taxes they did well. 
Now suppose they had sold to canneries and dried ; they 
would at the end of the year be several thousand dollars 
ahead. A ton of dried fruit of any kind represents more 
than $100. 

" After this season I shall be prepared to take care of my 
crop on the ranch. I will have my own cannery, my own 
dryer and then I will put my goods on the market myself, and 
when the prices justify me in doing so. I will have no middle- 
men to pay, no auctioneers to settle with, no big freight bills 
to liquidate. On the contrary, my expenses will be lighter, 
and I will become a public benefactor by giving employment 

Davisville letter, 15th inst. : " W. H. Binney, of Balfour, 
Guthrie & Co., San Francisco, purchased yesterday from 
H. Stelling 30,000 sacks of barley. This is supposed to be the 
largest sale made in the county during the last ten years. 
The barley was sold at a top-notch price." 

The U. S. Department of Agriculture has decided to co- 
operate with the California local authorities in an effort to 
stamp out cattle diseases prevalent in this State. The plan is 
to send out an inspector to be joined by a person appointed by 
Gov. Budd and for these two to make a thoiough inspection 
of cattle. 

Fresno, July 15. — George W. Pettit of New York and Col. 
William Forsyth of this county have commenced the con- 
struction of a three-story mill for seeding raisins in this city. 
The plant will cost 110,000, and will seed two carloads a day. 
The only other mill of the kind in this country is in New York 
and belongs to Mr. Pettit The seeded product sells for three 
times the price of the unseeded. 

From 160 acres, a Tremont, Solano Co. farmer — Wm. McCann 
— has just harvested 2360 sacks of wheat, an average of 14% 
sacks to the acre. It was Genessee wheat, a variety that has 
always been fought shy of on account of the great danger of 
shelling by our heavy north winds, but in this case it was not 
injured by the heavy blow of June. It sells in the market as 
number one milling wheat and is sought after eagerly by mill- 

The cannery of the Cutting Packing Co., at Santa Rosa will 
start up about August 1st and will make the season's run on 
peaches, pears and plums. The management has announced 
that only home labor will be employed. Hunt's cannery will 
begin operations about the same date. Since this cannery last 
shut down radical improvements have been made in the plant 
and it is now able to turn out 60,000 cans per day. During the 
period of their operation these two canneries employ about 
1000 hands. 

Hanford Journal: "Dr. N. P. Duncan has sold the crop 
of wheat on his lake ranch this year to John Stokes, the 
Visalia hog grower, for a profit of over $2000 over and above 
all expenses. The doctor has done well by investing $800 for 
a few months. He only made a few trips to the lake to look 
after the putting in of the crop. He conceived the idea last 
fall that he could put in a crop of wheat this year on his 
swamp land on the lake, formerly the lake bed, and make good 
money out of it, and the result proves that he was not mis- 

The manager of Haggin's great breeding farm— Rancho Del 
Paso— and the Sacramento county assessor have not been able 
to agree upon valuations of the Haggin horses and the matter 
has come before the Board of Equalization for settlement. Mr. 
Mackey, the manager, stated before the board that he did not 
consider the whole outfit of stallions— three in number— worth 
more than $25,000 in spite of the fact that they cost originally 
many times that amount. The great Salvator, he thought, 
worth not more than $1000. The land valuation was $706,700 
and no reduction was asked. 

From almost all parts of the State reports come of better 
grain harvests than was expected. Says the Gridley Herald : 
"Fred Moesch, the well known wheat buyer, visited the 
farming section on the adobe to the west of town this week, 
where harvesting is in full blast. He reports that grain is 
turning out better than anticipated ; the crop going from 8 to 
20 sacks to the acre. Wm. Grant, on the Balfour-Guthrie 
land on the canal, has a very fine crop, the average being from 
15 to 20 sacks to the acre. It is interesting to note that this 
is produced on land supposed at one time to have been ruined 
by mining debris from the Cherokee canal." 

A large amount of Tulare fruit has been contracted for by 
canneries at San Francisco, San Jose, Sacramento, Santa 
Rosa and elsewhere. Commenting on this fact the Register 
says: " We have not heretofore sent much canning fruit to 
outside places but this season may see the beginning of a 
trade that will attain large proportions. Tulare county 
grows peaches that are always in demand after the first 
taste, as no better are found anywhere. We ought to can 
them at home, but while we do not if we can dispose of a por- 
tion of the crop to outside canneries it will doubtless be bet- 
ter than drying the whole lot.'' 

With reference to the season's apricot crop in the country 
about Santa Ana the Blade says : "The amount of fruit was 
far above the expectations of all growers, and of a quality 
equal to any previous year. Considerable complaint is heard 
among extensive producers as to the extremely low price at 
which the market has opened, all that is offered by local buy- 
ers being 5@5% cents per pound, which will gather up a few 
tons held by the numerous small growers in lots of 100 to 500 
pounds. The majority will hold for 7 or 8 cents. The fruit 
will be sold mostly under the exchange system of f. o. b. now 
in vogue in southern California. Considerable discussion is 
heard about the formation of a combine among the growers of 
i this fruit. It is their intention to send a man East to dis- 

Weather and Crops. 

Synopsis of the Report of State Weather Itureau for Week 
Ending 80th Inst. 

Following is a summary of the weather and crop 
report compiled by the State Agricultural Society in 
co-operation with the U. S. Weather Bureau, James 
A. Barwick, Director : 

Sacramento Valley Counties. 

Tehama County (Red Bluff).— The hot spell since July 1st 
is unprecedented. For eighteen consecutive days the temper- 
ature has registered 100° and over. 

Butte County (Pentz). — Several sunstrokes have occurred 
in the large harvest fields, two of which were fatal, and 
many horses and mules have died from the effects of the heat. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 106° and 64°. 

Colusa County (Grand Island).— The barley crop is the 
heaviest ever known in this section. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 104° and 64°, 

Glenn County (Willows).— Harvesting returns give assur- 
ance that the grain yield will be far above the average. 

Sutter County (Yuba City).— Early grapes are ripe. The 
crop is about an average. 

Placer County.— Crops will be better than have been har- 
vested here for a long time. (Auburn) — Grain is plump and 
full. The cattle men have moved their stock to the mount- 
ains, as the valley food has about given out on account of 
being dried up. (Colfax)— The grape prospects for this sea- 
son are extremely good, especially the Tokay. 

Sacramento County (Sacramento). — The weather has been 
fine for all crops. Highest and lowest temperatures during 
the past week 96° and 59°. 

Yolo County (Woodland). — Last week was the hottest 
ever experienced in this locality. Thursday the thermometer 
registered 118° in the shade. Threshing has commenced, but 
as most of our crops are saved by the combined harvester it 
leaves but little for the harvester to do. 

Solano County. — The harvest is a bountiful one. (Vaca- 
ville). — The pear crop will be heavy. (King District). — Grain 
in this section is very heavy this year. (Dixon). — Weather 
for the past two weeks is the worst in many years. The ther- 
mometer has ranged from 100° to 104° daily. Two men have 
died from heat in the southern part of Yolo county. Thirteen 
horses have succumbed iD various parts of this county. 

Napa, Sonoma and Santa Clara Valleys. 

Napa County. — Warm weather is assisting the grape crop 
which bids fair to be at least average for the greater portion 
of this county. 

Santa Clara County (San Jose).— Prunes on gravelly soil 
are dropping from the effects of the continued hot weather, 
and even in good soil some are cooked on the trees. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaquin County. — Watermelons are coming on rapidly. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 100° and 60°. 

Fresno County (Reedley).— Grain turning out well. High- 
est and lowest temperatures, 109° and 84°. 

Tulare County (Lime Kiln). — Weather favorable for all 
crops except watermelons, which have been somewhat 
burned. Highest and lowest temperatures, 112° and 66°. 

Southern California. 

Santa Barbara County (Santa Maria).— Grain yield is 
nearly an average, but the acreage is smaller than usual. 
There are very few apricots this season. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, 80° and 56°. (Los Alamos). — Harvesting of 
mustard seed is in full operation. A full crop only in a few 
instances can be looked for. The yield will be much less than 
usual for previous years. 

Sonoma County (Peachland).— Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures 90° and 58°. 

Alameda County (Livermore). — Grasshoppers are very 
numerous in the foothills, and are becoming somewhat 
troublesome in the vineyard portions of the valley. 

Ventura County (Santa Paula)— Beans are looking well. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 86° and 55°. (Ventura) — 
Orchard is ts have finished their apricot drying. The fruit is 
excellent, but the quantity is light. Mr. J. B. Wickoff of 
Nordhoff brought in a new orange to this section on Thursday, 
They are larger than seedlings with a rind like Tangerines, 
yet they are very sweet and luscious and with but little pulp. 

Los Angeles County (Pomona) — Apricot drying is about 
over; light crop. Peaches are scarce. 

San Bernardino County (Chino)— The general outlook is 
for an excellent beet crop. 

Coast Counties. 

Mendocino County (Pomo) — Grain has been badly injured 
by the heat. Highest and lowest temperatures, 99° and 59°. 
I Monterey County (Jolon) — The weather is very hot, and 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 25, 1896. 

for ten days the maximum temperature has not been under 
100°. Wheat is good both as to quality as well as quantity. 
No person has been injured by the great heat, but several 
horses have died working on" harvesters. Highest tempera- 
ture, 110°. _ . . 

San Luis Obispo County (San Luis Obispo).— Grain har- 
vesting is showing good yields. Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures, 9U° and 50°. (Paso Kobles)— Crops are falling far short 
of the estimate, and in most cases the grain is badly shrunk. 

Mountain Counties • 

Siskiyou County (Yreka)— The crops in Little Shasta and 
vicinity are better than for the past eight years. In the 
neighborhood of Gazelle, Edgewood and Scott Valley all grain 
crops are reported to be the best in years. Fruit is scarce ; 
most of it was killed by the late frosts. The apple crop, 
though somewhat injured by the late frosts, will be fair. 

Shasta County (Shasta)— The second crop of figs promises 
to be above the average, while grapes are looking remarkably 
well. Thermometer from 98° to 107°. 

Trinity County (Douglas City)— The thermometer stood at 
110° on Friday. 

Inyo County (Modoc)— Many crops will be larger this sea- 
son than for years, and the prospects for grain were never 


Rational Feeding of Poultry. 

On Saturday of last week there was a meeting of 
poultrymen at Petaluma to consider the subject of 
poultry feeding and a lecture on the scientific aspects 
of fowl nutrition was delivered by Prof. M. E. Jaffa 
of the State University. The interest taken in the 
subject of the proper feeding of fowls and the ap- 
preciation of the aid that science gives to the 
poultryman is conclusively shown, he said, by the re- 
quest for such discussion as that for which the 
meeting was called, and his undertaking would be to 
pave the way for an informal exchange of views and 
experiences of those present and interested in the 
advancement of the fowl industry. 

Economic Aspect of the Matter. — The poultryman of 
to-day fully realizes that, in the face of low prices 
and competition, he must, in order that his business 
may prove profitable, feed the fowls generously, yet 
at the same time economically. Tn other words, he 
must feed rationally. The proper feeding of laying 
hens and other poultry should be conducted on the 
same lines as that of other farm animals. There 
are similar losses and wastes found in the animal 
organism, and the same necessity for replacing and 
replenishing the tissues, fluids, etc. of the body. 

Wlmt the Fowl Requires. — The body of the fowl 
contains the same elements as are found in that of a 
cow, or hog, naturally, however, in different propor- 
tions. Many of the foods used for poultry are 
identical with those consumed by the cow and the 
analyses of the other foodstuffs necessary for 
poultry show them to have the same ingredients as 
the foods of larger animals. Hence the principles 
expounded for the rational feeding of stock 
apply equally well to the nutrition of fowls. 

We must of necessity know the composition of the 
body of the fowl and of the egg; but after that we do 
not have to make new laws or found new principles, 
but merely adapt the knowledge which we have 
gained from the investigations made for cattle 
to the hen, modifying rules and rations to 
suit the case in question. 

The scientific research called for, and urgently 
too, is that of ascertaining the digestibility of the 
different foods fed to the hen. For the cow, sheep, 
and swine we have the digestive co-efficient for 
almost every food consumed, while for the hen we 
have very little reliable data with which to work, 
and in view of the great value of the poultry industry 
it should receive more scientific attention than is at 
present alloted to it. 

Importance of the Poultry Interest. — In order to 
show that the industry is no small factor in the 
country's resources, I append herewith a tabular 
statement of the poultry and egg product in the 
United States as given by the U. S. census. 

Poultry on Hand June 1st. 1879- JS«0. 1889-1190. 

Chickens— Number 102,285.653 258,472,155 

Geese, Ducks, Turkeys— Number. . 23,231,687 26,816,545 

Eggs produced— Dozen 456,875,080 817,211,146 

At ten cents per dozen, a very conservative 
estimate, the egg product on the farm rose 
from over $45,000,000 to more than $81,000,000— 
an increase of nearly 80 per cent. There was an in- 
crease of 153 per cent in the number of fowls and an 
increase of about 15 per cent in the ducks and geese 
in the decade alluded to. 

Chemistry of the Hen. — The body of a hen contains 
from 50 to 60 per cent of water, about 20 per cent of 
protein or nitrogenous substances, such as flesh, 
tendons, etc., 18 per cent of fat, between 3 and 4 
per cent of ash, that is, mineral or inorganic matter, 
and about 1 per cent of other matters. 

We thus preceive that there is comprised in the 
formation of the fowl four main elements: water, 
protein, fat and ash; of these ingredients the only 
one that may seem strange to some of you is " pro- 
tein," but the strangeness or unfamilarity will soon 
disappear when you associate the term " flesh- 
formers " with that of " protein," " albuminoids," or 
"nitrogenous material," for in the statement of 

analyses the last named three are to a certain extent 
synonymous with " flesh formers " 

The capon contains the same elements, but in a 
somewhat different proportion, there being less wa- 
ter and more fat, as is seen in the following figures 
for the composition of a mature capon: Water, from 
40 to 42 per cent; flesh formers, 20 per cent; fat, 34 
per cent; ash, between 3 and 4 per cent; other sub- 
stances, about 1 per cent. 

Chemistry of the Foods. — We thus see that the body 
is made up of different ingredients, and therefore 
the food must contain these ingredients or those 
from which the body can manufacture, so to speak, 
its nutriment. 

It is a well-established fact that in animal nutri- 
tion certain elements of the food cannot replace or 
be substituted for others; consequently we can read- 
ily understand why the food must be varied in its 
character. For instance, if we wish the fowl to in- 
crease in flesh or muscle we must in the food have 
some flesh-forming material or protein. Fat or car- 
bohydrates (starch, sugar, etc.) can never be trans- 
formed into muscle. Hence the prominent part 
which protein plays in the food is strongly impressed 
upon us. 

When feeding growing chickens the main object is 
to supply sufficient nourishment to ensure their 
hardy growth. In the case of the mature hen it is a 
somewhat more complicated proposition. The feeder 
must bear in mind the fact that the eggs are also the 
product of the transformation or assimilation of the 
foodstuffs eaten, and the nature of the ingredients of 
the nourishment requisite for their production is 
best seen by an examination of the composition of 


Shell, 10.81; Yolk, 32.47; White, 56.42; Total, 100.00. 






Carbonate of Lime.. 

Carbonate of Mag- 



Organic Matter and 




93 75 


Yi U.K. 


15 54 
33 43 




10.81 100.00 

16 13 







6 81 




32.47 ! 100.00 | 56.42 

Chemistry of the Egg.— From the showing made in 
Table I we note that the egg consists mainly of three 
parts, viz.: yolk, white and shell. The yolk and 
white, according to the data above given, are com- 
posed of the same ingredients as the body, viz.: wa- 
ter, protein, fat, and a small percentage of mineral 
matter, while the shell consists almost entirely of 
mineral ingredients, carbonate of lime being the 
most prominent and constituting almost 94 per cent 
of the shell and over 10 per cent of the entire weight 
of the egg — that is, in one dozen good-sized eggs 
there are fully 2.5 ounces of carbonate of lime, fa- 
miliar to all under the name of marble. We thus 
have proved to us the absolute necessity of a gener- 
ous supply of lime in the fowl's diet. 

Standard Rations for Fowls. — In feeding farm ani- 
mals the quantities consumed per day are termed 
rations and the standards calculated for 1000 pounds 
live weight; hence, in order that the rations for fowls 
may be comparable with these standards, we will 
give the quantity of food required for 1000 pounds 
live weight: 

For 1000 pounds laying hens of about three to four 
pounds average weight, the food requirement per day 
would be from 65 to 70 pounds of total food or about 
52 pounds of water-free food, containing 9 pounds of 
digestible protein or flesh formers, 4 pounds of fat 
and about 20 pounds of carbohydrates or starchy 
material. Per hen the amounts would be 3] ounces 
of total food, 2', ounces of water-free food, .43 ounce 
of flesh formers and about 1.2 ounce of fat and heat 

For 1000 pounds live weight of hens whose weight 
averages about six pounds, the food requirements per 
day would be from 40 to 50 pounds of total food, con- 
taining 34 pounds of absolutely dry matter which 
should comprise 6 pounds of digestible protein, 14 
pounds of carbohydrates and 2 pounds of fat. If we 
calculate this for the individual fowl we would have 
4} ounces of total food, 31 ounces of dry matter, with 
.58 ounce of protein or flesh formers, and 1.54 ounce 
of fat formers and heat producers. 

[In the next issue of the Rural we will proceed 
with Prof. Jaffa's suggestions on proper rations of 
the most available food materials.] 


Fungi Injurious to Fruits. 

Now that insect depredations have taken a second 
place in the fruit grower's mind, either because they 
are less or because he understands better how to 
cope with them, the question of fungous diseases 
becomes of first importance. The evils of these par- 
asitic pests are becoming wider spread and their 
treatment is not so well understood. Although we 
are continually calling the attention of our readers 
to these matters, all have not yet given them suffi- 
cient heed, and we propose to multiply counsellors. 
We find in the proceedings of the Oregon Horticul- 
tural Society last month a paper by Prof. U. P. 
Hedrick of the Oregon Agricultural College, which 
is very suggestive to Californians. 

The Best Fungicide. — Remedies and preventives of 
fungous diseases have been so generally and so well 
tested in the last few years that their commercial, 
practical and effective value has been pretty accu- 
rately determined. While without doubt a number 
of the preparations tried are of value, yet it seems 
that none fill all the requirements as well as Bor- 
deaux mixture, and it to-day is probably far more 
used than all other fungicides combined. The quali- 
ties which recommend it are its cheapness, effective- 
ness, lack of harm to the plant sprayed, and, lastly, 
its good effect in cleansing trees, a quality which 
especially recommends it to Oregon growers be- 
cause of its destructiveness to the moss. It is not 
here necessary to go into details as to the manufac- 
ture of the mixture ; such information can be ob- 
tained in any of the bulletins. It is of the utmost 
importance, however, that the ingredients be rightly 
combined if a useful mixture is to be secured. All 
things considered, I believe the following formula to 
be the best : 

Copper Sulphate 4 pounds 

Lime 3 pounds 

Water 40 gallons 

Apple and Pear Scab. — This disease is probably the 
most widespread and grievous of any we have in the 
State. While it is not yet bad in all fruit districts, 
it is spreading so rapidly that it is only a question of 
time when it will be in every orchard in the State. 
No disease has been more thoroughly worked out 
than the apple scab, and the remedy for it is almost 
sure if properly applied. The following is the treat- 
ment : A first application of Bordeaux mixture 
should be made just as the buds begin to swell ; a 
second before the blossoms open, and a third when 
the fruit is the size of a pea. Depending upon the 
weather, one or two other sprayings should be given 
at intervals of twelve to twenty days. 

Apple Canker. — Apple canker is hardly less wide- 
spread and destructive than the scab. Apple canker 
is reported in every part of Oregon. It does the 
most damage to young trees, but old ones are not 
exempt, and the injury done by weakening the old 
trees is far more than we give credit for. Though 
the life history of the fungus causing apple canker 
is not well known, yet enough is known to enable us 
to recommend treatment for it. The disease begins 
at the beginning of the rainy season as a small dark 
red spot, which gradually grows larger until dry 
weather comes. The fungus then seems to lose its 
vitality and the affected spots dry up and in the 
course of a few months slough off, leaving an un- 
sightly wound. Treatment must be preventive, 
therefore spray with Bordeaux mixture before the 
disease begins in the fall, and I should recommend 
this to be given just as the leaves are falling. It 
will do a world of good in keeping other diseases in 
check as well. If the orchard is badly affected, a 
good plan would be to give a winter spray of Bor- 
deaux. These, with the sprayings that ought to be 
given for scab, will keep the canker in check, it 
being further necessary, however, to always cut the 
affected parts of bark and wood out. From reports 
of orchards so treated during the past two seasons I 
feel confident that apple canker can be kept in 
check, and think the disease must soon lose its ter- 
rors for the Oregon apple grower. 

Blade or Bitter Rot. — Apples are some seasons 
seriously injured in all parts of the State by a rot 
which causes a degeneration of the cells of fruit, 
making black or brown spots in the apple. The 
fungus begins work when the fruit is nearly ripe and 
continues after the crop is harvested. It is the so- 
called black or bitter rot. The treatment for this 
rot is essentially the same as for scab. Care should 
be taken in storing apples to remove affected fruit 
that the rot may not spread to the sound apples. 

Apple. Mildew. — The apple mildew attacks the foli- 
age soon after the buds begin to unfold and continues 
throughout the entire growing season, very much 
weakening the trees. The affected leaves have a 
gray appearance, caused by the white, powdery 
spores which project through the epidermis of the 
leaf. After being attacked, the leaves soon dry and 
drop. The mildew, because of favoring conditions of 
cold and damp weather, has done an immense lot of 

July 25, 1896. 

damage in the orchards this year. The spraying for 
scab will keep the mildew in subjection. 

Canker and Crater Slight. — The pear is subject to 
the same diseases in Oregon, practically, as those 
named for the apple, with the exception of bitter 
rot and with the addition of pear blight, which is 
not amenable to fungicides. A pear orchard should 
receive about the same treatment as an apple or- 
chard. It is, it seems to me, unfortunate that 
canker on the pear, which is very similar if not 
identical with the apple canker, should have been 
rechristened by Prof. Wood worth "crater blight of 
the pear." It seems to me, too, that the disease is 
hardly properly called a blight, though that term is 
very general, since we commonly call any disease a 
blight which affects the foliage of a plant more par- 
ticularly, as the real pear blight, the potato blight, 
carnation blight, etc. Moreover, nomenclature for 
diseases is badly mixed without further compounding 
of names. 

Shot-Half Fungus. — Prunes in Oregon are subject 
to but two serious diseases — the shot-hole fungus and 
the gummosis. They may at the present time be 
found in nine-tenths of the orchards of the State, and 
are doing, as they do every year, an immense amount 
of damage. The shot-hole fungus is very easily con- 
trolled. The trees should be sprayed with Bordeaux 
mixture as soon as the leaves appear, the applica- 
tion being repeated at intervals of two or three 
weeks until the middle of the summer. If it is neces- 
sary to spray when the fruit is nearly ripe, substi- 
tute for the Bordeaux mixture one of the clear fungi- 
cides, to avoid staining the fruit. Two or three ap- 
plications will be found sufficient. Cherries are 
affected with the same fungus and should be treated 
the same. 

Cherry Gummosis. — Prunes and cherries are like- 
wise both affected with gummosis, the latter, how- 
ever, to a much greater extent than the former. 
Gummosis puzzles the best fruit grower. One re- 
ports success with one method of treatment, another 
with another method. The disease is probably a de- 
generation of the cell walls of certain parts of the 
plant, and probably caused by a fungus. The gum 
begins to exude early in the spring, and treatment, 
it would seem, to be preventive, should begin about 
as soon as the leaves begin to come out. At present 
I should not recommend special treatment for gum- 
mosis other than those given for the shot-hole 
fungus, unless it would be a fall spraying. Where 
practicable, or possible, the disease ought to be cut 
out; and, I believe, since the favoring conditions gen- 
erally seem to be a tight bark, that there is some 
efficacy in splitting the bark carefully. On general 
principles, I cannot see much in this remedy, but it 
is recommended by so many, and proof seems so 
strong as to its value, that there must be something 
in the remedy. I am inclined to think from observa- | 
tions and experience of others that overcultivation 
has much to do in bringing about the disease. An- 
other way of preventing the disease in the orchard i 
with cherries is to plant seedlings, and when two | 
years old top-graft with the desired variety. Wher- i 
ever this has been tried, reports have been favor- , 
able to the treatment, and near this city we have a 
standing example of trees so treated. 

A Great Fruit Show at the State Fair. 

Every effort is to be made to secure a great fruit 
display at this year's State Fair which will be held 
in Sacramento, Sept. 1st to 19th inclusive. The 
display will be under management of the State Board 
of Horticulture with B..M. Lelong as superintendent 
and R. H. Hewitt assistant. 

We have just received from the secretary, Edwin 
F. Smith, an advance copy of the premium list show- 
ing the liberal awards offered in this department 
and certainly they are liberal enough to call cut 
wide competition and they are so new in some of 
their features that we ought to have a strictly up- 
to-date exhibition. We shall reproduce some of the 
more novel features so that readers of the Rural 
can have the earliest possible information of what is 
held out to them. 

A. For most meritorious exhibit in this depart- 

ment Gold Medal. 

B. For best arranged and most extensive, perfect, 

and varied exhibit of orchard products $100 00 

C. For second best arranged and most extensive, 

perfect, and varied exhibit of orchard 
products 50 00 

D. For third best arranged and most extensive, per- 

fect, and varied exhibit of orchard products.. 25 00 

Besides these there are offers of premiums ag- 
gregating $75 for display of each kind of fruit; ap- 
ples, pears, table grapes etc., etc., and $50 each for 
oranges and lemons, and a gold medal for the best 
lemon, also liberal awards for limes, pomelos, citrons, 

Best Display of Perishable Fruits. — In order to off- 
set the difficulty of keeping perishable and delicate 
fruits during the entire fair, a special exhibit of the 
following fruits will be made the second week, and for 
which special premiums are offered : 

Peaches. -Best display embracing quality and variety, $50; 
second best, $25; third best, $15; best arranged exhibit, $10; 
second best, $5; best twelve varieties, $10; second best, $5; 
third best, $3; best five varieties, $7.50; second best, $5; third 
best, $3; best packed box for shipment, $5; second best $3; 

best exhibit of varieties not before exhibited, $10; second 
best, $5. 

Nectarines. — Best display, embracing quality and variety, 
$50; second best, $25; third best, $10; best arranged exhibit, 
$10; best twelve varieties, $5; second best, $3; best five Veri- 
ties, $3; second best, $2; best packed box for shipment, $5 ; 
second best, $3; best exhibit of varieties not before exhibited, 
$10; second best, $5. 

Plums and Prunes. — Best display, embracing quality and 
variety, $50; second best, $25; third best, $15; best arranged 
exhibit, $10; second best, $5; best twelve varieties, $10; 
second best, $5; third best, $3; best five varieties $7.50; 
second best, $5; third best, $3; best packed box for shipment, 
$5; second best, $3; best exhibit of varieties not before ex- 
hibited, $10; second best, $5. 

Tigs. — Best display, embracing quality and variety, $15; 
second best, $7.50; best twelve varieties, $10; second best, $5; 
third best $3. 

Olives. — The provisions for olive award are new 
features and are as follows: 

For most meritorious exhibit in this class 

Silver medal and $25 

Second best 15 

Best exhibit of pickled olives (ripe) 10,' 

Second best 5 

Best exhibit of pickled olives (green) 10 

Second best 5 

Best exhibit of dried olives (ripe) 10 

Second best 5 

Best exhibit of olive oil, embracing quality and variety... 50 

Second best 25 

Best exhibit of olive oil, one variety, twelve bottles 10 

Dried Fruits. — In addition to special awards for 
each kind of dried fruit, there are the following gen- 
eral display premiums: 

Largest and best exhibit of dried fruit, embracing quality 

and variety, by producer $50 

Second largest and best 25 

Third largest and best 15 

Best general display of dried fruits, by factory 25 

Second best 15 

Exhibitors of dried fruits must furnish written 
statemeut of manner of drying and treatment, in 
full, from time of picking to placing on exhibition. 

Dried Fruit' Cooking Formulas. — A very unique and 
attractive display will be that of cooked dried fruit 
with the recipes used in its preparation. All form- 
ulas must be original, and all parties entering for 
premiums are required to make daily demonstra- 

tions during the fair. 
Best exhibit of cooked dried fruits, with formulas, to be 

cooked daily during the fair $100 

Second best 50 

Best formula for cooking plums and prunes, pitted and un- 

pitted 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking dried apricots 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking dried Bartlett pears, peeled and 

unpeeled 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking dried peaches and nectarines, 

peeled and unpeeled 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking dried cherries, pitted and un- 

pitted 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking dried figs 5 

Second best 3 

Best formula for cooking raisins, including seedless raisins 

and dried grapes 5 

Second best 3 

Notice must be filed with the secretary of the ex- 
hibitor's intention of exhibiting, so that space may 
be allotted and the same entered in accordance with 
the rules before August 22d. 

Nuts. — In addition to awards for other nuts, the 
following great premiums for our two most import- 
ant commercial products in this line should attract 
wide attention : 

Best and largest exhibit of walnuts, embracing quality 

and variety $30 00 

Second best and largest 20 00 

Best ten varieties of walnuts 15 00 

Second best 7 50 

Best and largest exhibit of almonds, embracing quality 

and variety 30 00 

Second best and largest 20 00 

Best ten varieties of almonds 15 00 

Second best 7 50 

Special I'n niiu in for Preservative Fluid. — Best 
formula for putting up fruit for exhibition purposes. 
Must preserve the color of the fruit in the solution, 
and an exhibit be made during the fair of fruit 
treated at least one year, $100. 

Ants and Fruit Trees. 

To the Editor: — E. A. Jenks asks how to keep 
little black ants from going up his fruit trees. I 
can give him a remedy which, I think, will be less 
trouble and quite as effective as to use printing ink. 
I have used it successfully on my fig trees for a num- 
ber of years. I take common white chalk, either 
lump or powdered, and rub it on the trunk of the 
tree, making a ring about an inch and a half wide. 
It is impossible for the ants, big or little, to cross 
this ring. It will need to be renewed about once a 
week, but it will not take much to renew after the 
ring in once made. This remedy will apply to other 
things besides trees the ants trouble, such as food 
closets, beehive stands, etc. 

The Squirrel Pest. — Now, I would like to ask for a 
sure cure for the squirrel pest. I have tried poison 
of different kiRds, also smokers ; have also tried 
Wheeler's bisulphide of carbon, and can say that 
while the poison kills some there are enough left to 
give a good start for the next season. The smokers 
and carbon I consider as worthless, having given 
both a fair trial with no perceptible good. 
I Now, if any of your readers have a sure remedy I 

will say that I have got about ten acres of the pests 
and stand ready to give $25 to any man, woman or 
child who will clean them out. 

Laurel, Santa Cruz Co. W. W. Waterman. 

Probably our correspondent is expecting too much 
in hoping for extermination of the squirrels. Like 
the poor, they will probably always be with us, at 
least until the State is so closely settled that there 
is no waste or neglected land upon which they can 
multiply to recolonize improved and guarded areas. 
It is almost universal testimony that the bisulphide 
treatment is very effective when properly applied 
according to instructions furnished by the manufac- 
turer, and when used while the soil is wet, so that 
the vapor is not easily dissipated through the porosity 
of the dry soil. In the dry season a good poison is 
better. To use both methods, each in its season, is 
the practice of those who do best work in squirrel 
destruction. No one expects to annihilate the pests, 
but by constant treatment the labor and expendi- 
ture grow constantly less, unless one is situated in 
the midst of large neglected breeding grounds. We 
would like discussion on this subject to bring out the 
latest and best experiences of all readers. 


American Nut Growing. 



Owing to the fact that the Persian (English) 
walnut has been mainly propagated by means of 
seedlings which exhibit many variations, it is difficult 
to select distinct types for description. However, 
in regions where walnuts are largely grown, differ- 
ent strains have been developed which are worthy of 
perpetuation, and the best of these that have 
reached us have been illustrated and described. 

Barthere. — A French variety recently introduced by 
Mr. Gillet, described by him as follows: " A singu- 
larly-shaped nut, elongated, broad at the center, and 
tapering at both ends; the shell is harder than that 
of other sorts." 

Chaberte. — An old French variety named after its 
originator. It is rich in oil aud is cultivated on a 
large scale in the east of France for the oil mills. 
The tree is said to thrive on less fertile soil than is 
necessary for Mayette and Franquette. It is late in 
starting growth in the spring. 

Cluster. — This variety is noted for its habit of 
growing in clusters of 8 to 15 nuts, and in some 
cases even 20 to 28 nuts. 

Drew.— From William P. Corsa, Milford, Del. Size 
of nut above medium; form oblate, with roundish 
base and compressed apex; surface moderately 
smooth, yellowish; shell quite thin, cracking qualities 
exci llent; kernel short, thick, plump, light yellow; 
meat yellowish white; flavor sweet, rich, slightly 
astringent; good to very good. The nuts are self- 
hulling, and ripen with or without frost about 
October 1. It is a seedling grown from a nut, prob- 
ably imported, planted about 1875 by the late Andrew 
Corsa (for whom it has been named), and by him 
given, when one year old, to his brother on whose 
farm in Sussex County, Del., the original tree now 

The tree remains dormant until late in May, the 
blossoms thus escaping injury by frost. It com- 
menced bearing in 1890, and has yielded an increasing 
quantity each year since. 

Ford (Softshell) — From George W. Ford, of Santa 
Ana, Cal., by whom they are being propagated. 
From selections made in 1880 of some of the best and 
largest nuts from trees previously introduced into 
Santa Barbara county, Mr. Ford has grown orchards 
of bearing trees which have gained considerable rep- 
utation among walnut growers. It is claimed for 
these nuts that besides being soft-shelled they have 
admirable keeping qualities, and that the trees are 
abundant croppers. As Mr. Ford propagates en- 
tirely from seed, there is some variation in the forms 
of the nuts and no distinct variety has been selected 
for propagation. Mr. Ford's nuts average well, and 
are much superior in thinness of shell and quality of 
kernel to the common Los Angeles nut. 

Franquette. — Form long; size quite large. A French 
variety named after its orignator, by whom it was 
propagated in the early part of the century. By 
Mr. Gillet it is rated with Mayette and Parisienne as 
very choice in quality, regular in form, hardy in 
tree, and late in starting growth in spring. These 
three varieties supply the finest walnuts produced in 
the southern portion of France, where they are 
exclusively grown on grafted trees and are the kinds 
most generally grown. 

Gant, or Bijou. — A very large French nut, the 
kernel of which often fails to fill the shell. The 
names are derived from the uses to which the shells 
are sometimes put in France, being used as glove or 
jewel boxes. 

Grand Noblesse. — A very fine nut, of which speci- 


The Pacific Rural Press 

July 25, 1896. 

mens were received by Division of Pomology from 
L. L. Bequette, of Rivera, Cal. 

Lanfray.—A. large imported variety catalogued 
by Mr. Gillet. 

'Mammoth.— French. "This is an immense nut, 
the largest of all, much larger than Gant, or Bijou." 

Wauette. — Form broad; size above medium. ' This 
is one of the finest dessert nuts, and is quoted at the 
highest prices in the market. The nuts are above 
medium in size, full kerneled and sweet. Its habit of 
starting growth late in the spring makes it of special 
value to growers in the United States. It is thus 
likely to escape disastrous effects of late spring frosts. 

Mesange.—A very thin-shelled French variety that 
is claimed to be especially desirable for pickling when 
green. Nuts sometimes injured by the birds, which 
puncture the hull and shell and extract the meat. 

Mt ylcm. — Recently introduced from France by 
Felix Gillet. Said to have originated near the vil- 
lage of Meylan, where it is much cultivated for 

Mission (Los Angeles)* — Th\B nut was introduced by 
the priests at Los Angeles and is the pioneer Persian 
walnut of California. Most of the bearing orchards 
of the State are composed of seedling trees of this 
type. The nut is of medium size, with a hard shell 
of medium thickness. It succeeds admirably in a 
few favored districts but fails in productiveness in 
many sections. Its most prominent faults are early 
blooming, in consequence of which it is often caught 
by late frosts; the irregular and unequal blooming 
of its staminate and pistillate blossoms and the 
consequent failure of the latter to be fertilized and 
to develop nuts; lateness in ripening its wood in the 
fall and consequent liability to injury by frost at that 
time. In sections where it does not succeed the 
trees of this variety should be top-grafted or budded 
with hardier varieties. 

Paritienne. — Originated in southeastern France 
and named in honor of the capital. Nut large, 
truncated at apex. Said to be as late in blooming as 

Poorman. — Recently introduced by Mr. Gillet. 

PrcepartWrien » (Fertile). — Size medium; shell rather 
hard; kernel delicious. This variety originated 
about forty years ago in France. It bears at an early 
age, as its name implies. It blooms from two to four 
weeks latter than the Mission, and is thus likely to 
be injured by late frosts. Its male and female 
blossoms mature simultaneously. It is very hardy 
and ripens its wood well before winter. Its habit of 
growth is more dwarfish than some others. It is 
productive. Until 8 or 9 years of age the trees of 
this variety are said to produce no male blossoms, 
though female flowers or nutlets are frequently found 
even on very young trees. Such nutlets may be 
grown to maturity if pollen is supplied from other 
walnut trees in the neighborhood. For the family 
garden Mr. Gillet thinks this variety has superior 
claims in quality of kernel, thickness of shell, fruit- 
fulness, and precocity in bearing. Mr. Gillet re- 
ports that in 1882 grafts of this variety were set in 
a large walnut tree a Nevada City. The tree was 21 
years old and measured 2i feet in diameter, but had 
previously borne only 17 nuts, all in one year. In 
1884 those grafts bore over 400 nuts, and in 1887 
their yield was 5 bushels. Mr. Gillet asserts that the 
trees grown in California, from nuts borne on trees 
grafted from the imported, bear nuts of larger size 
than the parent trees. These be designates second 
generation" trees. Seedlings from these (third 
generation), he says, show a marked deterioration 
in size, though they retain the thin shell and good 

Santa Barbara {Soft she/ 1.). — This variety is about 
ten days later than the Mission in starting growth 
and in blooming in the spring. It fruits at from four 
to six years from seed, and usually produces a full 
crop every year. It is not as strong a grower as 
the common walnut (Mission), and more trees can be 
planted to the acre. The shells are thin and easily 
broken, consequently the nuts are sometimes dam- 
aged in long shipment. The kernel is white and of 
very fine quality. 

Serotina (Late Walnut, St. John). — A nut of medium 
size, with high-flavored kernel. This is perhaps the 
latest walnut in putting forth growth in the spring 
on the Pacific Slope, and for this cause it is especially 
selected by planters for sections liable to have late 
frosts. It is an old French variety described by 
Loudon. Mr. Gillet says: " It is this variety that 
produces the 'After St. John walnut,' nurserymen 
marking out every Serotina in nursery rows that 
puts forth [blossoms?] about St. John's day [June 
24], and selling such trees under the name of ' After 
St. John walnut.' " 

Sexton (Paper-shell). — Named and propagated by 
Joseph Sexton, of Goleta, Cal. It is a very thin- 
shelled nut of good quality. It is about ten days 
later starting growth in the spring than the Mission 
nut. It is more upright in growth of tree than the 
Mission, and for this reason is set in by Mr. Sexton 
at 40 by 40 feet. 

Vourey. — Recently introduced from southern 
France. Similar to Mayette in form, and said to be 
one of the hardiest varieties yet introduced. 


Outlines of the Lectures at Camp Roache. 

In our last issue we gave brief outlines of the first 
week's lectures at the summer school in the Santa 
Cruz mountains. These outlines are prepared by 
attendants at the school and are, of course, only 
suggestive of the lines followed by the speakers. 
Below we proceed with the agricultural lectures of 
the second week. 

Soil Formation. — Prof. E. W. Hilgard opened the 
week with a lecture on soils. He said that it was of 
interest to know how soil was formed. The action 
of water by freezing is as powerful and certain as 
dynamite. Water entering rocks and freezing 
breaks and reduces them, whether the pieces are 
large or small. Rains wash them from the moun- 
tains to the valleys, and they grow smaller as 
they go. 

Then chemical action begins to work. The acids 
and other elements in the rock meeting each other, 
under proper conditions of moisture form new com- 
binations and prepare the decomposed rock to sup- 
port plant life. 

Glacial action where it has existed has been a very 
important factor, grinding vast quantities of rock 
to fine powder. In the chemical action carbonic 
acid is an important solvent. It exists in all water 
and in the air in minute quantities, but, being always 
at work, is effective. The other most important 
disintegrating factor is oxygen. By the action of 
these two substances, with heat and moisture, soils 
are formed. 

The farmer must become accustomed to the chem- 
ical terms, but of the many in use he needs to learn 
not more than a dozen or so, and of the thousands of 
different minerals he needs only know about the 
same number. The elements essential to plant life 
exist in the soil in minute quantities, not more than 
one-half of 1 per cent of the total, all told. This 
makes it possible to supply them as they become ex- 
hausted. The soils of the arid regions of the West 
are richer than Eastern soils, because the essential 
elements have not been leached out of them. 

The minerals from which most soils are derived 
are quartz, hornblende and the feldspars. By know- 
ing these minerals and their appearances when de- 
composed the farmer can judge of the quality of the 
soil and what to apply when its productive power 
gives out. California soils are rich in lime and pot- 
ash, but are relatively poor in phosphoric acid. 
Nitrogen in fruit soils in California is nearly always 
abundant. The humus of the average California soil 
contains about three times as much nitrogen as the 
humus of an average Eastern soil. 

The problems of dealing with California soils are 
new, because this is the first time that the Anj;lo- 
Saxon race has come in contact with arid lands. We 
do not yet know nearly all the facts necessary to 
guide us in fertilizing, but we do know that we can- 
not depend on the data collected from Eastern and 
European sources. 

The Soil and tin Plant. — Prof. Hilgard's second 
lecture was upon " The Soil and Plant." He exhib- 
ited a very elaborate table showing the amount of 
soil ingredients taken from the ground by many dif- 
ferent varieties of crops, such as grapes, prunes, 
olives, wheat, etc., and laid especial stress on those 
ingredients which are most essential to the plant 
life, viz., potash, lime, phosphoric acid and nitrogen. 

The table, which is incorporated in the annual 
report of the Agricultural College at Berkeley, 
showed the amounts of the different ingredients 
taken by the different parts of the crop, such as the 
pits, flesh and wood, in case of grapes clearly bring- 
ing out the importance of analyzing the soil, ascer- 
taining just what ingredients the different parts of 
the crop take out and then returning to the ground 
those portions which do not make good returns. He I 
strongly urged the use of fertilizers before the 
ground is almost completely used up, because that 
involved a very much larger outlay at one time than 
would be otherwise necessary. 

Prof. Hilgard spoke of the discovery recently 
made by a man in Germany which he considered the 
most beneficial to agriculture of all recent discov- 
eries, that a form of bacteria inhabits all leguminous 
or pod-bearing plants, causing little excrescences on 
the roots, which contain nearly 50 per cent of nitro 
gen. After a certain time these bacteria die and 
leave the nitrogen for the use of the plant. There- 
fore he advised the planting of some of the plants of 
this variety, naming the common California vetch, 
for use on thin soils. He cited instances where by 
the use of this plant nitrogen was supplied at a cost 
of about (5 cents, as against 17 cents in the market. 

In closing Prof. Hilgard mad? a strong plea for 
a greater use of the College of Agriculture by farm- 
ers, especially by sending their sons there. He said 
that just su^h gatherings as these at Camp Roache 
are needed to make the farmers of California appre- 
ciate the fact that from now on science and not 
muscle will be the chief factor of success in the prac- 

tice of husbandry. He wished there were 10 simi- 
lar schools in the State. 

Significance of Form in Plants and Animals. — This 
was the subject of the first lecture by Prof. E. J. 
Wickson, and in his discourse he considered the more 
obvious matters of form, as manifested in improved 
agricultural practices and products, with the at- 
tempt to show what they teach us of themselves and 
what they teach us of our ourselves. 

" Improved forms of what?" said the professor. 
" Everything in agriculture, practice and tool*, ani- 
mals, fruits and flowers. All are wonderful depart- 
ures from early forms, all probablv rude and imper- 
fect as compared with what they will be generations 
to come, but, as they are, they are the exponents of 
our progress and the embodiment of the deepest 
thought and most determined effort of the larger 
part of the human race during all the courses of his- 

To show some of the most striking achievements. 
Professor Wickson compared the modern riding gang 
with the forked style of olden times, our combined 
har vester with the old-fashioned flal, our high breeds 
of stock with the cattle hunted in the time of Julius 
Ca'.sar. Ali of these wonderful improvements he at- 
tributed to the use of the imaginative powers of man 
and his attempt to reach the high level of his ideals." 
This lead the speaker to an analysis of the industrial 
use of the imagination as the creative power of the 
mind and to the importance of trained powers of ob- 
servation and the ability to arrive at sound concep- 
tions of the relation of things as the foundation of 
agricultural progress. The discussion which fol- 
lowed was mostly on the subject of scientific educa- 
tion, which Professor Wickson thought the greatest 
need of our times, from an agricultural point of 

Irrigation and Rainfall. — Prof. Wickson's second 
"lecture was on "Irrigation and Rainfall." He de- 
scribed the conditions existing in arid America, the 
colonizing and other enterprises. He spoke of the 
opposition of Eastern farmers to the developments of 
the arid lands with public money, and answered the 
Eastern contention by citing the fact that the arid 
districts are the only remaining openings for the sur- 
plus population of the East and will furnish employ- 
ment for Eastern capital. 

The development of irrigation in the States bor- 
dering the Missouri, he said, was proceeding mainly 
and successfully by bringing to the surface by arte- 
sian or other wells the subterranean waters, making 
use for that purpose of the abundant wind power of 
those regions. In the practice of irrigation in Cali- 
fornia many failures have arisen, the speaker said, 
from the excessive, untimely or irregular use of the 
j water. There may be too little, too much or just 
enough moisture in the soil, but whether the supply 
is regulated from ditches or from the clouds makes 
no difference. 

Over or under irrigation effects fruit injuriously. 
Fruit cannot have good size, texture or flavor with- 
out sufficient moisture. The question is what is suf- 
ficient, and to this there is no definite answer, the 
quantity required constantly varying with varieties 
and with seasons, soil and exposure. Whether or not 
irrigation will be profitable in any district can be 
best told by the appearance of the crops under good 
cultivation. If an orchard does not have a deep, 
rich green during the growing season, or if the trees 
shed their leaves early in the fall, or if the fruit is 
: persistently small, irrigation at a reasonable expense 
| will probably pay. 

The ('ali/ornia (larden. — At his last lecture Prof. 
Wickson discussed the farmer's garden. The mat 
ter considered was not the probability of all farmers 
raising their own vegetables, but the possibility of 
their so doing in California at a profit. The Pro- 
fessor stated that the culture both of vegetables and 
flowers is rapidly increasing in California. He al- 
luded to the influence of the carnivals, now so com- 
mon in this State, in promoting the culture of flow- 
ers. While there was of course a commercial ele- 
ment in all the fiestas having no connection with 
floriculture, yet all the same the impulse which they 
communicate to the culture of flowers has been ex- 
tremely valuable. 

Considering our long season of blooming, the infi- 
nite variety of our flowers, the rapidity of their 
growth and the wealth of their bloom, it must be 
conceded that there is hardly any other part of the 
world which promises so much to the lovers of flow- 

There are three requisites for successful floricul- 
ture. First, a real love of flowers ; next, a plenty of 
water, and last, and most important of all, the will- 
ingness to do a lot of work. If work cannot be done 
at the proper times, either in the flower or the vege- 
table garden, it is folly to plant. One will simply 
lose the labor of planting. 

But before one should justify himself for planting 
nj garden because he cannot find time to attend to 
i it, he must satisfy himself that he really has no time. 
As a matter of fact, a multitude of farmers who have 
l supposed they had no time have discovered within the 
past year or two that they have plenty of it. In 
watering, water abundantly rather than often, but it 
is impossible to give fixed rules for this practice 
without considering the character of the soil and the 
I requirements of the plant. 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 



Bird Day in the Schools. 

Dr. T. S. Palmer of California, now acting chief of 
the Division of Biological Survey of the Department 
of Agriculture at Washington, has just issued a 
special circular entitled " Bird Day in the Schools." 
The main proposition advanced is to establish a Bird 
Day on the same general plan as that of Arbor Day, 
which is now observed so widely in the schools of the 
United States. The Arbor Day establishment was 
first urged twenty-five years ago by Hon. J. Ster- 
ling Morton, Secretary of Agriculture, and Mr. Mor- 
ton heartily approves Bird Day also. In a letter on 
the subject he used these words : 

Wanton Destruction of Birds. — It is a melancholy 
fact that among the enemies of our birds two of the 
most destructive and relentless are our women and 
our boys. The love of feather ornamentation so 
heartlessly persisted in by thousands of women, and 
the mania for collecting eggs and killing birds so 
deeply rooted in our boys, are legacies of barbarism 
inherited from our savage ancestry. The number of 
beautiful and useful birds annually slaughtered for 
bonnet trimmings runs up into the hundreds of thou- 
sands, and threatens, if it has not already accom- 
plished, the extermination of some of the rarer 
species. The insidious egg-hunting and pea-shooting 
proclivities of the small boy are hardly less wide- 
spread and destructive. It matters little which of 
the two agencies is the more fatal, since neither is 
productive of any good. One looks to the gratifica- 
tion of a shallow vanity, the other to the gratifica- 
tion of a cruel instinct and an expenditure of boyish 
energy that might be profitably diverted into other 
channels. The evil is one against which legislation 
can be only palliative and of local efficiency. Public 
sentiment, on the other hand, if properly fostered 
in the schools, would gain force with the growth and 
development of our boys and girls and would become 
a hundredfold more potent than any law enacted by 
the State or Congress. I believe such a sentiment 
can be developed, so strong and uuiversal that a 
respectable woman will be ashamed to be seen with 
the wing of a wild bird on her bonnet, and an honest 
boy will be ashamed to own that he ever robbed a 
nest or wantonly took the life of a bird. 

Bird Day Already Observed in Pennsylvania. — Bird 
Day is more than a suggestion. It has been already 
adopted in at least two cities with marked success, 
but as yet is still an experiment. Apparently the 
idea originated with Prof. C. A. Babcock, superin- 
tendent of schools in Oil City, Pa., and the day was 
observed in 1895 and 1896. The exercises last May 
consisted of original compositions by the pupils, con- 
taining the results of their observations of birds, of 
talks by pupils and teachers, comparing observa- 
tions, giving localities of bird haunts, and general 
exchange of bird lore ; of recitations from eminent 
prose writers on birds, and from the poets ; finally 
many of the schools closed their exercises by a trip 
to the woods to listen to the vesper concert of our 
feathered brothers. We begin the study of birds on 
January 1st and continue till June, studying those 
that stay all winter and trying to keep account of 
the new comers as they arrive. We devote two 
periods, of twenty minutes each, per week to this 
study. Bird Day is a summary or focusing of the 
work of the year. The results of bird study and of 
Bird Day are interesting. Our children generally 
know most of our bird residents ; they also love 
them, and feel like protecting them. There has 
been a complete change in the relations existing be- 
tween the small boy and the birds. 

Object of Bird Day. — From all sides come reports 
of a decrease in native birds due to the clearing of 
the forests, draining of the swamps and cultivation 
of land, but especially to the increasing slaughter of 
birds for game, the demand for feathers to supply 
the millinery trade, and the breaking up of nests to 
gratify the egg-collecting proclivities of small boys. 
An attempt has been made to restrict these latter 
causes by legislation. Nearly every State and Ter- 
ritory has passed game laws, and several States 
have statutes protecting insectivorous birds. Such 
laws are frequently changed and cannot be expected 
to accomplish much unless supported by popular 
sentiment in favor of bird protection. This object 
can only be attained by demonstrating to the people 
the value of birds. And how can it be accomplished 
better than through the medium of the schools ? 
Briefly stated, the object of Bird Day is to diffuse 
knowledge concerning our native birds, and to arouse 
a more general interest in bird protection. As such 
it should appeal not only to ornithologists, sports- 
men and farmers, who have a practical interest in 
the preservation of birds, but also the general pub- 
lic, who would soon appreciate the loss if some of the 
songsters were exterminated. 

Methods of Bird Study. — The study of birds may be 
taken up in several ways and for different purposes ; 
it may be made to furnish simply a course in mental 
training or to assist the pupil in acquiring habits of 
accurate observation ; it may be taken up alone or 

combined with composition, drawing, geography or 
literature. But it has also an economic side which 
may appeal to those who demand purely practical 
studies in schools. 

Economic Value of Bird Study. — Economic orni- 
thology has been defined as the " study of birds from 
the standpoint of dollars and cents." It treats of 
the direct relations of birds to man, showing which 
species are beneficial and which injurious, teaching 
the agriculturist how to protect his feathered friends 
and guard against the attacks of his foes. This is a 
subject in which we are only just beginning to ac- 
quire exact knowledge, but it is none the less deserv- 
ing of a place in our educational system on this 
account. If illustrations of the practical value of a 
knowledge of zoology are necessary they can easily 
be given. It has been estimated recently that the 
forests and streams of Maine are worth more than 
its agricultural resources. If this is so, is it not 
equally as important to teach the best means of 
preserving the timber, the game, and the fish, as it 
is to teach students how to develop the agricultural 
wealth of the State ? In 1894 Pennsylvania passed 
its famous "scalp act," and in less than two years 
expended between $75,000 and $100,000 in an at- 
tempt to rid the State of animals and birds supposed 
to be injurious. A large part of the money was 
spent for killing hawks and owls, most of which 
belonged to species which were afterwards shown to 
be actually beneficial. Not only was money thro wn 
away in a useless war against noxious animals, but 
the State actually paid for the destruction of birds of 
inestimable value to its farmers. During the last five 
or six years two States have been engaged in an un- 
successful attempt to exterminate English sparrows 
by paying bounties for their heads. Michigan and 
Illinois have each spent more than $50,000, but, 
although millions of sparrows have been killed, the 
decrease in numbers is hardly perceptible. A more 
general knowledge of the habits of the English 
sparrow at the time the bird was first introduced 
into the United States would not only have saved 
this outlay of over' $100,000, but would also have 
saved many other States from loss due to depreda- 
tions by sparrows. 

Is it not Worth Attention ? — Dr. Palmer in closing 
his circular makes the following forcible suggestions: 
Is it not worth while to do something to protect the 
birds and prevent their destruction before it is too 
late ? A powerful influence for good can be exerted 
by the schools if the teachers will only interest them- 
selves in the movement, and the benefit that will 
result to the pupils could hardly be attained in any 
other way at so small an expenditure of time. If it 
is deemed unwise to establish another holiday, or it 
may seem too much to devote one day in the year to 
a study of birds, the exercises of Bird Day might be 
combined with those of Arbor Day. 

at holes, are formed by gases, which develop during 
the early part of the process of ripening, which 
takes fully three months. Cheese, if kept too cold, 
below 65° or 70°, will ripen very slowly, the gases 
not properly develop, and the holes will be small and 
few. If too much heat prevails during the early 
period, the holes will be too large, irregular and too 
numerous, especially if the rennet be too active or 
too much in quantity. If ripening be checked by 
sudden cold, the holes may collapse and become 
fissures. In short, the holes and their character are 
always entirely due to proper or improper tempera- 
ture during the ripening process, and their numer- 
ous variations in size and number can be traced 
largely to the care or want of care in regulating the 
temperature of the curing rooms. The best cheese 
factories have two curing rooms, that for the first 
stage supplied with heaters, and that for the second, 
without, but so built as to have an even tempera- 
ture nearly all the the time. The slightly moulded 
edges and sides of cheese, on shelves, indicate, with- 
out tester, the No. 1 cheese, with proper holes, as 
surely as that flat, sunken sides and edges indicate 
blind and fissure cheese, and the bulging shape the 
bloated article. 

In Swiss cheese, of the finest quality, the holes 
are often so regular in size and frequency as to 
excuse the sometime supposition, by some of the 
uninformed, that they are made by some machine 
or instrument. 

The Filled Cheese Business Killed. 


Hints on Swiss Cheese. 

Our manufacturers of fancy cheese may profit 
by some hints on Swiss cheese making which a Wis- 
consin maker gives Hoard's Dai ry man. They relate 
directly to the securing of the distinctive character 
andquality of this delicious product. 

A Difficult Art. — No one ever learned how to make 
Swiss cheese, or any other kind, solely from reading 
directions. Only from actual practice, under the 
direction of competent workmen, can all of the 
details, great and small, be acquired which go to 
the making of a good cheese, with holes of proper 
form, size and number, and even an expert cheese- 
maker cannot make all of his cheese uniform in that 
respect. So much depends on the quality of milk, 
the season, the food, and the condition of the cows, 
that it is impossible to adapt and change the process 
of making to allow for unusual conditions. 

The Right Kind of a Hole. — The holes in finest 
cheese to be Standard No. 1 should be round, or 
nearly so, not smaller than a small pea nor larger 
than a small hazelnut. An intelligent, careful and 
expert maker will have three-fourths or more cheese 
of this description. A careless, ignorant man will 
have a much smaller proportion. The proportion 
not No. 1 will be made up of the following kinds: 
blind cheese, firm, solid with few or no holes of any 
kind; fissure cheese, with a few holes, but mainly 
fissures, which often appear to be holes, which in- 
stead of becoming round and remaining so, had 
collapsed and spread out flat. Such cheese is mostly 
of good rich taste and flavor, as good as No. 1, but 
fails to make the fine appearance on the table re- 
quired in Swiss cheese, hence it goes up for No. 2. 
Bloated cheese, with too many and too large and 
badly shaped holes, giving the cheese a torn, irreg- 
ular appearance. This is often tough, bitter and 
tasteless, and is said to be caused by too much ren- 
net, too high heat in making or curing, and very 
often is due to milk in bad condition, from any cause. 
Then there is the kind with many and small holes, 
not usually of fine flavor, often bitter, and not rich 
or tender. 

A Matter of Curing. — All of these holes, or attempts 

If we can believe all that we read, the last legisla- 
tion in favor of pure dairy products is effective and 
the dairymen can congratulate themselves that they 
have learned how to secure such laws as they need 
for their own protection. The dairymen have, in 
fact, surpassed all producers in securing protection 
from adulteration, and the wine, honey and olive 
men should all go to the dairy legislative school if 
they can find out where it is. 

Manufacturers Give It Up. — According to the Chi- 
cago Tribune the recently enacted filled cheese law 
has practically killed that industry in Illinois. 
Thomas G. English, a deputy, has reported to Col- 
lector Mize the result of his month's examination and 
investigation of the business. He was unable to 
find a single one of the 130 manufacturers in the dis- 
trict who intends to manufacture under the law. All 
agreed that its terms were prohibitory. 

The filled cheese industry along the Pox river and 
the adjacent dairy sections of the State had grown 
to large proportions. Last year's business aggre- 
gated $1,000,000. A few manufacturers may con- 
tinue for the export trade. 

Provisions of the Law. — The terms of the law are 
far reaching, and were undoubtedly drawn to kill 
off the business. A manufacturer must pay an 
annual tax of $400 and 1 cent a pound tax on his 
product. The cheese must be stamped on the top 
and bottom and four places on its sides with a stamp 
of not less than 2 inches, "Filled Cheese." The 
wholesale dealer must pay an annual tax of $250. 
The prohibition comes into play on the retailer. He 
must place a sign outside his place of business, in 
letters of not less than 6 inches, "Filled Cheese 
Sold Here." He must also pay an annual tax of $12. 

Great Amounts. — The law goes into effect on Sep- 
tember 1st. Manufacturers along the Fox river 
region are already shutting down their establish- 
ments and working off their stocks. Last year the 
factories made 14,000,000 pounds, of which amount 
3,000,000 pounds were exported. This shows how 
large a volume of bogus cheese must now be re- 
placed by a straight full cream or skimmed product, 
without introduction of foreign fats. 

The Nicaragua Canal. 

The report of the Committee on Interstate and 
Foreign Commerce to the House of Representatives, 
recommending the financial aid of the Government 
in the completion of the Nicaragua canal, has been 
issued from the Government Printing Office. The 
committee say that the advantages to be derived 
from the construction of this great interoceanic 
waterway are so vast, that the canal should be built, 
even though the cost of construction exceed the fig- 
ures of the Board of Engineers. In their opinion, 
the Government should assist the company in the 
completion of the work, even if it costs over $150,- 
000,000 ;*but if, as they believe, it can be constructed 
for about $100,000,000, so much the better. The canal 
should be built as a matter of national need. 

That Fly Expellant. 

To the Editor :— Please state in the columns of your paper 
whether, while using the remedy for driving away flies (seen 
on page 9 of the Rukal of July 4th), it would be harmful for a 
person to remain in the room. A Subscriber. 

Red Bluff. 

We should regard the treatment innocuous to 
higher animals because of the extreme dilution of 
the substances in the vapor, though they are in 
themselves powerful. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 1806. 

8 7 

Copyrighted, 0. W. HttJ- "-.Hew York 


Knots and Splices in Manila Rope. 

Some recent inquiries about the details 
of knots and splicing in ropes led to the 
belief that an illustrated article on that 
subject would be of praclical interest. 
The best information on the subject 
that has recently come under our obser- 
vation is contained in a pamphlet issued 
by the C. W, Hunt Co., 45 Broadway, 
N. Y., to whose courtesy we are in- 
debted for the illustrations on the, front 
page of this issue and much of the de- 

To properly splice a rope or to tie a 
knot that will not slip, is quite an ac- 
quisition. The splice in a transmission 
rope is not only the weakest part of 
the rope but is the first to fail when 
the rope is worn out. If the splice is 
not strong the rope will fail by break- 
age or pulling out of the splice. If the 
rope is larger at the splice, the pro- 
jecting parts will wear on the pulleys 
and the rope fail from the cutting off 
of the strands. 

To profit by the experience of others, 
do not put in a " short splice " or an 
ordinary "long splice," or get an 
" old sailor" to do the work, but have 
some handy man follow the directions 

given herewith for a splice in a 4-strand 

Fig. 1327, 1328, 1341 and 1342, show 
each successive move in splicing a II 
inch manila rope. Each engraving was 
made from a full size specimen and 
accurately shows the position of the 
parts. Tie a piece of twine 9 and 10, 
around the rope to be spliced about six 
feet from each end. Then unlay the 
strands of each end back to the twine. 
Butt the ropes together and twist each 
corresponding pair of strands loosely, 
to keep them from being tangled, as 
shown in engraving No. 1327. 

The twine 10 is now cut, and the 
strand 8 unlaid and strand 7 carefully 
lajd in its place for a distance of 4A feet 
from the junction. The strand 6 is 
next unlaid about li feet and strand 5 
laid in its place. The ends of the cores 
are now cut off so they just meet. Un- 
lay strand 1 four and a half feet, laying 
strand 2 in its place. Unlay st>-and 3 
one and a half feet, laying in strand 4. 
Cut all the strands off to a length of 
about 20 inches, for convenience in 

The rope now assumes the form 
shown in Fig. 1328, with the meeting 
points of the strands 3 feet apart. Each 
pair of strands is successively subjected 

to the following operation : From the 
point of meeting of the strands 8 and 7, 
unlay each one three turns ; split both 
the strand 8 and the strand 7 in halves 
as far back as they are now unlaid and 
the end of each half-strand " whipped" 
with a small piece of twine. 

The half of the strand 7 is now laid in 
three turns and the half of 8 also laid 
in three turns. The half strands now 
meet and are tied in a simple knot, 11 
(engraving No. 1341) making the rope 
at this point its original size. The rope 
is now opened with a marlin spike and 
the half-strand of 7 worked around the 
half-strand of 8 by passing the end of 
the half-strand 7 through the rope, as 
shown in the engraving, drawn taut 
and again worked around this half- 
strand until it reaches the half-strand 
13 that was not laid in This half- 
strand 13 is now split, and the half- 
strand 7 drawn through the opening 
thus made and then tucked under the 
two adjacent strands, as shown in cut 
No. 1342. The other half of the strand 
s is now wound around the other half- 
strand 7 in the same manner. After 
each pair of strands has been treated 
in this manner, the ends are cut off at 
12, leaving them about 4 inches long. 
After a few days' wear, they will draw 

into the body of the rope or wear off. SO 
that the locality of the splice can 
scarcely be detected. 

The stretch of a transmission ro[e 
during its life is no greater in amount 

! than that of a leather belt, yet it is a 
material amount, and when several 
ropes run side by side on a pair of pul- 
leys, the different ropes are likely to 
wear unevenly, and some sag more 
than others — so much so, in some cases, 
as to materially increase, not only the 

I wear of the ropes themselves, but to in- 
crease the friction loss in the transmis- 
sion. The gradual lengthening of the 
rope in service may decrease the ten- 
sion until the rope slips on the pulley, 
making it necessary either to resplice 
the rope or to use a take-up sheave 
with a long range of motion. 

This difficulty, however, can be com- 
pletely obviated by the use of the rope 
coupling shown in cut No. 95,130. This 
coupling is smaller than the rope, so 
that it does not touch the pulleys. It 
is made in two parts, which are secured 
together when the rope is put on the 
pulleys, containing an inside ratchet, 
by which the two parts can be rotated 
and locked in any desired position. 
When the rope has stretched any per- 
ceptible amount, the two parts of the 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


coupling are turned in opposite direc- 
tions, putting more "turns" in the 
rope, thus shortening it any desired 
amount. In this manner all the ropes 
of a multiple drive can be kept at the 
same tension with the greatest exact- 

A great number of knots have been 
devised of which a few only are illus- 
trated, but those selected are the most 
frequently used. In the engravings 
they are shown open, or before being 
drawn taut, in order to show the posi- 
tion of the parts. The names usually 
given to them are: A, Bight of a rope; 
B, Simple or overhand knot; C, Figure 
8 knot; D, Double knot; E, Boat knot; 
F, Bowline, first step; G, Bowline, 
second step; H, Bowline completed; I, 
Square of reef knot; J, Sheet bend or 
weaver's knot; K, Sheet bend with a 
toggle; L, Carrick bend; M, Stevedore 
knot completed; N, Stevedore knot 
commenced; O, Half-hitch; P, Timber- 
hitch; Q, Clove-hitch; R, Rolling-hitch; 
S, Timber-hitch and half-hitch; T, Slip 
knot; U, Flemish loop; V, Chain knot 
with toggle; W, Black wall-hitch; X, 
Fishermen's bend; Y, Round turn and 
half-hitch; Z, Wall knot commenced; 
AA, Wall knot completed; BB, Wall 
knot crown commenced; CC, Wall knot 
crown completed. 

The principle of a knot is that no 
two parts, which would move in the 
same direction if the rope were to slip, 
should lay alongside of and touching 
each other. 

The bowliue is one of the most useful 
knots; it will not slip, and after being 
strained is easily untied. It should be 
tied with facility by everyone who han- 
dles rope. Commence by making a 
bight in the rope, then put the end 
through the bight and under the 
standing part as shown in G, then pass 
the end again through the bight, and 
haul tight. 

The square or reef knot must not be 
mistaken for a "granny" knot that 
slips under a strain. Knots H, K and 
M are easily untied after being under 
strain. The knot M is useful when the 
rope passes through an eye and is held 
by the knot, as it will not slip and is 
easily untied after being strained. 

The timber-hitch, S, looks as though 
it would give way, but it will not; the 
greater the strain the tighter it will 
hold. The wall knot looks complicated, 
but is easily made by proceeding as 
follows: Form a bight with strand 1 
and pass the strand 2 around the end 
of it, and the strand 3 around the end 
of 2 and then through the bight of 1 as 
shown in the engraving Z. Haul the 
ends taut when the appearance is as 
shown in the engraving AA. The end 
of the strand 1 is now laid over the 
center of the knot, strand 2 laid over 1 
and 3 over 2, when the end of 3 is 
passed through the biyht of 1 as shown 
in the engraving BB. Haul all the 
strands taut as shown in the engrav- 
ing CC. 

The treatise referred to on ropes 
used for the transmission of power 
contains formulae, tables and data use- 
ful in engineering, and is of practical 
value. Those interested in the matter 
would do well to send for the pamphlet 
to the above address. 

Colors excellently adapted to the 
cheaper kinds of painting can be made 
by employing coal tar instead of oil as 
a vehicle. Coal tar paints cover a 
larger surface by one-fourth than an 
equal weight of oil colors, require no 
varnishing and dry very quickly. They 
may be applied on fresh plaster, damp 
walls, cement, wood or metal, and 
moreover possess disiufecting proper- 
ties, due to the carbolic acid they 

How's Thin ! 
We offer One Hundred Dollars reward for any 
case of Catarrh that cannot be cured by Hall's 
Catarrh Cure. 

F. J. CHENEY & CO., Toledo, O 
We, the undersigned, have known F. J. Cheney 
for the last 15 years, and believe him perfectly 
honorable in all business transactions and finan- 
cially able to carry out any obligations made by 
their Arm. 

West & Traux, Wholesale Druggists, Toledo, O. 
Walding, Kinnan & Marvin, Wholesale Drug- 
gists, Toledo, O. 
Hall's Catarrh Cure is taken internally, acting 
directly upon the blood and mucous surfaces of 
the system. Testimonials sent free. Price 75c. 
per bottle. Sold by all Druggists. 

An Unsolicited Testimonial. 

From the Democrat, Atlanta, Texas. 

"Being constantly asked by many of my 
friends if Dr. Williams' Pink Pills for Pale 
People were doing me any good, I offer this 
unsolicited testimonial and answer. Never 
having seen a well day since I had typhoid 
fever last summer, I could retain scarcely any 
food, my limbs and joints ached and pained all 
the time. It was misery to me to rise up in 
bed and my mind was clouded, in fact, I was a 
physical wreck, and I felt that my life was 
drawing to a close, and I must confess it was 
without regret on my part, as my sufferings 
were almost unbearable. 

" Since 1 commenced to take Dr. Williams' 
Pink Pills, at the solicitation of my wife, I 
have taken four boxes, and I feel like a new 
man. My appetite is good and I now retain 
what I eat, my limbs and joints are free of 
pain and I have gained ten pounds in weight. 
My life feels renewed and while not yet en- 
tirely well, I feel so much better that I un- 
hesitatingly assert that I believe Pink Pills 
for Pale People a good medicine for what they 
are recommended. Knowing that no medi- 
cine will save life under all circumstances 
and in all cases, yet I do honestly believe that 
they have prolonged mine, or at least, where 
all was dark and gloomy and full of suffering 
it has been changed for the better. 

"The manufacturers of this medicine do not 
know of my taking it. Neither am I paid for 
this statement, but give it freely in answer 
to friends and the editor of this paper. 

[Signed] Joun Baugress, Atlanta, Texas." 

Sworn to and subscribed before me this 27th 
day of March, 1S'.I6. 

K. M. Blaydes, Notary Public. 

Regarding the above testimonial of John 
Baugress, I beg to say that no man stands 
higher for honesty and veracity in all this 
section than John Baugress. 

W. H. Wright, 

Editor and proprietor of the Democrat, At- 
lanta, Texas. 

Dr. Williams' Fink Pills contain, in a con- 
densed form, all the elements necessary to 
give new life and richness to the blood and 
restore shattered nerves. They are an un- 
fading specific for such diseases as locomotor 
ataxia, partial paralysis, St. Vitus' dance, 
sciatica, neuralgia, rheumatism, nervous 
headache, the after effect of la grippe, palpita- 
tion of the heart, pale and sallow complexions, 
ail forms of weakness either in male or fe- 
male. Pink Pills are sold by all dealers, or 
will be sent postpaid on receipt of price, 50 
ceuts a box, or six boxes for $'2.50 (they are 
never sold in bulk or by the 100), by address- 
ing Dr. Williams' Medicine Company, Schen- 
ectady, N. Y". 


Is an excellent institution, beautifully located 
at Burlingame, San Mateo County, California. 
N'ouhere do boys receive more careful super- 
vision or more thorough training and instruc- 
i ion. The school is accredited at both of our 
universities, and prepares boys equally well 
for business. The mention of the name of 
Ex-State Superintendent Ira G. .Hoitt as its 
master is a guarantee that it is a first-class 
home school. 

Horse Owners! Try 




Is producing $1,000,000 per month and the output is 
steadily increasing and making fortunes for in- 
vestors in Mines and Stocks. The Cripple 
Creek and California Gold Mining and Milling 
Company of San Francisco are rapidly developing 
their group of Mines located on Little Bull Moun- 
tain, near the city of Victor, in the gold-bearing belt 
of the greaiest Gold Camp in the world. A limited 
number of the Shares of the Treasury Stock will 
be sold for ihe purpose of development at the 
price of 10 cents per Share. The Par Value is $1.00, 
and under the laws of Colorado are absolutely 
non-assessable. For prospectus and full particu- 
lars call or address 

E B MYERS, Sec. 

Koom 30, 139 Post St., San Francisco. 




P. & B. Manilla Roofing 

For Covering Poultry Houses, Sheds and Like Structures. 

250 Square Feet, with Nails and Paint Complete 



lie Battery St., San Francisco, 

5:2-4- S. Broadway, I_os Angeles. 

INo Equal on Earth! 



Gas or Gasoline Engine. 


THE GOLDEN GATE GAS ENGINE has special merit in 
works requiring variable power. It can use natural gas, water 
gas, coal gas, or gasoline, and will run anything on earth that re- 
quires power. 



211 and 213 Main Street, San Francisco. 

Washburn & Moen Mfg. Co. 






i Safe Speedy and Positive Cure 
The Safest, Best BLISTER ever used. Takes 
the place of all liniments for mild or severe action. 
Removes all Bunches or Blemishes from Horses 
OR FIRING* Impossible to produce scar or blemislu 
Every bottle sold is warranted to give satisfaction 
Price $1,50 per bottle. Sold by druggists, or 
sent by express, charges paid, with full directions \\ 
for its use. Send for descriptive circulars. 

You Can Get $'s for Cents. 





Almond Hulling and Shelling 





With Ball Bearing' Turntable, Divided Boxes, 
Babbitt Bearings. 

Truly a gem and worth its weight in gold. It com- 
bines beauty, strength and simplicity. Governs It- 
self perfectly; It Is the best on earth. They are 
geared back three to one. the wheel making them 
run in the lightest wind or breeze. The mill is made 
entirely of Steel and Cast Iron Each one of our Gem 
Windmiils is warranted. If not satisfactory, freight 
will be paid both ways and money refunded. 

We carry a full line of all kinds of Pumps— for 
hand, windmill or power use. Adapted for all 
depths of wells. Pipe. Pipe Fittings, Brass Goods. 
Hose. Tanks, etc. 

W00DIN & LITTLE, 312 and 314 Market Street, 


We carry 


UMPS, Etc. 


Width of tire, 6 in. ; height of bolster, 30 in. Car- 
ries any size platform or bed. Wheels turn under 
the load. Nothing equal to it for Farm, Orchard 
and Vineyard. Four sizes, one horse to six horses. 
Fully guaranteed. Write for Catalogue. Agents 
wanted. W. C. KARIG, General Agent, 157 
New Montgomery Street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Hydraulic, Irrigation and Power Plants, Well Pipe, Etc., all sizes. 

Iron cut, punched and formed, for making pipe on ground where required. All kinds i of Toolsjmp- 
plied for making Pipe. Estimates given when required, 
with Aspbaltum. 

Are prepared or coating all sizes of Pipes 


I he Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 1896. 


When Mary Was a Lassie. 

The maple trees are tinged with red, 

The birch with golden yellow. 
And high above the orchard walls 

Hang apples rich and mellow ; 
And that's the way through yonder lane 

That's looks so still and grassy,— 
The way I took one Sunday eve, 

When Mary was a lassie. 

You'd hardly think that patient face, 

That looks so thin and faded, 
Was once the very sweetest one 

That bonnet ever shaded ; 
But when I went through yonder lane, 

That looks so still and grassy. 
Those eyes were bright, those cheeks were 

When Mary was a lassie. 

But many a tender sorrow since, 

And many a patient care, 
Have made those furrows on the face 

That used to be so fair. 
Four times to vonder churchyard, 

Through the' lane so still and grassy, 
We've borne and laid away our dead,— 

Since Mary was a lassie. 

And so you see I'% r e grown to love 

The wrinkles more than rosies; 
Earth's winter flowers are sweeter far 

Than all spring's dewy posies; 
They'll carry us through yonder lane 

That looks so still and grassy,— 
Adown the lane I used to go 

When Mary was a lassie. 

— Anonymous. 

fir. Meek's Dinner. 

" I wonder, James," said Mrs. Meek 
doubtfully to her husband one morning, 
" if you could get your own dinner to- 
night. You see, I've had to let the 
servant go on her holidays for a day or 
two, and they want me desperately at 
the Woman's Aid and Relief bazaar, to 
help them with their high tea from 4:30 
to 8:30. If you thought you could man- 
age by yourself" — 

" I'll try to survive it," observed Mr. 
Meek good-naturedly. " I don't fancy 
it will prove fatal." 

" I'll get a roast and cook it this 
morning, then," went on Mrs. Meek 
cheerfully, "and you can have it cold 
for dinner." 

"Thank you," replied Mr. Meek, 
"you'll do nothing of the kind. I fancy 
I haven't gone camping pretty much 
every year of my life for nothing. I 
suspect I can manage a hot dinner 
about as well as most women." 

Mrs. Meek had her doubts, and unlike 
most wives, expressed them. 

Mr. Meek viewed his wife's doubts 
with supreme contempt, and unlike 
most husbands, expressed it. 

Thus it finally resulted that Mrs. 
Meek abandoned all idea of preparing 
Mr. Meek's dinner for him, and betook 
herself to the bazaar. So it resulted, 
furthermore, that Mr. Meek left his of- 
fice about 4 o'clock that afternoon and 
proceeded to collect on his way home 
the necessary supplies for a dainty 
little dinner. 

An alluring display of chickens was 
the first thing to catch his eye, and he 
was just on the point of securing one of 
them, when, by good luck, or more 
probably through the natural sagacity 
of the man, he recollected that — well, 
that you don't, as a rule, cook chickens 
as they are. In the momentary reac- 
tion that followed this fact of memory, 
he bought a couple of mutton chops and 
three tomatoes. 

" I'll have a good, plain, old-fashioned 
English dinner," thought he, as he hur- 
ried past the deceitful chickens with 
something almost akin to reproach. 
"None of your finicky poultry dinners 
for me ! " 

" By Jove ! " he exclaimed a moment 
latter. " I'll have an apple pudding 
and some oyster soup to begin on." 

He was so tickled with this idea that 
he promptly rushed into a grocery shop 
and purchased half a peck of their best 
eating apples and then hurried home 
without a thought of the cab he was to 
order for his wife at 8:30 sharp. 

By 5 o'clock he had the fire going 
beautifully and everything ready for a 

By 6 o'clock he was just beginning to 
enjoy the thing; the tomatoes were 
stewing divinely; the potatoes were 
boiling to their hearts' content and the 
milk for the oyster soup was simmering 

contentedly on the back of the stove. 
The oysters, by the bye, had not yet 

"Dear me," thought the ambitious 
gentleman, "I wish I had some oyster 
patties for a sort of final dessert. 
Hello, what's this ? By thunder, if 
that everlasting pig-headed woman 
hasn't left me some cold ham and a 
custard pie ! By the Lord Harry, for 
two cents I'd throw the whole thing out 
into the back yard ! " 

The natural docility of his nature, 
however, prevailed, and he left the ob- 
noxious viands unmolested and pro- 
ceeded with his dinner. At f>:30 he 
put the chops on to broil, "as in the 
good old days of yore " — this poetic 
allusion to the style of cooking being 
occasioned by one of them accidentally 
dropping into the fire, whence he res- 
cued it with great presence of mind 
by the joint assistance of the stove 
lifter and one of the best table napkins. 
By the time the chop was thus rescued 
both it and the table napkin were fairly 
well done— to say nothing stronger. 
This trifling difficulty he got over by 
putting the erring chop on the window 
sill to cool and the napkin into the fire 
—to do the other thing. 

This accomplished, and with one chop 
gently cooking on the gridiron and the 
other one cooling on the window sill, 
he started to construct the paste for 
his apple pudding. This proved most 
fascinatiug. He placed a large quantity 
of flour in a small bowl, emptied a jug 
of water on top of it, added butter to 
taste, and proceeded to mold it deftly 
into shape, as he had often seen his 
wife do. The flour and water promptly 
forsook the bowl and betook themselves 
to his hands. Then the milk for the 
soup began to burn, just as the potatoes 
boiled dry. He rushed to the rescue 
and left the major portion of the paste 
fairly evenly divided between the han- 
dles of the two saucepans and the stove 
lifter. At this juncture the tomatoes 
started in to see if they couldn't sur- 
pass the milk in burning. They suc- 
ceeded. The cat, which was accus- 
tomed to a 6:30 dinner, walked off with 
the chop on the window sill, while the 
chop on the fire grew beautifully black 
on the "downside." So many things 
were now burning all at the same time 
that Mr. Meek gave up all hope of try- 
ing to discover just which one was 
burning most. " Let the dashed things 
burn till they're sick of it ! " was the 
extremely broad-minded way in which 
he summed up the situation. With the 
astuteness that characterized him as 
distinguished from his fellow-men, he 
at once gave up all efforts to track the 
truant paste, and simply popped his 
apples into the oven to bake. 

It was about 7:30, and the fire was 
getting hotter than pretty much any- 
thing on earth, unless perhaps it was 
Mr. Meek. He turned all the dampers, 
opened all the doors, and took off all 
the lids. This resulted most satisfac- 
torily; the fire began to cool. It didn't 

It got, if anything, a little low. After 
that it got very low. Then it went 
out. He rushed for a kindling, and 
nearly took his head off on a clothes- 
line. Just as he had got nicely through 
expressing his views on clotheslines in 
general, and that clothesline in par- 
ticular, he went about twice as far to- 
ward taking his head off on the clothes- 
line on his way back. 

The gentlest of natures when roused 
are often the most terrible. Mr. Meek 
became very terrible. He used up 
enough kindling, profanity and coal oil 
to have ignited the pyramids of Egypt. 
He stamped and shoved and poked and 
! banged and cursed and shook till even 
the cat — and it had its dinner^— was 
displeased with him, and departed to 
the outer kitchen to try the oysters, 
which the dilatory grocer had just de- 
posited on the table without waiting to 
parley with Mr. Meek. He was a wise 
grocer and had heard enough. 

When, about five minutes later, Mr. 
Meek discovered that the cat had found 
the oysters to its taste, he became 
even less calm. Had the cat been 
around (but like the grocer, it had 
heard enough, and taken an unobtrusive 
departure) it is highly probable that a 
considerable majority of its nine lives 

would have come to an abrupt termina- 

At this stage, to console the unfortu- 
nate man, the fire began to go again. 
Once started it didn't stop. In about 
five minutes it burned up what re- 
mained of pretty much everything ex- 
cept a large pot of green tea and a 
small portion of Mr. Meek. The chop 
that the cat hadn't eaten was especially 
well done. It could be quite safely left 
on the window sill with a whole legion 
of cats around it. Mr. Meek, however, 
simply left it in the coal bin. In point 
of either color or hardness it would 
have been difficult to have found a more 
fitting resting place for it. 

Then there came over Mr. Meek's 
face a terrible expression. He brought 
in a pail (it was the scrubbing pail, but 
no matter) and poured the soup care- 
fully into it, throwing the pan about 
five feet into the sink; next scraped the 
potatoes into the same pail and again 
another pan followed the course of the 
first in getting to the sink; then he 
poured the tomatoes on top of the pota- 
toes, and still a third pan got to the 
sink with unusual rapidity. It cannot 
be definitely stated whether or not Mr. 
Meek, in doing this, was actuated by 
the desire to prepare some famous 
hunter's dish relished in the dear old 
camping days gone by, but certain it 
is no sooner did he get the tomatoes 
nicely on top of the potatoes, than he 
took the whole thing and tossed it. pail 
and all, into the outer lane. 

This accomplished, he proceeded to 
make a meal off the cold ham and some 
bread and butter— the cooking butter, 
of course. 

Just as he was finishing Mrs. Meek 

" Why, James," she cried, cheer- 
fully, "you never sent the cab for me, 
and I waited nearly an hour." 

"No," said her husband, calmly. 
" I've been terribly busy. Men from 
New York — just got home a little while 
ago. This is a very good ham — a shade 
overdone, though, isn't it?" 

" Perhaps a shade less wouldn't have 
hurt it. Let me get you a piece of 

"No, thank you! No cold pie for 
me when therere hot apples in the 
oven. I'll tell you what you might do. 
You might bring 'em in if you are not 
too tired." 

Mrs. Meek departed on her mission. 
In a few moments she reappeared, and, 
without moving a muscle, placed the 
.plate of baked apples before her lord 
and master. They were about the size 
of walnuts and the color of ebony. 
Judging by the way they rattled on 
the plate they were rather harder than 

Mr. Meek rose with an awful look in 
his eye. 

"I'm afraid," observed his wife, 
"they're like the ham — just a shade 
overdone. " 

" If ever I catch that cat," remarked 
Mr. Meek, as that sleek feline purred 
past him with a playful frisk of its tail, 

I'll break every bone in its body " — 
only he described its body with sundry 
adjectives that were very strange to 
the ears of Mrs. Meek. At least so she 
said when she described the occurrence 
to her bosom friend, Mrs. Muggins, 
next day. — Truth. 

When Ft Is Warm. 


" No man ever distinguished himself 
who could not bear to be laughed 
: at."— Maria Edgeworth. 

" Men who have seen a good deal of 
life don't always end bv choosing their 
wives well." — George Eliot. 

Drudgery is as necessary to call out 
j the treasures of the mind as harrowing 
and planting those of the earth. — Mar- 
garet Fuller. 

Take away God and religion and men 
live to no purpose — not proposing any 
worthy and considerable end of life to 
themselves. — Tillotson. 

If you cannot come to Christ with 
faith and repentance, come to Christ 
for faith and repentance, for he can 
give them to you. — Spurgeon. 

Education does not mean teaching 
the people to know what they do not 
know; it means teaching them to be- 
have as they do not behave. — Ruskin. 

The thing in the world I am most 
afraid of is fear, and with good reason, 
that passion alone in the trouble of it 
exceeding all other accidents. — Mon- 

Education begins at the mother's 
knee, and every word spoken within 
the hearing of little children tends to- 
ward the formation of their char- 
acter. — H. Ballou. 

Vigilance is in watching opportunity; 
tact and daring in seizing upon oppor- 
tunity; force and persistence in crowd- 
ing opportunity to the utmost of pos- 
sible achievement. — Austin Phelps. 

The only fountain in the wilderness 
of life, where man drinks of water to- 
tally unmixed with bitterness, is that 
which gushes for him in the calm and 
shady recess of domestic life. — William 

Washing Lace Curtains. 

Don't fan in church. 

Don't talk about the heat. 

Don't look at the thermometer every 
half hour. 

Don't, when it is cool in the morning, 
prophesy heat at noon. 

Don't lie around in a neglige. One is 
much cooler when properly clad. 

Don't drink iced water in too great 
quantities, nor too soon after being 

Don't bathe too frequently ; don't 
stay in the water too long, and don't 
check perspiration. 

Don't sit about doing nothing and 
complaining of the heat. One is much 
cooler when one is usefully employed. 

Don't wear dark and elaborated 
dresses. A woman is never so attrac- 
tive looking as when clad in a simple 
white gown. 

It always pays to have a frame of 
light wooden strips to dry lace curtains 
on. It should be the exact size of the 
curtains, so that they may be stretched 
on it when wet, and dried in this way. 
Tactc a strip of strong cloth on all sides 
of the frame, and pin the curtains even- 
ly to this strip at the top, bottom and 
sides. Or if you prefer, they may be 
basted to it, though this is more trouble. 
Almost any variety of curtain can be 
washed by the method given. Expen- 
sive Brussels curtains had better be 
cleaned by a regular French scourer 
who understands how to handle real 

Before touching the curtains make 
a strong soapsuds of hot water in which 
a tablespoonful of borax has been dis- 
solved for every gallon of water, and 
half a bar of soap shaved and melted 
for every tubful of water. Put the 
curtains in this water. Souse them up 
and down and let them soak well cov- 
ered over night. The next morniDg 
examine them, put them through a 
wringer and throw them into fresh 
soapsuds. Souse them repeatedly and 
scald them in a clothes boiler and rinse 
them as carefully as possible in two or 
three rinsing waters. If they are white 
blue them a little, but bleach them, 
laying them on the frames on the grass. 
If they are creamy in color dry them in 

lighest Honors— World's Fail 
Gold Medal, Midwinter Fair. 




Most Perfect Made. 
40 Years the Standard 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

the house, and use a few tablespoonfuls 
of strong coffee to preserve the yellow 
tint. — New York Tribune. 

Fashion Notes. 

L'ght-colored capes are extremely 
fashionable this year. Some of them 
are made of white lace and seem trans- 
parent fabrics over light or bright-col- 
ored silk linings. 

Evening waists do not have much 
more than frills for sleeves, made of 
double box plaits of tulle, or thin silk, 
or chiffon. The prettiest bishop sleeves 
are those which are gored out a little 
between the elbow and the wrist. 

Ribbons, which have been a veritable 
epidemic, are rarely seen made up with 
the more expensive fabrics. They seem 
to have been relegated by general con- 
sent to wash goods or to very thin ma- 
terials, and exquisitely pretty they are 
when made up with them. 

The flowered muslins with the Dres- 
den taffeta ribbon are simply dainty 
and lovely enough in their coloring for 
an artist to rave over, and for a young 
girl with a fresh, bright complexion the 
pinks and the blues are combined in the 
most becoming of colorings. 

Nearly all parasols have large bows 
of ribbon at the handles. The sticks 
are of natural wood or have carved 
ivory or ebony, Dresden china or metal 
handles. There are caprices of all sorts 
in the way of handles, some of them ex- 
cessively ugly, and others more quaint 
and interesting than beautiful. 

The newest hats are not nearly as 
overloaded with trimming as they bade 
fair to be earlier in the season, when it 
seemed as if they would rival the im- 
mense structures of tulle and flowers 
and feathers so popular in the time of 
Marie Antoinette. 

The pretty way of turning up a hat, 
whether small or large, at the back, 
and filling in the space between the hat 
and the hair, is almost universal, but 
the extreme Parisian tip tilting over 
the eyes has not been adopted here, 
and for that reason, perhaps, the hats 
are smaller. 

Many of the new sleeves have the up- 
per puff divided with a couple of ruf- 
fles, which are graduated to a point at 
the bottom, where they are finished 
with a bow or rosette, the ruffles in 
this case being placed side by side. 
Auother equally pretty effect is pro- 
duced by five separated ruffles, which 
converge at the top and bottom, and 
which in thin material or lace give a 
very pretty fluffy effect. 

Curious Facts. 

Twenty-five thousand persons were 
attacked with cholera in Japan the last 
summer, and sixty-four per cent died. 

Greater New York consists of forty- 
five islands, just as many as there are 
now stars in our flag. 

Gunpowder men's shoes are made 
with wooden pegs, as nails might 
strike a spark. Spikes of hard wood 
are used in the flooriug of the powder 

By actual measurement of fifty skele- 
tons the right arm and left leg have 
been found to be longer in twenty- 
three, the left arm and right leg in six, 
the limbs on the right longer than 
those on the left in four, and in the re- 
mainder the inequality of the limbs was 
varied. Only seven out of seventy 
skeletons measured, or ten per cent, 
had limbs of equal length. 

Hyde Park, the most distinctive of 
London parks, covers nearly four hun- 
dred acres. The Paris Bois de Bou- 
logne covers 2200 acres. Central Park, 
the most distinctive of New York 
parks, covers 840 acres. Collectively — 
and including those parks in the 
suburbs — there are in London 22,000 
acres of park land. Including as parks 
the neighboring forests of Pontaine- 
bleau, with 42,000 acres, and St. Ger- 
main with 8000, the park acreage of 
Paris is 172,000 acres. 

The balloon sleeve is going out. It 
will probably have trouble to get out. — 
Philadelphia Record. 

Cleaning Silk. 

The cleaning of silk is a much more 
difficult thing than the cleaning of 
wool. There are few cloths of pure 
wool which cannot be washed with 
white soap and water. The process of 
cleaning the cloth with soap bark given 
in the Tribune is much more thorough 
than any ordinary washing with soap 
and water can be. Silk of ordinary 
waves cannot be washed successfully 
without losing luster and changing 
color. The dyes of silk are not made 
so as to be color proof, as cotton goods 
usualy are. There is no special effort 
on the part of silk colorists to do any- 
thing but prepare goods that will not 
fade in the light and under the ordinary 
circumstances to which silk is sub- 
jected. There are some delicate colors 
that will not stand cleaning. The ma- 
jority of silks may be cleaned by the 
process given, otherwise they may be 
considered beyond cleaning. Lay the 
pieces of silk on a pad made of linen. 
The fold of a white linen sheet will do 
very well. Stretch the silk on the pad, 
and if it is greasy remove the grease 
spots with a piece of cotton dipped in 
refined gasoline or benzine, the name 
under which gasoline is often sold by 

Clean the silk in this way on both 
sides. Do not wet it but moisten the 
cleaning pad of cotton often with the 
liquid. After this process take a fresh 
pad of linen and lay the silk over it, 
and sponge it well with a mixture of 
half rain water and half alchol. Rinse 
this off with clear rain water, drying it 
carefully with linen so as to absorb all 
the moisture you can. Turn the silk 
on the wrong side, lay a cloth over it 
and press it very carefully. If it is 
very delicate silk it can sometimes be 
dried on the board without applying 
heat.— N. Y. Tribune. 

Sitting for a Picture. 

A veil imparts a patchy appearance 
to the face. 

Gloves make the hands appear much 
larger than they are in reality. 

It is unwise to wear a new dress. It 
always falls in awkward folds. 

A feather boa or a lace fichu has a 
wonderfully softening effect on the fea- 

Generally speaking, the head and 
shoulders make a far prettier picture 
than a full-length portrait. 

Above all, if you want your picture 
to have a natural expression, you must 
forget where you are. 

Unless there is an urgent reason for 
it, it is a great mistake to be photo- 
graphed if you are either out of health 
or in low spirits. 

A just-the-mode-of-the-moment style 
of costume or coiffure will "date" the 
photograph and soon make it look out 
of fashion. 

A white dress, or one that takes 
" white," gives a ghastly effect and one 
far from becoming, unless the sitter is 
young and pretty. 


Master — How was this vase smashed, 
Mary ? Mary — If you please, sir, it 
tumbled down and broke itself. Mas- 
ter — Humph ! The automatic brake 
again ! — Tit-Bits. 

In a certain Sunday-school a teacher 
asked the class, "What are the two 
things necessary to baptism ? " Small 
girl, replying, said, "Please, sir, 
water and a baby." — Christian at Work. 

During a call that little four-year-old 
Mary was making with her mother a 
slice of cake was given her. "Now, 
what are you going to say to the 
lady?" asked her mother. "Is you 
dot any more ? " asked little Mary, de- 
murely. — Philadelphia Times. 

"Father," said a thoughtful little 
boy, "how many feet has a dog, if we 
call his tail a foot? " "Why, five feet, 
my son." "No, father, that isn't 
right." " How so, my son ? " "Why. 
he would have only four feet. You 
see, calling his tail a foot don't make 
it a foot." — Exchange. 


Hints to Housekeepers. 

Boiled water tastes flat and insipid 
because the gases it contained have 
been driven off by the heat. 

Eiderdown comforts are apt to lose 
their lightness after considerable use. 
To restore them beat well with a rattan 
beater, and hang on the line a few 
hours in a strong wind. 

Ripe tomatoes will remove almost 
any kind of stain from the hands, and 
they can also be used to great advan- 
tage on white cloth, removingink spots 
as well as many others. 

Hives are due to the majority of cases 
to improper diet; the foods that should 
be avoided by those subject to this un- 
pleasant disorder of the skin are fish, 
pork, cheese, pickles, sauerkraut or 
strawberries, particularly when they 
are stale. 

Young carrots make an excellent 
salad sliced and served very cold on 
crisp lettuce with a French dressing, 
and served in cream sauce containing 
minced parsley, or in drawn butter 
seasoned with lemon juice, salt and 
white pepper. 

New outing pillows for travelers and 
campers are made of prepared paper 
and filled with air. They come in 
different sizes and shapes. The odor 
of the rubber air pillows is disagree 
able to some persons; their coldness to 
the touch is unpleasant to others. In 
such cases they are sometimes covered 
with a muslin cover, to which there is 
tacked a thin sheet of wadding sprinkled 
with orris root or lavender, and then 
covered with a linen case that can be 
easily slipped off and laundered. A 
covering of light-weight flannel is put 
on under the outside covering for those 
who dislike the chilly feeling of the 
rubber. The covers for all piazza, 
camping and boating cushions should 
be of material so well dyed that the 
colors will not run or spot if they 
chance to get a wetting. The striped 
Madagascar grass cloths are not in- 
jured by water. Some of the Japanese 
cloths in blue and white cottons make 
lovely cool-looking covers that wash 
well and are not expensive. 

Kitchen Lore. 

Scallop and Tomato Salad. — Cut 
one pint of scallops into small dice after 
cooking them. Remove the top and soft 
part from six ripe tomatoes, fill the 
cavity with the scallop dice and put a 
tablespoonful of mayonnaise on each. 
Serve in cup-shaped luttuce leaves. 

Strawberry Souffle. — Wash, hull 
and cut, or mash slightly, one cup 
strawberries. Beat the whites of two 
eggs till stiff, add two heaping table- 
spoonfuls powdered sugar and the ber- 
ries and beat until very thick and stiff. 
Use a broad bowl and a wire egg 
beater or spoon, and beat with a long, 
steady stroke. Pile it lightly on a 
glass dish and serve with delicate white 
or sponge cake. 

Quick Pastry for Lemon Pie. — Mix 
half a teaspoonful salt with one cup 
pastry flour. Chop in a quarter cup 
of lard, and mix with cold water into 
stiff dough. Pound it out flat and half 
an inch thick. Put on butter in little 
dabs, roll up and pat out again. Do 
this four times, using quarter of a cup 
in all. Pat it out again and lay on 
the ice until chilled. Then roll it an 
inch larger than the plate and cut off 
for a rim; put this strip on the edge, 
first wetting the under paste, then fill 
with a cooked lemon filling. 

String Bean Salad. — Open a can of 
extra small stringless beans, turn them 
into a colander and pour cold water 
through them to remove all the liquid 
which was in the can and which always 
has a strong disagreeable taste. Drain 
them very dry on an old napkin, and put 
them in a cold place until serving time. 
Lay the yellow inner leaves of a head 
of lettuce around the salad bowl, turn 
in the beans and pour over them the 
following dressing, mixed in the order 
given: Half a teaspoonful salt, one 
saltspoonful paprika, f our tablespoon- 
fuls oil and two tablespoonfuls vinegar. 



We are going to make a lively sale of Ducks 
commencing on August 1st— something that will 
make the feathers fly all over the coast. You know 
what we mean. We have picked out Ducks from 
the best styles in the market and of the biggest 
factories, and are going to sell fine Dress Ducks at 
5c. per yard for one week, commencing August 1st, 
unless they are sooner closed out. They are not 
dark in color, but they are summer colors; a few 
might be called medium, but mostly light, suit- 
able for Blazer suits, Eaton suits, and other fash- 
ionable styles of summer walking suits. Also 
good patterns for shirts for men and boys, for 
waists for little boys or for ladies, for general 
wear and even for lining quilts. They are the big- 
gest bargain ever heard tell of. 

100 pieces, stripes and figures in heavy 

Dress Ducks 6c. 

100 pieces, beautiful patterns, selected 

with great care 6>^c. 

78 pieces, dark or light styles in Dress 

Ducks 7%c. 

Now, let us remind you again that these are not 
leavings from any sale nor are they 

Picked Up 

In some market where the holder has been unable 
to sell them. They are directly from the maker, 
and their price up to this date has been 10c, 12^c. 
and 15c. per yard, or thereabout. There are no 
better goods in any store in San Francisco in the 
line of Ducks than we offer you at the above fig- 
ures. Comment is unnecessary. 

No Samples 

Will be sent and no goods taken back except at 
the expense of the buyer. We will willingly ex- 
change, but it must be done at your expense, as 
we have not a cent more to lose than we have pro- 
vided or already. 

Give the best information you can as to color, 
and particularly as to the use they are for, and 
we are 

Sure to Please, 

Providing you order, say, between the 1st and the 
8th of August. You can have these goods laid 
aside, if you are remote and want to await your 
freight order. We will be careful to mark them 
with your name and all the facts, so as not to 
miss them when you order by freight.. They are 
almost too heavy to mail. About 4Hc. per yard 
must be added if they are to go by mail. You will 
know by this that they are strong, heavy, service- 
able and seasonable goods. We need not say an- 
other word in their behalf. 

Send stamps for a few yards or other remittance 
for larger lots and we'll keep them until you order. 
Ask for list. 




414, 416, 418 Front St., S. F., Cal. 



The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 18«JG. 

Home Dressmaking Made Easy. 

The Rckal is enabled to furnish the follow- 
ing patterns to its readers at 10 cents apiece, 
postpaid. The patterns are handsomely put 
up in a separate envelope containing illustra- 
tions and descriptions and mailed for hve 
two-cent stamps. Address Pattern Depart- 
ment, Rural Press, 220 Market Street, San 
Francisco, giving number and size of pattern 

949— Valeria Waist. 
Sizes for U and 16 Years. 

A becoming corsage for a young girl, 
suitable as a model to complete a gown 
of cballie, cashmere or fancy wool, or 
for separate waists of silk, crepe or 
batiste. Our model is of pearl-gray 
mohair with a full front of shell-pink 
Dresden silk. The waist is full in the 
back, but without trimming. The fitted 
lining fastens in front, but the full 
blouse should be without opening and 
fasten under the fullness on the left 
side. Stitched straps of mohair band 
the front and are fastened with steel 
buttons. The girdle, neckband and 
sleeves are finished to correspond. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is inclosed. 

971 — Eleva Dress. 
Sizes for 8 and 10 Years. 

The charming little frock illustrated 
is of sheer grass-cloth lined with pink 
lawn, glinting through just enough to 
brighten it. The skirt is gored in the 
front and on the sides, and the lining 
and outside may be sewn together or 
made separately, as preferred. If 
separate, both skirts are finished with 
a deep hem or facing. The back of the 
waist is fulled over a fitted lining, and 
the full front is finished with straps 
simulating box-plaits and ornamented 
with rows of flat trimming. The yoke 
is finished correspondingly. The model 
is commended for challies, India silk 
and all pretty summer fabrics, as well 
as fancy wools. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

of lace. This collar should be finished 
separately, so that it could be varied 
with others made of different fabrics. 
A ruffle of lace falls over the stock-col- 
lar of ribbon or velvet, which fastens in 
the back under a large bow. This model 
is desirable for all washable fabrics 
and light-weight woolens. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is inclosed. 

947— Haddu Skirt. 

Sizes Medium and Large. 

An exceptionally graceful design, 
having ten gores, all rather narrow, 
and measuring about six yards around 
the bottom. The fullness at the top is 
laid in three backward-turned side- 
plaits just back of the hips, and the cen- 
ter of the back is gathered. Silk, 
woolen or cotton fabrics may be chosen 
for this model. The skirt is lined 
throughout and finished at the bottom 
with a stiff facing, 12 or 15 inches deep. 
Any style of coat, basque or waist may 
be worn with the skirt. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found on 
the envelope in which it is inclosed. 

966— Heruila Waist. 

Sizes for 34, 36, 38 and 40 Inches, Bust Measure. 

A charming model for a gown of 
batiste, taffeta, India silk, or for any 
or all of the transparent fabrics so 
much in vogue. Our model is of figured 
taffeta, with the stock-collar and girdle 
of fancy ribbon. There is fullness in 
the back, laid in side-plaits turning 
toward the middle, as in front. A 
dressier effect can be given, if desired, 
by covering the openings between the 
plaits in front with stripes of insertion. 
Waists of transparent fabrics are made 
over colored linings, rendering them 
quite becoming and effective. 

A special illustration and full direc- 
tions about the pattern will be found 
on the envelope in which it is enclosed. 

!>.V1 II < i iimni r Masque. 

Sizes for 34, 36, 38 and 40 Inches Bust Measure. 

Very simple and extremely smart are 
the light silk and organdy gowns for 
summer wear. Our model, the " Her- 
mance," is a popular design for these 
fabrics, and may be made as plain or 
elaborate as desired. The waist is 
slightly fulled at the bottom and a nar- 
row frill gives a basque effect around 
the hips. The wide shoulder-collar is 
lined and finished with a very full frill 

A Great Pattern Offer. 



Their Styles Are Universally Adopted by Well-Dressed Women Everywhere. The Ten Cents Only 
Pays for Handling, Mailiug, Etc. 

These Patterns Are Practically Free to Our Subscribers. 

Call Next Witness!!! 

Name, J. W. Dewey, residence. Cambridge. Mich., 
occupation, farmer. Bought 40 rods of Page in 1 886 
—gave note Dnynble in one year, if perfectly 
Hatiftfied. Paid note before clue. May 21, '96, writes 
"10 years lo-day since put ur first Page." Holds all 
his slock, had no repairs, and has now SOU rods in use. 
bee copy of his note and le.ter in the "Hustler." 


Monarch «* Junior Monarch 

Manufactured in San Leandro by L. C. Morehouse, 
under an assignment of patents from the 
patentee, Jacob Price. 


(Two Sizes.) 


WM. M GRAY Oeneral Agent. 


PRICE Traction Engine — 80 Horse. 
HAY PRESS — 30 Ton Day Capacity, 

6 Horse Power, Sold Low. 



B, s — i r^o New and Second 
I t Y L t-», Hand. 

I. J. Truman & Co., 

Office, Mills Building. SAN FRANCISCO. 


Stanton, Thomson & Co., 

Sacramento, Cal., 

For Catalogue 
and Prices. 

Hay Rake. \ 

STANDARD of the 

World— the 
Model for others to 


FK t Wholesale Prices. 

Send stamp for new Illustrated Catalogue. Home 
Supply Co.. 13 Front St.. San Francisco, Cal. 





Horse Medicine! 

D. D. T ., 1868. 

Will Remove All CalloiiH Lumps, SpaviiiH, 
Wind fall* King Hone. Pole Evil, and Will 
Cure Sweeney, Scratches, Sore Shoulder*. Dis- 
temper. Con! raet ion of Leader*. FiHtultt. ami 
All HlemiMheM ou the Horse. 


Do not be docelved by anyone who says he has as 
good or better linimrnt thau the H.H.H., for he is 
an impostor and you will surely waste your money 
if you buy it. Insist on having the H.H.H. and no 
other. Examine i-very bottle to see If the name of 
Henry H. Moore is on label pasted on bottle, and 
the firm nami? is on outside cover of wrapper, be- 
fore you buy it. 

Manufactured by 


Cor. Sutter St. and Miner Ave., 


Whitewashing done for Til REK-y CARTERS 
OF A CENT per Square Vard. 


400 yards of white- 
washing or 200 trees 
may be sprayed In one 
hour by" Walnwright's 
Whitewashing Ma- 
ehtne * Tree Sprayer. 
Machines at prices from 
ti to &0. Whitewashing 
or Tree Spraying Nozzles 
hi nt by mail at 11. UO each. 
With this machine, rods 
and nozzles, buildings 
feet high can be white- 
washed or treeB sprayed 
without staging or lad- 
ders. All the large build- 
ings at the Midwinter 
Fair were whitewashed 
with lime and had the 
appearance of fine paint 
work. We also supply a 
full line of the Best aud 
Cheapest Telephones. 
Transmitters. Wire, etc., 
for communication be- 
lu^jfi tween office, warehouse, 
dwelling, etc. Send for 
WW. WAIN WKMillT, No. 7 Bp«U 



. for all the purposes 
| for which wini' 
. mills are used 


i We also 
(full Hoe 
' Krinding mills 
i wood paws, 
\ lers, fodder and 
atalogue sent FR 

tin COO D HUE 

O W E R 
a Marre). 
Adapted to a 1 1 
reqairiog a 
erate power. 






— Manufacturers or— 

And alt kind* of 
Floor Mills, Saw Mills and Quartz Mills; Machin- 
ery Constructed, Fitted Up and Repaired. 



Machinery and Castings of all Kinds 

Made and Repaired. 

Manufacturer of Steam Engines, Ripples, Pumps, 
Water Wheels. Horse Powers. Etc. 
Guttenberger's Roller Quarlz Mills, Larabee 
Street-Car Indicator. Write for estimates. 

School of Practical, Civil, Mechanical, Electrical 
and Mining Engineering, 

Surveying, Architecture, Drawing and Assaying. 
723 /V»/\RK.E^ STREET, 
San Francisco, Cal. 
Open All Year. : A. VAH DER WAILLErl, Pres't. 

Assaying of Ores, 125; Bullion and Chlorlnation 
Assay, 125; Blowpipe Assay, »lu. Full course of 
assavine. SSO. Established 1f*W. Send for Circular. 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


Patrons of Husbandry. 

From the State Lecturer. 

Attention of Lecturers and members 
is directed to an assay below on " Lec- 
turer's Work," by Lecturer E. J. Wal- 
ker, of Boyleston, Mass., Grange. It 
is offered in response to requests of 
Lecturers as to their duties and labor 
expected of them. The State Lecturer, 
being young in office, indeed much 
younger than those he is expected to 
instruct, was much pleased to find a 
paper on the subject much in advance 
of anything he could offer now. 
lecturer's work. 

How to draw out and develop the 
dormant talent in a grange is a ques- 
tion confronting every lecturer of a 
grange and causing a large amount of 
study and effort. Lecturers recognize 
that the talent from which to draw may 
be divided into groups or classes — 
those who are always ready and will- 
ing to do what they can, those who 
must be excused, those who feel they 
can't and are afraid to try and those 
who know they can't and won't try. If 
there be a large supply of the first 
class, most lecturers are quite apt to 
depend upon it, leaving idle more or 
less talent which ought to be brought 
out. But how can it be done. 

In the first place the lecturer must 
be interested in his work, be able to 
give much time and thought to it, have 
the good will of every member of the 
Grange and be of an even disposition 
with a large amount of patience, a 
thorough understanding of human 
nature and a natural power of leader- 
ship. We are all so bashful, so sensi- 
tive or so jealous that to know how to 
touch the right side of our natures re- 
quires tact and perseverance. The 
right word in the right time and in the 
right place often works wonders. Get 
the good will of your man or woman. 

This being accomplished find out 
what each individual can best do and 
is most interested in, and work to draw 
him out along these lines. Some have 
more or less musical talent which they 
have nursed and enjoyed in their own 
homes, but through lack of confidence 
have failed to advance it for the bene- 
fit of others. Some are capable of be- 
coming good readers or declaimers who 
for some reasons heretofore given or 
for lack of opportunity have never come 
forward to give the aid which they 
might. Then there are those who 
could take part in dialogues to good 
advantage if they would only improve 
the opportunity to test themselves. 

Then, lastly, come those who might 
become proficient extemporaneous 
speakers if only once induced to get 
upon their feet. 

Right here lies the most difficult 
problem for the Lecturer to solve : 
how to get the members to take part 
in the discussions. Both among the 
young and old I often hear one say, " I 
can't speak in public ; no sooner do I 
get on my feet than everything I have 
to say leaves me ; just get Mr. So and 
So to help you out." 

Now, most persons can learn to speak 
in public if they only will. They may 
never become fluent, but they can say 
something, and oftentimes those few 
words will carry more weight than the 
many from a more oily tongue. To 
reach this hesitating class I know of no 
better way than to choose subjects which 
we know will particularly interest them 
and then call upon them to lead in dis- 
cussion, leaving the more experienced 
speakers to the last, when there are 
less thoughts to expand and the ques- 
tion is harder to talk upon. 

Having become acquainted with va- 
rious abilities and interests, strive to 
get them to work. To do this show 
them that you are in earnest yourself 
and are interested in them. If they 
belong to the class which must always 
be excused, just go through the usual 
form of getting down on your knees, or 
pat them on the back, and you have 
them at your mercy. In dealing with 
those who feel they can't and so are 
afraid to try, work gradually, being 
satisfied with small beginnings and 
showing an appreciation for any at- 
tempt they make. Let alone the class 

who won't try ; stubbornness usually 
reaps its own reward. In many cases 
some particular friend of a person will 
have more influence than the Lecturer 
himself in drawing them out, and when 
so let the work be done through that 

We all have more or less talent, and 
the more of that talent which is brought 
out so much the better off is each indi- 
vidual member and so much better off 
is the whole Grange. No man proves 
what he can do till he makes the at- 
tempt, and any effort another may put 
forth to call out a Brother may reap a 
blessing he little dreamed of. One rea- 
son why so many hesitate to take part 
is fear of ridicule, their education may 
be limited, they may have some pecu- 
liarity of speech or manner, their dis- 
position may be naturally retiring or 
their experience in public small. 

But let one and all try to help each 
other to overcome these difficulties, 
and, by so doing, accomplish the pur- 
pose for which the Grange was founded 
— to make stronger men and women. 

— The success of the Chino beet sugar fac- 
tory is encouraging the early establishment 
of additional factories in that locality and 
elsewhere in the State. Negotiations are 
said to be nearly complete for the establish- 
ment of another factory near the ocean in Los 
Angeles county. 

Breeders' Directory. 

Six lines or less In this directory at 50c per line per 

Horses and Cattle. 

F. H. BURKE, 826 Market St., S. P. Al Prize Hol- 
steins; Grade Milch Cows. Pine Pigs. 

JERSEYS— The best A. J. C. C. registered prize herd 
Is owned by Henry Pierce, S. P. Animals for sale. 

BULLS— Devons and Shorthorns. All pure bred 
and registered. Pine individuals. At prices to 
suit the times either singly or in carload lots. 
Oakwood Park Stock Farm, Danvilie. Cal. 

PETER SAXE & SON, Lick House, S. P., Cal. Im- 
porters and Breeders, for past 21 years, of every 
variety of Cattle. Horses, Sheep and Hogs. Cor- 
respondence solicited. 


Vale, Cal. Barred Plymouth Rocks. Black Minor- 
cas. White Leghorns, Brown Leghorns. Eggs for 
sale. Send for circular. 

Prop., Sacramento. Cal. Breeder of high-class 
Black and White Langshans: Brown. Buff and 
White Leghorns: Black Spanish ; Black Mlnorcas; 
Barred Plymouth Rocks aud Pekin Ducks. Write 
for circular. 

R. G. HEAD, Napa, Cal., breeds all leading vari- 
eties pure-bred poultry. Eggs, J1.00 a setting. Send 
for new catalogue. 

J. W. FORGEUS & CO., Santa Cruz, Cal. Pine 
Fowls and Eggs. Write to us 

Bros., San Jose, Cal. Barren eggs replaced. 


for poultry. Every grocer and merchant keeps it. 

MANHATTAN EGG FOOD, Red Ball Brand, at 
all grocers; or wholesale, Tillman & Bendel, S. P. 

Send for Illustrated and descriptive catalogue, free. 


F. H. BURKE, 626 Market St., S. P.— BERKSHIRES. 

TYLER BEACH, San Jose, Cal. Breeder of Thor- 
oughbred Berkshire and Essex Hogs. 

A. P. HOTALING — Berkshires from imported 
stock— Mayfield, Santa Clara Co., Cal. 

J. P. ASHLEY, Linden, San Joaquin Co., Cal. 
Breeds Berkshire, Poland-China and Essex Swine. 

CHAS. A. STOWE, Stockton, Regist d Berkshires. 

Sheep and Goats. 

J. B. HOYT, Bird's Landing, Cal. Importer and 
Breeder of Shropshire Sheep: also breeds Cross- 
bred Merino and Shropshire Sheep. Rams for sale. 
Prices to suit the times. Correspondence solicited. 

C. P. BAILEY, San Jose, Cal. Pure bred Angora 
Goats and Persian Fat Tailed Sheep. Send for 
catalogue and price list. 



'HE best substitute for barb wire ever invented, being at once 
thoroughly^visible. strong and ornamental. Three strands will 

make an effective fencf. and four strands are sufficient for even pigs 

REGULAR — Put up on spools of about 100 pounds each; runs 12 
ft. to the pound, and is 1% in. wide. WIDE— Put up on spools of, about 

65 pounds each; runs 9 ft. to the pound, and is 3i4 In. wide. All or- 
ders filled with "regular" wire (1% In.) when "wide" is not specified. 

For Sale by JOHN A. ROEBLING'S SONS CO., 25-2T Fremont St., San Francisco. 


Lynwood Dairy and Stock Farm 

P. O Box 686, Los Angeles, Cal. 


We have several fine litters coming on. Book your 
orders for choice pigs. Write for prices and get our 

Farm . . 

A Great Sacrifice Sale to 
Reduce Stock. 











Hollow Steel.. 

2 in. 

2500 lbs. 




3 in. 

251 111 lbs. 




2% in. 

4000 lbs. 




4 in. 

6500 lbs. 



Concord Steel. 

3 in. 

4000 lbs. 

4 . 



2Vi in. 

6000 lbs. 




3 in. 

60(10 lbs. 




4 in. 

6000 lbs. 




Steel Skein. . . 

2 in. 

4000 lbs. 




2% in. 

4000 lbs. 




2>4 in. 

51100 lbs. 




3 in. 

5000 lbs. 

All these wagons are fresh stock, 
fully guaranteed, and prices can't 
be duplicated. Write to us. 


16 and 18 Drumm St., 


Improved Pacific Incubator. 

Absolutely Self-Regulating. 
Hot Water. 

Send stamp for our catalogue 
of Incubators, Wire Netting, 
Blooded Fowls and Poultry Ap- 
pliances generally. Remember 
the Best is the Cheapest. 

W 7 Castro St.. Oakland, Cal. 

The leading paper.and only weekly; 16 large pages. 
IiBe scire to see it before subscribing for any other 
* G. vv. York A Co., r>6 Fifth Ave., Chicago. Jxi» 

California Inventors!! 

Should consult 
American and 
Foreign Patent Solicitors, for obtaining Pat- 
ents and Caveats. Established in 1860. Their 
long experience as journalists and large practice 
as Patent attorneys enables them to offer Pacific 
Coast Inventors far better service than they can 
obtain elsewhere. Send for free circulars of infor- 
mation. No. 220 Market St.. San Francisco, Cal. 


Patent Agency. 

Our U. S. and Foreign Patent Agency 
presents many and important advantages as a 
Home Agency over all others, by reason of 
long establishment, great experience, thor- 
ough system, intimate acquaintance with the 
subjects of inventions in our own community, 
and our most extensive law and reference 
library, containing official American reports, 
with full copies of U. S. patents since 1872. 
All worthy inventions patented through Dew- 
ey & Co's Patent Agency will have the bene- 
fit of a description in the Mining and Scientific 
Press. We transact every branch of patent 
business, and obtain patents in all countries 
which grant protection to inventors. The 
large majority of U. S. and foreign patents 
issued to inventors on the Pacific Coast have 
been obtained through our agency. We can 
give the best and most reliable advice as to the 
patentability of new inventions. Our prices 
are as low as any first-class agencies in the 
Eastern States, while our advantages for 
Pacific Coast inventors are far superior. 

Advice and Circulars free. 

DEWEY & CO., Patent Agents, 
220 Market St., San Francisco. 


Owing to old age and inability to work. I would 
now sell a half Interest in two or three Navel 
Orange Groves, near town, at much less than 
their value and on very easy terms to the right 
kind of a younger man, to work and manage them. 
An unequaled opportunity for an Industrious man 
to secure a competence without risk. Address 

GEN. J. H. FOUNTAIN, Riverside, Cal. 


"Greenbank" Powdered Caustic Soda 
and Pure Potash. 

T. \JU. JACKSON <fc CO. 
Sole Agents. - - No. 226 Market Street, 



ENDALL'S SPAVIN ( I RE. Certain in its 
effects and never blisters. Sold everywhere. 


Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds, 


Bet. California and Pine, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL 

U/rtlNTED ! 

5000 Green Gage Seedlings 

! For piece grafting; one bushel Green Gage seed. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 1896. 


Produce Market. 

San Francisco, July 22, 1S96. 

Prices quoted in this review are intended, 
unless otherwise specified, to represent whole- 
sale values, obtainable on offerings from the 
producer, and on round lots delivered at San 
Francisco. The reviews of the markets are 
for the week ending Wednesday noon, 
while quotations are based on values current 
on above date. It is the aim of The Pacific 
Kukai. Press to have its quotations represent 
as nearly as possible the existing values. It 
should be remembered, however, that at 
times, owing to superior merit of offerings, 
undue competition between buyers, or other 
reasons, higher figures are realized than are 
justified as quotations. On the other hand, 
produce of decidedly inferior quality is apt to 
be sold at less than lowest figures. 

Receipts and exports of leading cereals and 
other California products for the past week 
and for the season to date, as compared with 
corresponding time the previous year, are as 
follows : 



Flour, H-sks IK, 

Wheat, ctls 55 

Barley, ctls 51 

Oats, ctls 2 

Corn, ctls 

Rye, ctls 

Beans, sks 2 

Potatoes, sks 19 

Onions, sks 3, 

Hay, tons 3, 

Wool, bales 1, 

Hops, bales 


Tl 1 

July 1, 'M. 

2*8.24 1 

.'•ViiBf Time 
Last l'ear. 



July t, ' 

Flour, X-sks 95.956 

Wheat, ctls 91,763 

Barley, ctls 7,082 

Oats, ctls 1,782 

Corn, ctls 763 

Beans, sks 3,173 

Hay, bales 1,047 

Wool, tbs 254.711 

Hops, tbs 2,595 

Honey, cases 126 

Potatoes, pkgs 895 


Same Time 
Last Year. 


Grain Freights and Charters. 

There is litttle doing at present in the way 
of chartering ships for grain loading, either 
of the disengaged vessels in the harbor, or of 
the fleet headed this way. The tendency of 
ocean freights has been to lower levels al- 
though shipowners in most instances refuse to 
accept the figures now obtainable. A small 
iron bark arrived under charter for wheat to 
Sydney at £1. An iron ship was taken to carry 
barley from San Diego to Europe at .tl 3s 9d. 
The latest s]x>t charter for wheat from this 
port to Europe was at £1 5s. An iron ship 
arrived under charter at tl 10s to Cork for 


Tonnage engaged. Disengaged. To arrive. 

1896 49.768 37,075 259 521 

1895 23,819 1,521 371,285 


Ocean freights and prices for wheat, as 
compared with a year ago, are as follows : 


Llv. quotations, 5s l%d(abs 2%d. 
Freight rates, S6@8T%B. 
Local market, $0.881£@91^ 

5s 4d®5s44d. 
25(5 27 '/4 s. 
JO.USro. 1.00. 

The prices above are for spot lots of standard 
No. 1 California in Liverpool, and for good to 
choice shipping in this city. 

The Hirer Plate Review of June 5th has the 
following concerning the corn (wheat) crop in 
Argentina : 

The yield and quality of the corn crop has re- 
sulted far more satisfactorily than was ever an- 
ticipated. The average return per square Is some- 
thing wonderful, 60 quintals being a low figure 
some farmers having harvested up to 106 quintals 
per square. The quality also could not be better 
and if only we could get some decently dry and 
cold weather, the condition would be such as to 
render merchants' minds easier as to how it 
will turn out at the points of discharge The first 
estimate of our export from here or 6,000,000 bush- 
els must be increased to 10,000.000 bushels at the 
least. The big yield compensates growers for the 
poor prices ruling at present. The immediate out- 
look for them is unfortunately not very encourag- 
ing, as gold does not seem likely to rise much if 
at all. Freights have a firmer tendency and val- 
ues are already falling away in the home markets. 

Immediately following last review, there 
was a slight hardening in speculative values 
for wheat, both in Eastern centers and in the 
San Francisco market, but it was only frac- 
tional here, not to exceed a half-cent per cen- 
tal, and this advance did not prove perma- 
nent, most of it being lost before the close of 
business on Monday. Values current on spot 
wheat or on offerings by sample, remained 
much the same as last quoted, with an active 
trading in this center. Sellers were not 
numerous, and there was no disposition mani- 
fested to crowd offering to sale, at the ex- 
pense of having to make pronounced conces- 

sions to the buying interest. Exports con- 
tinue of light proportions and for the month 
to date, aggregate larger to Australia and 
South Africa combined than to Europe. It is 
reported that the shippers in this center, who 
have been lately working in unison, have dis- 
solved partnership, as it were, for the time 
being, owing to individual efforts to monopo- 
lize trade. It is to be hoped that shippers 
will keep apart, for such a course will cer- 
tainly prove more to the producer's interest 
than otherwise. Market closed very quiet, 
with easy tone. 

California Milling $1 00®1 10 

Cal. No. 1 shipping, alongside 95® 97% 

Oregon Vallev 95® 1 00 

Walla Walla Blue Stem 1 00@1 10 

Walla Walla Club 95@1 00 


On San Francisco Call Board prices for No. 
1 white wheat per cental for the week were 
as follows for the options named : 

December, 1S96, delivery, QS^tQW 3 ^. 

May, 1S97, delivery, 11.02* 8 @1. 02%. 

Wednesday, at regular noon session of 
Call Board, December wheat sold at 98%@ 
c; May, 


City mills reduced their quotations 15c per 
barrel: but the reduction was more apparent 
than real, for they had been previously sell- 
ing very close to the lower figures quoted. 
The market is easy in tone for all descrip- 
tions of flour. Trading on local account has 
been light. There has been a fair export 
business, mostly of special brands for China. 

Superfine, lower grades $2 25® — 

Superfine, good to choice 2 40®2 50 

Country grades, extras 2 85(83 15 

Choice and extra choice 3 15(63 35 

Fancy brands, jobbing 3 35(3)3 60 

Oregon. Makers' extra 2 75«i3 00 

Walla Walla, Bakers' extra 2 75@3 00 


There have been no radical changes in the 
tone or condition of this market for the week 
under review, but the general tendency has 
been to more ease. The speculative demand 
has thus far this season been of very limited 
proportions, as is evidenced by the light trad- 
ing on Call Board, with a portion of the same 
in all probability bogus or "wash" sales. A 
ship has been engaged to load barley at San 
Diego for Europe, which will relieve the 
southern portion of the State to a consider- 
able degree of the surplus of this cereal. 
While there is some barley going aboard 
ship at this port for Europe, the outward 
movement is of very small volume to date as 
compared with a year ago, when at the corre- 
sponding time this month shipments had al- 
ready aggregated for last season over 12,000 

Feed, No. 1 to choice 70 @— 

Feed, fair to good 65 @67V4 

Brewing, No. 1 to choice new ..76 @77H 


On San Francisco Call Board prices for No. 1 
feed barley, per cental, for the week ranged 
as follows for the options named : 

December, 1896, delivery, 69^70 7 „c; May, 
1897, delivery, @ c. 

Wednesday at regular noon session of the 
Call Board December feed sold at <>9c. 


There are no heavy quantities now arriving 
from Washington and Oregon, nor are there 
likely to be large receipts from above sections 
for the next thirty days or more. New oats 
are beginning to come forward, however, from 
the oat-producing sections of this State. Most 
of the California oats are rather ordinary in 
quality and do not interfere seriously with 
choice to select from the two States north. 
Market is fairly steady for best qualities of 
old, but is weak for all common grades, both 
old and new. 

White Oats, fancy feed 9214®— — 

White, good to choice 85 @ 90 

White, poor to fair 77%® 82% 

Gray, common to choice 7~%@ 82% 

Milling 85 @ 87% 

Surprise, good to choice 97%®1 02% 

New crop Cal. Oats 72H® 82K 


Business doing in this cereal is mainly on 
local account and of slim proportions. Offer- 
ings from first hands are principally Large 
White, while the inquiry is mostly for Yel- 
low. Values for the latter are being toler- 
ably well sustained, but the market for White 
is weak. 

Large White, good to choice 77%® 82% 

Large Yellow 924® 95 

Small Yellow 95 ® 97^ 


Both old and new rye are offering in greater 
quantity than is warranted by the demand. 
New is especially difficult to place satisfac- 

Good to choice 70 <a 724 


The market is devoid of firmness, and the 
outlook is discouraging for any change for the 

better being soon experienced. Prospects for 
the coming crop are reported good in all por- 
tions of the State. The growing crop may be 
seriously damaged, however, by early frosts 
or rains. Still, should there be no beans 
grown this year, the carry-over stock would 
likely prove sufficient for all needs. 
Pea, fair to good. 100 lbs 

<ai 35 

1 O) 

@1 15 


(a 1 m 

1 10 

®1 25 


@ 80 


(5 1 00 

1 20 

®i 30 

1 25 

®i so 

2 25 

@2 40 

1 25 

®i 50 

Dried Peag. 

Not many offering from first hands and very 
little inquiry at present. Quotations are 
based on latest transactions. 

Green Peas, California II 15 ®1 30 

Niles Peas 1 20 @ 


Virtually nothing doing and consequently 
little upon which to base quotations. 

Good to choice 80 @ 90 


Market is quiet and lacks the rather buoy- 
ant tone displayed a few weeks ago. Local 
speculators and some Eastern operators took 
hold in fairly active fashion after the nomina- 
tion of the McKinley ticket, but they have 
since subsided and have been lately inclined 
to hedge, or to average their wools down by 
making lower purchases. Stocks of greased 
wool now in warehouse are not of heavy vol- 
ume. The inquiry which at present exists is 
mainly for choice northern, with buyers and 
sellers about a cent apart in their views. 


Humboldt and Mendocino 10 ®12 

Northern California free 7 @9 

Northern defective 5'4@ 7 

San Joaquin Foothill, good to choice 6 @ 7% 

San Joaquin, 12 months 4 ® 6% 

San Joaquin and Southern, 6 months 4 ® 6 

Nevada, as to condition 7 @ 9 

Oregon Valley, select 9 (AiW% 

Oregon Valley, low grade 8 ® 9% 


A New York authority reports the hop mar- 
ket on the Atlantic side as follows: 

The local market is still very quiet, but there is 
uothing to suggest any change in the general situ- 
ation. Stocks in dealers' hands are moderate and 
holders are not anxious to sell at the prices that 
would have to be accepted to effect important 
business. But neither brewers nor exporters are 
much interested and it is hardly probable that 
there will be much activity before the new crop. 
Former quotations represent as nearly as may be 
holders' views, and they are realized on such sales 
as are making, though the small quantity of stock 
that will grade as choice makes our outside fig- 
ures— 7%(S>8c— seem extreme. Favorable weather 
is bringing the vines along in good shape in ihe 
yards that have had proper cultivation, but there 
is nothing to indicate any change from previous 
estimates of the crop either in this State or on the 
Pacific coast. Further contracts have recently 
been made on the coast for a period of three years 
at 6c, 7c. and 8c, respectively. Cable advices 
from Germany say that the crop looks well, and 
and there has been still further improvement in 
the English plantations. 

Buyers ;n this market show a little more 
disposition to operate than for some time past, 
but prices obtainable are still at a very low 
range and are devoid of encouragement to the 
producing interest. Old can only be sold at a 
decided loss, while bids on new to arrive— 6@ 
7%c — the latter figure for favorite marks, af- 
ford no profit to the grower. 

Fair to choice, 1895 crop 2 @4 

Hay and Straw. 

Hay arrived more freely than the preceding 
week, and was in generally unsatisfactory 
shape for the producing and selling interest. 
Choice wheat hay had been moving off in tol- 
erably good shape, but even this sort went at 
reduced figures the current week, and for all 
other descriptions the market was decidedly 


Wheat 7 50® 10 00 

Wheat and Oat 6 50® 8 50 

Oat 5 00® 7 50 

Barley 6 00® 7 50 

Clover 5 00® 7 00 

Stock Hay 4 00® 5 00 

Alfalfa, first cutting 4 00® 5 00 


Wheat, fair to choice 8 OOffiill 50 

Straw, V bale 30® 40 

Hills talis. 

Bran is quotably lower. The tendency on 
most other millstuffs was to easier figures. 

Bran. ■ ton 12 00® 14 00 

Middlings 14 00®16 00 

Barley, Rolled 15 25® 15 50 

Cornmeal 19 50ft 20 00 

Cracked Corn 20 50(«21 00 

Hides. Pelts and Tallow. 
A local firm, prominent in the hide and 
leather trade, has the following in its last 
letter circular: 

During the past few weeks hides and leather 
have been very quiet and prices nominal. Wet 
Salted hides rule at prices which are relatively 
higher than those obtainable in the East by about 
lc per pound. This market is caused by small 
stocks obtainable in this city. 

Dry Flint hides are somewhat weaker, prices 
having declined in New York and Boston. 

Dry kips are quiet at lower rates than Dry hides. 

Wool and Sheepskins are dull unless offered at 

very low figures, and without much prospect of 
any improvement. 
Tallow is dull at low values. 

Only select hides, clean and trimmed, can 
be relied on to bring full figures. Culls of all 
kinds, either from grubs, cuts, hair slips, side 
brands or murrain, are not always readily 
placed at the lower quotations. 

Sound. Culls. 

Heavy Steers, over 56 lbs 7 (w 7% 6 (n, 6% 

Medium Steers, 48 to 56 lbs. ... 6 ® 6% b (a, b% 

Light Steers, under 48 lbs — @ 5 — @ 4 

Heavy Cow Hides, over 50 lbs. 5 ® b% 4 ® 4% 
Light Cow Hides, under 50 lbs. — («. 5 — ® 4 

Wet Salted Kip — ® 5 — (a, 4 

Wet Salted Veal — (« 6 — ® 5 

Wet Salted Calf 7 @8 6 @7 

Dry Hides, round lots, 9®10c. . .\(\%®U 8 ® 8% 
Dry Kip and Veal, 11 to 16 lbs. . 8 @ 9 — ® 7 

Dry Calf, under 4 lbs — @15 — (n 10 

Pelts, long wool, per skin 50 (a.O0 

Pelts, medium, per skin 40 (350 

Pelts, short wool, per skin 20 (B35 

Pelts, shearling, per skin 10 (a 15 

Deer Skins, best summer — (o>30 

Deer Skins, good medium 15 <o)25 

Deer Skins, thin winter 7 ®io 

Elk Hides 8 ® 9 

Tallow, good quality 3 ® |u 

Tallow, No. 2 2K<a - 

Goat Skins, perfect 20 ®35 

Goat Skins, damaged 10 @20 

Kid Skins 5 @ — 


Market for mustard seed presents a firm 
tone, but there is little stock here to operate 
upon at present. Reports from "the Lempoc 
section, where most of the mustard seed in 
this State is grown, are to the effect that 
there will not be a quarter crop and that the 
quality will be poor. 

Per crl. 

Mustard, Yellow 1 60®1 75 

Mustard, Trieste Seed 2 50®2 75 

Mustard, Wild Brown 1 50(a) I 75 

Flax 1 70® 1 75 

Per lb. 

Canary 2%®2\ 

Rape 2 @2H 

Hemp 3H(*3% 

Alfalfa, Utah 7 ®7% 


Supplies of ordinary qualities, mainly from 
Sacramento river sections, were heavy and 
the market for this class of stock was wholly 
devoid of firmness. Choice to select were 
more plentiful than the preceding week, but 
prices for these were much better sustained 
than for the low grades. 


Early Rose, River, t» cental 30® 40 

Peerless, River SOW 50 

Garnet Chile, Mission 50® 70 

Burbanks, River 30® 50 

Burbanks, Salinas 60® 85 


Early Rose, River, ¥ cental 30fn, 50 

liurbauks, River 3D® 00 

Burbanks, Salinas 75(411 00 

Bone] ■ 

Stocks in this center are small, and a con- 
siderable proportion of the honey now here is 
of the crop of 1895. There will be little Cali- 
fornia honey this season: but with an absence 
of export demand, supplies may prove ample. 

White Comb, l-Ib frames 11 ®12% 

Amber Comb 74«i,10 

Extracted, White Liquid 5 & 5% 

Extracted, Light Amber 4%® 4\ 

Amber Colored and Candied 3\(ai 4 

Dark Tule 2J<® 3 


There is a tolerably wide range in values 
and a correspondingly wide range in the qual- 
ity of offerings. 

Fair to choice, ¥ lb 22® 26 

Live Stork and Meats. 
Hogs are in fair request, the preference be- 
ing given to small and medium hard grain fed. 

Beef, 1st quality; dressed, net ~$ lb 5 ® — 

Beer, 2d quality 4%® 4?K 

Beef, 3d quality 3V4® 4 

Mutton— ewes, 4%®bc: wethers 5 ® 5% 

Hogs, hard grain fed, light fat 3%® 3\ 

Hogs, large hard 3'„@ 3>< 

Hogs, soft and feeders ■.",<" — 

Hogs, country dressed 4%® 4*4 

Veal, small, f» lb 5 ® 6 

Lamb, spring, f> lb 5 @ 6 

Poult rv. 

The market was somewhat easier than dur- 
ing preceding week, but, considering the in- 
crease in arrivals, prices were fairly well sus- 
tained. There were quite free receipts of 
California poultry and one carload of Eastern. 
Turkeys were without material change. 
Chickens averaged a little lower. Ducks 
were in poor request. Geese tended slightly 
in favor of sellers. 

Turkeys, live hens, $ lb 12® 13 

Turkeys, live gobblers 13® 14 

Turkeys, young 17® 19 

Hens, Cal.. t> doz 4 00@5 00 

Roosters, old 4 00@4 50 

Roosters, young, (full-grown) 4 00®5 00 

Fryers 3 25(83 50 

Broilers, large 3 00<6»3 25 

Broilers, small 1 75(».2 50 

Ducks, young, doz 2 50®4 00 

Ducks, old 2 50(h.3 00 

Geese, "j* pair 1 00® 1 50 

Goslings, * pair — ® — 

Pigeons, ft doz 1 25@1 50 


Owing to a marked falling off in the produc- 
tion in Marin and other bay counties, and also 
to a decrease in the arrivals from the Hum- 
boldt and Del Norte dairy districts, the mar- 
ket is ruling higher, especially for choice to 
select fresh. Very little butter has been ar- 

July 25, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

riving from the southern coast dairy section 
for weeks past. Market for packed butter 
continues quiet, but the advancing rates for 
fresh will tend to bring packed descriptions 
into more general request. 

Creamery extras, $ lb 17 ®Yiy% 

Creamery firsts 16 @ — 

Creamery seconds 14 @15 

Dairy select 15 @ — 

Dairy seconds 13 (a 14 

Dairy, soft and weedy 9 @ll 

Mixed store 10 @12 

Creamery in tubs 15 @16 

Dairy in tubs 14 @15 

Firkin, Cal., choice to select 14 @15 

Firkin, common to fair 11 ^1254 


This market remains firm, with receipts and 
spot supplies of light proportions. Producers 
will do well to sell at present prices, for any 
further hardening in values which may take 
place is likely to be more than offset by the 
shrinkage in weights. Eastern markets are 
weak, and the stiff prices will tend to encour- 
age heavy importations. 

California fancy flat, new 7%@— 

California, good to choice 6H@ 7 

California, fair to good 6 @ 6% 

California, "Young Americas" 7 @ 8 


Choice to select, direct from hennery or 
ranch, are arriving very sparingly and are in 
good request, commanding slightly better fig- 
ures than during preceding week. Further 
hardening of values for strictly fresh is likely 
to be experienced in the near future. There 
is poor prospect of defective qualities com- 
manding very firm prices. Cold storage stock 
will be taken in preference to inferior fresh. 

California, select, large white and fresh.. 17 (a — 

California, select, irregular color & size.. 13 @16 

California, good to choice store 11 @13 

California, common to fair store 9 @11 

Oregon, prime U*4@12tf 

Eastern, as to section and grading 13 @15 

Eastern, seconds .. 9 @n 

Duck eggs 14 @i5 

Bags and Bagging. 

Grain bag market is quiet, and is likely to 
so continue for the next few months, or until 
contracting for next season begins. There is 
a considerable quantity still on hand, but 
importers will carry over the surplus rather 
than make any special cuts on current rates. 

Grain bags, 22x36, spot 414® iy. 

Wool sacks, 4 lb 28 @_ 

Wool sacks, Sy 2 lb "26 @— 

Gunnies 12 @_ 

Bean bags 4 @ 4tf 

Fruit sacks, cotton 5^f„i 7;,/ 

Fruit Market. 

The aggregate of arrivals of mid-summer 
fruits was not particularly heavy, especially 
as compared with recent years, but most 
varieties were fairly well represented. There 
were no radical fluctuations in values, but it 
was the exception where strictly choice fruit 
did not tend in favor of sellers. 

Apples made a better display than previous- 
ly, both as to quantity and quality. Some 
choice to select Gravensteins are now arriv- 
ing, and are bringing good figures, all things 
considered. Scrubby and wormy fruit re- 
ceives little attention. Producers would 
serve their interests better by feeding such 
stock to hogs or throwing it away. In many 
instances this inferior fruit nets the grower 
nothing and tends to lower the price of better 

Apricots were in decreased receipt and 
market was firm, canners being active buyers. 
Fancy Moorparks were especially scarce and 
bids were reported on the same up to $40 per 
ton. For Royals $35 was an extreme hardly 
warranted as a quotation, the quality having 
to be choice to command $32.50, and exception- 
ally firm for any higher figure. 

Peaches were in better supply, as compared 
with the demand, than during the preceding 
week, and market ruled easier. 

Pears were plentiful and lower, with pros- 
pects of this fruit continuing in liberal sup- 
ply and very cheap for some weeks to come. 

Plums were in only moderate supply, and 
most kinds in prime to choice condition, more 
particularly Peach plums, commanded fairly 
steady rates. 

Prunes now arriving are of the Tragedy 
and German varieties, and are selling to very 
fair advantage. 

Figs of first crop are almost out, and are 
not offering in sufficient quantity to warrant 

Apples, Gravenstein, 50-fb box 75@, 1 00 

Apples, Gravenstein, fancy, 4-tier 1 00@ 1 25 

Apples. Red Astrachan, 50-tb box 250 75 

Apples, Green, * 50-lb. box 30® 50 

Crabapples, f» box 30@ 50 

Apricots, V ton 20 00@32 50 

Apricots, Royal, $ 6-in. box . 50® 75 

Apricots, Royal, %> 22-in. box 35® 50 

Figs, Black, # 2-tier 15-B> box — @ — 

Figs, Black, f, 1-tier box — @ — 

Figs, White, <p box — @ — 

Nectraines, Red. $ box 50® 65 

Nectarines, White, # box 35® 50 

Prunes, Tragedy and German, f. crate. 75® 90 

Peaches, Early Crawford, per box 35® 50 

Peaches, fancy wrapped, f. box 40® 60 

Peaches, good to choice, f. box 25® 50 

Pears, Bartlett, No. 1, per box 40® 60 

Pears, Bartlett, No. 2, per box 30® 40 

Pears, early kinds, ~® box 25® 50 

Plums, Peach, f box 50® 75 

Plums, other kidds, fb box 35® 50 

Plums, f, crate 40® 75 


Currants were in light receipt, and will 
soon be out of season. Blackberries and rasp- 
berries were in fair supply, and market for 
same was rather favorable to buying interest. 
Strawberry market lacked firmness. 

Blackberries, f chest 2 00® 3 00 

Currants, Red, $ chest 2 50® 4 00 

Raspberries, f. chest 2 00® 4 00 

Strawberries, Longworth, f. chest 3 00® 4 00 

Strawberries, Large, behest 2 00® 3 00 


Early white varieties are arriving from dif- 
ferent portions of this State, and a few black 
are being received from Arizona. It is the 
exception, however, where any grapes now 
offering are sufficiently ripe to be desirable. 
More attractive stock is likely to put in an 
appearance at an early day. 

Black, from Arizona, per crate $1 00@1 25 

Thompson's Seedless, from Ariz., crate. . 90@1 00 

Fontainebleau, Cal., per crate 60® 75 

Fontainebleau, Cal., per box 40® 50 


Watermelons are now arriving in carload 
lots almost daily, and are offering in a jobbing 
way at $10@15 per 100. A few canteloupes 
were received, not enough to warrant quot- 
ing. The quality was rather ordinary. 

Dried Fruit. 

Little or nothing of an encouraging order 
has developed in the dried fruit trade in this 
center since last review. Apricots are in 
about same position as last noted, with busi- 
ness exceedingly light. A few small lots have 
changed hands within range of 6(g)6%c, San 
Francisco delivery. Eastern buyers are not 
taking hold to any noteworthy degree. Num- 
erous offerings have been made at 6%c, without 
finding takers. A representative of a leading 
house in this interest sums it up briefly as 
"wholly a buyers' market." Most of the 
apricots this season are below the usual stan- 
dard. They did not develop much saccharine 
matter in maturing, and when dried are 
more or less skinny and flabby. In other 
dried fruits there is practically nothing doing, 
and values for the same should be regarded 
as mainly nominal. Stocks other than apri- 
cots are all of 1895 crop and are of light pro- 

Late mail advices from New York report as 
follows on the dried fruit market in that 
center : 

The market for evaporated apples is unchanged 
in tone or prices. Only a very moderate quantity 
of stock remains in first hands and business as 
usual at this season of year is slack. Jobbers have 
but little call for them, and the expert trade is 
practically over for the summer. Quotations are 
realized on such sales as are made, but it would be 
impossible to move any quantity of stock at the 
top rates. Some negotiations in future are under 
way, but no deals closed as yet. Makers ask 5Hc 
for prime wood dried, and 5>4c for prime fruit dried 
on metal trays, October delivery ; exporters bid 5c 
for round lots of wood dried. Sun-dried sliced and 
quartered apples have ruled dull again this week, 
and there has been a disposition toconcede a little 
in prices on some grades. Jelly makers have had 
to pay an extreme price for the few lots of cores 
and skins available, up to 3i4c or higher; stock 
now practically exhausted and we drop the quota- 
tion. Southern peaches without demand. Rasp- 
berries neglected and weak. Only a few blackber- 
ries left and jobbing sales are reported at strong 
prices. Cherries steady but dull. Apricots un- 
changed; samples of new Royals are shown for 
which much higher prices are asked than are 
obtainable. Some trading in California peaches; 
prunes are firm. 


Apricots, Royal, in sacks, per ft) 6 ® 6J4 

Apples, in boxes 4H@— 

Peaches, unpeeled 3y s @ 4 

Peaches, peeled 9 @11 

Pears, peeled and sliced 4 @ 7 

Pears, quartered 4 @ 7 

Plums, pitted 3 @4 

Prunes, in boxes, 4 sizes 3 l / 2 @— 

Prunes, in sacks, small sizes 154® 3 


Apricots, ordinary — @ — 

Apples, sliced Wi® 2 

Apples, quartered — @ — 

Peaches, unpeeled 2V4® 3 

Pears, quartered, \ l A@3c\ sliced 3 @ 354 

Plums, unpitted 1 @ 1*4 


There are very few raisins of prime quality 

now in stock, and there is little upon which to 

base quotations for last year's product. The 

market for the coming yield is moderately 

firm in tone, as the output will be much 

lighter than last season. For raisins, of this 

season's curing, from first-class vineyards, 

2%c in the sweat-boxes is being bid, mainly 

for layers, on shipments up to Oct. 15th. 

Boxes, London layers, 20-Ifc box 75® 85 

(Usual advance for fractions.) 

Loose Muscatel, 4-crown, ^ ft> 3%@4 

Loose Muscatel, 3-crown 3!4@3H 

Loose Muscatel, 2-crown 3 ® — 

Sultanas 454® — 

Citrus Fruit. 

Orange market is without noteworthy feat- 
ure, there being few now in stock of any 
description, and the demand for them is also 
very limited. 

Lemons are meeting with good custom and 

are commanding improved figures, due largely 
to the scarcity and high price of limes. The 
last consignment of Mexican limes for this 
port was lost on the steamer Colombia wrecked 
off Pigeon Point. 

Oranges— Wash. Navels, f box 3 00<& 3 50 

Cal. Mediterranean Sweet 2 00® 3 00 

Cal. Seedlings 1 25® 2 50 

Lemons— Cal., select, ^ box 4 00ft' 4 50 

Cal., good to choice 3 00® 3 50 

Cal., common to good 2 OOfts 2 50 

Lemons— Mexican, f, box ftj 

Cal., small box 1 50® 


Spot supplies are mainly almonds in the 
hands of jobbers. The coming crop of almonds 
will be light and the quality under average. 
The white walnut crop of this State is re- 
ported good, both as to quantity and quality. 
Coming on a market almost bare, the crop will 
probably pass speedily into distributive and 
consuming channels. 

California Almonds, paper shell 7 @ 8 

California Almonds, soft shell 4 @ 6 

California Almonds, standard 3 @ 354 

California Almonds, hard shell 2 @ 254 

Walnuts White, paper shell 11 @12 

Walnuts White, soft shell 9 @10 

Walnuts White, Cal., hardshell 7 @ 754 

Peanuts, Cal., fair to prime 554ft 6 

Peanuts, Eastern hand-picked 554® 654 

Pine Nuts 12 @u 

Nearly all kinds in season are offering in 
ample quantity to cause low prices to prevail. 
Red onions are no longer quotable, yellow be- 
ing quite cheap and being given the prefer- 
ence by all buyers. The change in quotable 
values for other vegetables are mostly to lower 

Asparagus, Fancy, y box @ 

Asparagus, common to good, f> box @ 

Beans, String, f. lb 114® 3 

Beans, Wax, f, fb \y 2 @ 3 

Beans, Garden, f. lb 2® 3 

Cabbage, choice garden, j» 100 50® 60 

Cauliflower, V doz 40® 50 

Corn, Alameda Sweet, crate 1 25® 1 75 

Corn, Berkeley, derate 85® 1 00 

Corn, Vacaville and Winters, f, crate. . 50® 1 00 

Corn,Gr<!en, f sack 50® 1 00 

Cucumbers, Alameda, large box 50® 75 

Egg Plant, ^box 75® 1 25 

Garlic, yib i^@ 254 

Okra, Green, f, box 75® 1 25 

Onions, Red, %* cental — @ — 

Onions, Yellow, good to choice 30® 40 

Peas, Green, f sack 50® 1 00 

Peppers, Green Chile, ~& box 25® 75 

Peppe'-, Bell, f, large box 75w 1 00 

Rhubarb, %* box 50® 75 

Squash, Bay, $ large box 15® 25 

Tomatoes, River, per large box 75fti 1 00 

Tomatoes, Vacaville, ft box 20® 40 

California Fruit Sales. 

New York, N. Y., July 16.— The Earl Fruit 
Company sold California fruit at auction to-day as 
follows: Pears — Bartletts, 75cft$1.90 per box. 
Prunes— Tragedy, 80cft .$1.15 per half-crate. Plums 
—Peach, 75o@$-1.15 per crate. Peaches— Hale's 
Early, 55@70c per box. Apricots— Royals, in poor 
condition, 20ft 65c per crate. 

Ch.cago, III., July 16.— Porter Bros. Company 
sold to-day at open auction California fruit as fol- 
lows; Plums— Burbank, $1.10@2 ptr half-crate; 
Peach, 95cft $1.75; other varieties, $2.25ft 1.20. Pears 
—Bartletts, $1.15@1.45 per box; Clapps, 85c per 
half-box. Prunes — Tragedy, 45c@$1.45 per half- 
crate. Peaches, 10@70c. Apricots, 80ft'95c per 

Boston, Mass., July 18.— Porter Bros. Company 
sold to day at open auction California fruit as fol- 
lows: Prunes— Tragedy, i)0c@$l. 25 per half-crate. 
Pears— Bartletts, 90c@$l 15 per box. Plums— Nor- 
man, $1.75 per ha,lf-crate; Oregons, $1@1.10; other 
varieties, 80c®$1.05. Peaches — St. Johns, 90c per 
box; others, 25ft 65c. 

New York, N. Y., July 18.— The Earl Fruit Com- 
pany sold California fruit at open auction as fol- 
lows: Prunes— Tragedy, $1.05@1. 30 per half-crate. 
Plums— Japan, 85cft$1.20 per half-crate; Peach, 
75c@$1.20. Peaches — Hale's Early, 60@85c per 

Chicago, July 21.— The Earl Fruit Company sold 
California fruit at the following prices: Prunes — 
Tragedy, 80c@$l. 40 per half-crate. Plums— Peach, 
95c@$1.25; Burbank, 80c<5$1.75; Norman Japan, 
$1.35; Royal Hative, 45cfti$l; Washington, 80@95c. 
Pears— Bartlett, $1.10@1. 45 per box. Peaches— St. 
John, 20@75c. 

New York, July 21.— The Earl Fruit Company 
sold California fruit at the following prices: 
Plums— Burbank, $1.10(« 1.80 per half-crate; Japan, 
70c@$1.40; Purple Duane, 85c@$l; Peach, 75@95c. 
Prunes— Tragedy, 95c®$1.40. Peaches— Crawford, 
$1.15©1.25 per box; Hale's Early, 60c. Pears— 
Bartlett, $1.3j@1.60 per box. 

New York, July 21.— Porter Brothers Company 
sold to-day at open auction: Pears— Bartlett, 
$1.40@2.20 per box; Souvenir de Congress, $1.60. 
Plums— Japan, $1.25@2.30 per half-crate; Abun- 
dance, $1.20; other varieties, 80c@$1.20. Prunes- 
Tragedy, $1. 05ft' 1.30 per half-crate; German, $1.10. 
Peaches — Early Crawford, 75cft$1.15 per box; 
others, 45@75c. 

One-third of all Harvesting Machinery in use is 
made by the McCormick Co. of Chicago 

gage checks until you reach San Francisco, and 
you will save money by leaving sameiit any of our 
offices, our rates being lower than all others, viz., 
Trunks, 35 cents each. N. B. — We do not have 
any agents on the trains or steamers. MORTON 
SPECIAL DELIVERY, 408 Taylor St., 650 Market 
St., and Oakland t erry Depot (foot of Market St.). * 

Blake, Moffltt dfc ToiA/ne, 


512 to 516 Sacramento St., San Francisco. Cal. 

BLAKE, McFALL & CO Portland, Or. 





116 California St., San Francisco, Cal. 


Consignments Solicited. 

Advances Made. 



HE" General Commission Merchants, HE* 


Members of the San Francisco Produce Exchange. 

JWPersonal attention given to sales and liberal 
advances made on consignments at low rates of 

Send for Catalogue. 


To Lease 011 Shares or for Cash, 320 acres 
level land, fenced, all been in grain. House and 
barn. Situate two miles from railroad station in 
Butte county, California. 

To Lease on Shares or for Cash, 240 acres 
level land, fenced, all been in grain. House and 
barn. Railroad runs through the land. Situate 
about three miles from railroad station in Butte 
county, California. 

To Lease on Shares or for Cash, 4500-acre 
improved farm, fenced. House, barns, blacksmith 
shop on the premises. About 1000 acres summer- 
fallowed. Horses and implements can go with the 
farm Situate in Colusa and Glenn counties. 
Railroad station adjoins the land. First-class 
opportunity. For further particulars, apply to 


508 California Street San Francisco. 



Wagons^ ^ 


1004 to 1006 K Street, Sacramento, Cal. 




A DRY POWDER, requiring only the addition of 
COLD WATER to be ready for instant use. 

Takes the place of OIL PAINT. Its covering 
capacity is fully 100 per cent greater. 

It's durable, and will not scale off. 

Anyone can apply it. Write for prices. 

P. I-. /\ L. D ERSON , 
33 Davis Street San Francisco, Cal. 

F XJ nv/t r> 

Patent Centrifugal, Steam and Power Pump- 
ing Machinery, Simplest, Cheapest and Best. 
Orchard Trucks, Grape Crushers, 
Wine Presses, Wine Filters. 
Up-to-Date Repair Shop for All Kinds of 
Pnmps and Other Machinery. 
It will pay vou to get our prices. 
115-117 First St , San Francisco. 


For deep or shallow wells; power, windmill, hand 
Pumps; valves can be removed without taking 
pump out of the well. With my 5-in. double-acting 
deep well Power Pump I guarantee 10,000 gallons 
per hour. Send for circular. A. T. AMES, Gait, Cal. 




16-18 0RUMM STREET, S. F. 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

July 25, 1896. 

The 43rd Great State Fair of California ** 




September 1st to lQth, 

The Soil Products of this great agricultural State will be a leading feature. 

The Mechanical Display will be as attractive as unual, and made up of live exhibits of machin- 
ery and neat designs of goods. 

The Live Stock will form a most important division of this season's exhibit: competitive tests 
will be held among the various dairy and beef breeds of cattle. 

The Poultry Exhibit will form one of the most interesting features of the fair. 

The Racing Programme will be of unusual excellence, inviting contests between the highest 
cluss of horses 

The Exposition Building will be a blaze of electricity, affording every advantage for the exhibi 
tion of all kinds of articles. 

EDIA/l N F\ SMITH, Secretary. 

Electric Motive Tower generated at Folsom, twenty-two miles distant, will turn every wheel and 
furnish brilliant lights for the entire exhibition. Space, power and light furnished free to all exhibitors. 

Athletic Sports. Bicycle Kaces. Ladies' Tournaments, and other entertainments will occupy 
the mornings at the park. 

Tassasa's <;reat Exposition Itand will give high-class concerts at the pavilion each evening. 

The manufactures of California can meet the consumers to a better advantage at the State 
Fair, by reason of its varii d attractions, than at any other public gathering in the State. Exhibit 
your goods and let the people know what is made at home. 

Free transportation for exhibits, and reduced rates of fare will be given on all railroads. 

Address the Secretary for information of any character. Premium lists now ready. 

C. m. CHASE, President. 


Pru ne Machine. 

The " ACME" Perforator and Grader, 

FOB PRINKS AND PLUMS. (Patented February 5, 1895.) 
No Bloaters, Better Fruit and More of It. It Saves Vou Time. Fuel. Lve and 



The Fruit at one Operation. 
Different Sizes and Prices; with or without Grader. Hand and Power Machines. 

Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. 

J. B. BURRELL, 447-449 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 



Prepares Prunes and Plums for the dry ground with more absolute certainty and less labor 
than the dipper. Repeated tests have shown that the fruit cures heavier — Irom 4 to 6 per cent 
and has a better flavor; in other words, It carries more sugar. The capacity of these machines 
varies from 12 to 100 tons per day. 

SenJ lor Descriptive Circular. 

H. fl. BARNQROVER, Prop., 340 West Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 


Fruit Driers' and Packers' Supplies, improved "eclipse" stacker and «acme" rake. 



These Stackers 
and Rakes 

Are California made and 
are especially adapted 
to the Pacific coast. 

Write /or 

No. 14— Haying and 

No. 15— Pumps 




For Illustrated Catalogue of General Orchard Supplies, Address 


338 and 340 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. ! 625 5,XTH 5Tf *EET, 


There is no machinery on the i audi that 
will save more hard labor, time and 
money than these machines. They are 
simple, practical and durable. Will save 
double their cost iu one season. Will 
handle more hay. with an equal force, in 
better style, and in one-half the time 
required by any other method. 

OUTFITS. Buy through your local 
dealer, or send direct to us. 

We also manufacture CKNTKII'l t; VI. I'l MI'S AM) COMPOl M> STEAM KMilVKS: ami 
iu the near future uill place upon the market OIL MOTORS of latest design anil greatest 
economy and elllclency. 

Byron Jackson Machine Works, 


Headquarters for Plows. 


^ uang ^ 

= Steel Single = O 
= Chilled Single = 


H. C. SHAW PLOW WORKS, State Agents, 


B. T. Babbitt's Best Lye. 

1 Jt /E call Prune Growers and Farmers particular attention to this Lye. It is stronger and goes 
further than any other manufactured, and has the endorsement of the largest packers and 
growers on the coast. WE GUARANTEE EVERY CASE. 





M. O'BRIEN, Agent. 509-513 Mission St. write rorcirmaars. San Francisco, Cal. 


Vol. LII. No. 5. 



Office, 220 Market Street. 

Chateau Fresno. 

As illustrating the 
grander plans for the 
development of the 
great interior plains 
of California, we give 
on this page two views 
taken at "Chateau 
Fresno," the fine prop- 
erty of M. Theo. 
Kearney, a few miles 
west of the great raisin 
city. Mr. Kearney has 
been interested in the 
development of Fresno 
county since its begin- 
ning on modern lines, 
and during the last few 
years has directed his 
energies toward the 
creation of a country 
seat worthy of Cali- 
fornian opportunities. 
His effort is not yet 
complete, but he can 
show improvements as 
notable in their way 
as auy in the State. 
Some idea of the style 
and extent of the es- 
tate can be had at its 
very gateway, as 
shown in the upper en- 
graving. We here have 
an entrance and cas- 
tellated lodge of grand 



proportions and the 
group of home build- 
ings way distant at 
the sky line. The 
avenue from which 
we turn into the gate- 
way is one of the 
handsomest in the 
State, and for miles 
from Fresno west- 
ward is occupied on 
either side with 
home places and hor- 
ticultural tracts. The 
avenue has double 
lines of shade trees 
and ornamen tal 
plants. Inside, Mr. 
Kearney's grounds 
are very extensive 
plantations of orna- 
mentals selected and 
set with great taste 
and effect. 

The second engrav- 
ing gives a near view 
of the home and farm 
buildings at Chateau 
Fresno and in the 
foreground the park 
with its young trees 
and its lake smiling 
in its occupancy of 
what was but re- 
cently a desert. Mr. 
Kearney took several 
sections of such land, 
and brought it all 
under irrigation. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

August 1, 1896. 


Office, B0.aU Market St.; Elevator. No. U front St. .San Francisco, Cat. 


Advertising rates made known on application. 

Any subscriber sending an Inquiry on any subject to the BOMl 
pkkss witli i a KWtan stamp, will receive a reply, either through the 
columns of til J paper or by personal letter. The answer will be given 
as promptly as practicable. 

Our latest forms go to press Wednesday evening. 

Registered at S. F. PoBtofflce as second-claSB m all matter. 

ALFRED HOLMAN ••■" E 1 d " or ' 

E. J. WICKSON Special Contributor. 

San Francisco, August 1, 1896. 


ILLUSTRATIONS — Gateway and Lodge at Chateau Fresno, Es- 
tate of M Tlico. Kearney : Park, Lake and Buildings at Chateau 
Fresno, near Fresno City, 65. Fashion Cuts, 76. 

EDITORIAL. — Chateau Fresno, 65. The Week, 66. 

HORTICULTURE. — Approved Small Fruits; The Crater might of 
Pear: Top Souring, 68. , 

ARBORICULTURE.— American Nut Growing; A New Book on Nut 

FLORIST AN D GA RDENER. — California Privet as a Hedge Plant ; 

The F i oner's Garden, 69. Transplanting Maiden-Hair Ferns, 70. 
THE POULTRY YARD. — Rational Feeding of Poultry, 70. 
THE API A RY".— Different Honey Bees Contrasted, 71. Value of 

Bees to Apricot Growers; The Eastern Honey Crop; Father Lang- 

stroth's Twelve Axioms, 72. 
I'll !•' HOME CIRCLE.— Here anil Now; Some Day of Days; Ro- 

sine's Romance; Fashion Notes, 74. Gems; Curious Facts; 

Pleasantries, 75. . • 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Domestic Pointers; Kitchen Lore, <5. 
PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY.— From the State Lecturer, 77. 
MARKET REPORT. — The Produce Market; Dried Fruit Market: 

California Fruit Sales, 78-79. 
M 'Ft, I. AN Eol'S — Pith hi the Week's News; Gleanings, 6,. 

Weather and Crops; Points of California Fruit Shippers; Ferrets 

for Squirrels ; Beeswax and Honey, 68. Some Pretty Waists, 76. 


(New this issue.) Page. 
Vise, Anvil, Drill, Pipe Clamp Combined— Paul Heinrichsdorf, Cin- 
cinnati, O 21 

School for Girls— Berkeley, Cal 19 

Hay and Straw Press— J. A. Spencer. Dwigbt, III 77 

German Kali Works • £7 

S. F. Business College 76 

Smiths' Cash Store JJ 

Dairymen's Union "8 

Horticultural Supplies— W. 0. Anderson, San Jose, Cal <7 

The Week. 

Weal her ami Crops. 

The long weeks of excess of heat in the interior 
were broken at the close of last week, and a sort of 
a meteorological revulsion transpired in the shape of 
showers of considerable breadth and wetness. 
Sprinkles there were almost everywhere throughout 
the State, but locally the precipitation was not 
appreciable. At Fresno one-tentb of an inch fell, 
and more at some adjacent points. There were 
heavy rains reported from the mountains east of 
Bakersfield, causing the Kern river to rise 18 inches, 
giving plenty of water for irrigation, as water for 
that purpose was getting quite scarce. There were 
heavy rains along the Colorado river, which caused 
that stream to rise 18 inches at Picacho, thereby 
benefiting all crops grown on the bottom lands of 
that river in that vicinity. It does not appear that 
harm was done except to hay in late mountain val- 
leys, but they are accustomed to heavy midsummer 
showers. Grain and fruit are still being gathered 
in, but no change in the previously described condi- 
tions is noted. 

The following data for the week ending 5 a. m. 
Wednesday, July 29, 1890, are from official sources, 
and are furnished by the United States Weather 
Bureau for the Pacific Rural Press : 


Total Rainfall 
for the Week. . . 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall to 

Total Seasonal 
Rainfall Last 
Year to Same 

Average Season- 
al Rainfall to 

Maximum Tem- 
perature for the 

Minimum Tem- 
perature forthe 






Red Bluff. ... 










San Francisco 












San Luis Obispo 



; so 


Los Angeles 






San Diego 













• Indicates no record. 

Col Mersey's Observations in Oregon. 

Col. Philo Hersey of San Jose lias just returned 
from a pleasure trip to Oregon and thus reports his 

" The fruit trees in the section of the country I traversed 
had a healthy appearance. They have good growth. The soil 
is well adapted to apples, pears and cherries. A large acre- 
age is planted to Italian prunes. These are larger than the 
French prunes, but more acid. The crops of prunes, peaches, 
cherries, pears and apricots this year in that section will be 
very light— hardly enough to supply the home market. This 
was due to the cold and wet season when the trees were in 
blossom. The dealers and producers in that section, however, 
are sanguine of making it a great fruit-producing section — in 
fact, of excelling California. Of course, I could not see the 
outlook in the same light, though they may produce an enor- 
mous supply of apples, pears and cherries and many prunes of 
the Italian variety. To accomplish this, however, they will 
have to exercise more care in attending to their orchards. In 
cultivation, pruning and neatness, the orchards I saw in 

Oregon do not compare with those of this valley. Vegetables 
and grain are grown between the trees in many instances, 
and the ground is not kept in proper condition. The land 
about Portland and down the Willamette river as far as Salem 
is well covered with timber. There is an enormous amount of 
this unimproved land in that section, some of it containing 300 
cords of wood to the acre. This land can be purchased at from 
$20 to $35 an acre. It costs about $75 an acre to clear it. Many 
land dealers are selling this property on time to Eastern 
people. The contracts specify that the owner shall clear the 
land, plant it to fruit trees aud cultivate and care for it for 
four years for a consideration of $300 an acre, with ti per cent 
interest on deferred payments. The climate of Oregon pro- 
hibits drying the fruit in the sun. it is all evaporated, which 
increases the cost of producing dried fruit, to say nothing of 
the difference in the quality." 

Carriers in Commerce. 

The use of homing pigeons in the commerce of the 
port of San Francisco and in weather service seems 
likely to be tested. Albert Carlisle has offered to 
supply the Chamber of Commerce a number of 
trained birds from his Blue and Gold lofts in Berke- 
ley, to be taken out to sea in ships and tugs and 
sent back with messages. He also promised in the 
event of such a service being established to promptly 
communicate by telephone any messages thus re- 
ceived at Berkeley to the Merchants' Exchange. 
M r. Carlisle and Local Forecast Official Hammon 
addressed the members of the chamber recently in 
regard to the pigeon service. Mr. Hammon declared 
that such a service would be of great advantage to 
the local weather bureau, and Mr. Carlisle demon- 
strated the practicability of the proposed plan. The 
members of the chamber seemed greatly interested 
in the project and passed resolutions commending 
the proposed plan. 

Hot Weather Reports. 

A Fresno letter thus describes the hardships of 
the term of extreme heat which has just come to 
an end: 

For almost three weeks prior to the 23d the average daily 
temperature has been 10f>°, and for two days it exceeded 110°. 
Seven persons have died from the effects of heat, and one 
dangerously ill patient was this morning taken to the Count}' 
Hospital suffering from the effects of the hot spell. The 
heated term here commenced on July 3d and lasted nineteen 
days. The first victim was Joseph Pellegrini, a laborer at 
Herndon. He died within an hour after the symptoms of heat 
stroke occurred. At the inquest it was testified that lie had 
partaken freely of ice water. A few days later Joe Toma, a 
German, employed as a baker in the City Bakery, was taken 
sick with well-marked symptoms of thermic fever and died 
within a few hours. Half an hour after death the abdomen 
was burning hot to the hand. James Downing was the next 
victim. Just before his death a thermometer in the axilla 
showed a temperature of 10!)°. Mrs. Lena Johnson, a resident 
of Easton, succumbed to the heat in a few hours and Edward 
Stokes was another victim. In all these cases death was at- 
tributed directly to thermic fever, or heat stroke, and so 
certified at the inquests. Two other deaths occurred indi- 
rectly from the effects of the hot spell, but were not certified 
as due to insolation. The record of deaths from sunstroke in 
this county has always been quite small, and it is believed 
that the unusual percentage of humidity aggravated greatly 
the effects of the abnormal temperature. The daily maxima 
here during the hot spell, as shown by the reports of the 
Weather Bureau, were as follows: July 3d, 105° ; 4tb, KM) ; 
5th, 103°; flth, 105°; 7th, 108°; 8th, 110°; 9th, 111 ; 10th, 111 ; 
11th, 110°; 12th, 100°; 13th. 105°; 14th, 10(1°; 15th, 103°; lfith, 
104°; 17th, 103°; 18th, 105°; l'Jth, 100°; 20th, 107°; 21st, 102°. 
Dozens of horses have died in the harvest field, killed by the 
heat. Four of those employed on the Valley road grading 
work had to be killed on the trip from Athlone to this point. 
It was observed in most cases that the horses were stricken 
blind shortly before death. The earth is baked to a remark- 
able depth — in fact, no one yet heard from remembers to have 
seen the like in Fresno. 

■ tig Shipment of I'm it to London. 

That California fruit shippers continue to put faith 
in the London market is manifest by the continuance 
of shipments. A fast train of ten carloads left Sac- 
ramento Tuesday night, this being the fourth special 
train load for the season. It will be carried on fast 
time to New York and will there make close con- 
nection with one of the fast Atlantic liners. In re- 
porting this shipment, the Sacramento Rrconl- Union 

The shipment of ten cars was made up of pears, plums and 
peaches, and no finer fruit was ever sent to the London mar- 
ket. Six carloads were furnished by Porter Brothers Com- 
pany, of which four were loaded at Sacramento, consisting of 
fruit from the following growers: George A. White. O. R. 
Runyon, D. Hollister, Joseph Green, William H. Barry, VV. J. 
Smith, O. P. Stuart, William Thisby and Jesse Aiken. Two 
cars came from Suisun, loaded by Alden Anderson. The bal- 
ance of the train was made as follows: Frank H. Buck, one 
car; S. I. Roper and Sol Runyon (jointly) one car, and the Na- 
tional Fruit Association two cars. Local Manager Quigley 
I. as no fear of any competition that may come from the French 
growers. " Eugland is too big a market," he said last even- 
ing, "to be seriously affected by a few carloads of fruit. 
There are millions of people there to be supplied, and there 
seems to be no good reason to fear that choice fruit like this 
now leaving California, arriving there in good condition, will 
not bring good returns. The people there must be made to 
know that this fruit can be had, and I am confident that a 
permanent market can be established there for regular ship- 

Santa Clara Fruit Shipments. 

A San Jose dispatch, July 28th, says : During the 
year ending June 30th, 1896, prune shipments from 
this county were heavier than ever before. In that 
time 41,681, 155 pounds of prunes went forward, 
against 27,107,815 for the year ending June 30th, 
1894. This is an increase of over 14,000,000 pounds. 
The prune shipments for the season of 1893 were 
38,704,360 pounds ; 1892, 10,306.795 ; 1891, 22,528,985 ; 
1890, 12,089,030. The following are the principal 
shipments for the year ending June 30th, 1895 : 

Green fruit, 16,000,550 pounds ; canned fruit, 14,- 
414,485; dried peaches, 2,280,510; dried apricots, 
2,221,505 ; other dried fruits, 453,405 : wine, 8,654,- 
515 ; garden seeds, 1,158,345. With the exception of 
prunes and garden seeds these shipments show a 
decrease when compared with the shipments of the 
season of 1894. Canned fruit shipments fell off over 
3,000,000 pounds, green fruit 13,000,000, dried 
peaches 2,500,000, dried apricots 4,500,000, and 
those of all other kinds of dried fruit 800,000. Esti- 
mates of shipments for the coming year place the 
prune and seed shipmeuts in excess of last year, and 
those of green and canned fruit, dried peaches, dried 
apricots, other fruit and wine equal if not greater 
than the great crop of 1894. 

Bad Fruit Year in Oregon. 

A Portland dispatch of 22d inst. says : 

A. W. Mansfield, secretary of the Oregon Fruit Company, 
is in this city, having just returned from a trip around the 
State. He reports the fruit crop of Oregon to be a general 
failure. He said : " Early in the season growers and shippers 
had made a conservative estimate that the crop would yield 
about MK) carloads, but now it is evident that the output will 
not be over 200 carloads at the utmost. This loss of over 600 
carloads, estimated at only one-half ceut a pound, means a loss 
to the growers of this State of over $500,000 Some of the 
large orchards have practically no fruit at all. The crop in the 
Willamette valley in almost every line is very short. The 
French prune crop through the Rogue River valley will turn 
out bet ter than expected. The Italian prunes are what the 
growers depend on for profits, but of these there are none. In 
fact, it will be impossible to get out any fruit in car lots. 
Hood river had a fair crop of strawberries, some 20,000 crates 
—a little more than last year. The apple crop will range from 
half to two-thirds. The Dalles will have a two-thirds crop — 
about thirty cars of peaches, plums, prunes and pears. At 
Grant's and Blaylock's, above The Dalles, they will have 
about seven carload lots of mixed fruit. Grande Ronde valley, 
around La Grande. Union and Coos, will have from fifteen to 
twenty carloads. This is the only valley where there will be 
a fair prune crop. As an illustration of the shortage in the 
Willamette valley, last year Yamhill county, which alone 
shipped between twenty and thirty cars, this year will have 
from two to three carloads. The Italian prune crop is a total 
i failure. This prune is being made a specialty by the growers 
owing to its market value, green and dried. Prices here are 
governed by prices in California, and though not fancy, yet 
they arc profitable." 

Tuberculosis Alarm in Santa Clara County. 

It is the opinion of experts that the dairy herds of 
Santa Clara county are very generally infected with 
tuberculosis and active sters are being taken to 
root out the trouble. Ou Tuesday of this week a 
meeting was held at San Jose for the purpose of 
taking steps to prevent the sale of diseased milk 
and looking to the inspection and extermination of 
tuberculous cattle and it was largely attended. Los 
Gatos, Santa Clara and Gilroy were represented by 
municipal officers. The Board of Health, the Com- 
mon Council, the Supervisors and representatives of 
the medical fraternity were present, as were also a 
large number of dairymen and cattle-owners of the 
county. Chairman Greeninger of the Supervisors 

Veterinary Inspector Spencer said since March 20 
he had examined 892 head of cattle. Of this number 
225 had been found to be diseased. During July 331 
cattle had been examined. The state of affairs was 
found to be appalling. The dairymen have ordinarily 
submitted gracefully to inspection, and until lately 
had requested the slaughter of diseased cattle. Over 
eighty head of cattle had been slaughtered. Those 
who refused to kill their cattle threatened to drive 
them to other counties. 

Dr. Simonton, president of the Santa Clara County 
Medical Society, said that from July, 1894, to July, 
1895, there were 11.349 deaths in the State, of which 
tuberculosis stood at the head with 1789, pneumonia 
889 and stomach troubles 738. The disease has in 
recent years been discovered to be not inheritable, 
but a communicable disease, and he asked i " What 
right has anybody to deal out and sell poison to his 
neighbors, to children? " The effect was appalling, 
said the doctor, and he cited that there was plenty 
of law to prevent the sale of this poison in meat or 
in milk, and all that was needed was backbone in the 
authorities to enforce the laws. 

The question of inspecting the herds and killing 
the diseased cattle was discussed at great length by 
the representatives of the several cities and towns 
present, a great many dairymen and cattle-owners 
joining. A resolution was finally adopted instruct- 
ing Veterinary Inspector Spencer to inspect the 
herds of the county and to kill the condemned ani- 
mals ; but, before inspecting, to get a signed agree- 
ment from the owner of the same to submit to the 
killing of the diseased cattle. The inspector was 
also instructed to report each month the owners of 
dairies who refused to submit to inspection, and 
their names will be published. 

The Annual Fruit Olut. 

For some days past the receipts of pears at San 
Francisco from Sacramento river points has been 
very heavy and many hundreds of boxes have gone to 
waste. On Tuesday whole boxes of fine fruit were 
freely given to whoever would cart them away from 
the Clay-street dock. At the same time, in the re- 
tail stores throughout the city, pears were selling 
freely at 60 cents to $1 per box. 

August 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


Pith of the Week's News. 

The Christian Endeavor convention is in session this week 
at Santa Cruz. 

The Methodist summer encampment is in session this week 
at Pacific Grove. 

" No Chinese need apply " is the rule this season at the 
Chico cannery. About 130 hands are employed. 

General John Bidwell has resigned as a trustee of the 
State Normal School at Chico on account of ill health. 

The projected carnival in San Francisco has been "post- 
poned until April," which signifies that it will never again be 
heard of. 

Floods in the Jogwan-Ji river in Japan have inundated 
vast districts, destroyed property of incalculable value and 
drowned many thousands of people. 

Pittsburg and vicinity was the scene of a death-dealing 
hurricane on Tuesday of this week. Eight persons were killed 
and many were badly hurt. The damage to property was very 

The appeal in the Durrant case reached the Supreme Court 
on Tuesday. The decision, it is said, will be rendered in four 
months. In the meantime the murderer is living at the ex- 
pense of the tax-payers. 

London, July 28.— An Odessa dispatch to the Times an- 
nounces that official reports are to the effect that the harvest 
has been a failure throughout the most fertile grain-producing 
districts in the south of Russia. 

Candidate Bryan is said to be a poor man, his whole 
property consisting of his library and household furniture. At 
the date of last assessment he reported his cash on hand at 
$106.50. The whole cost of his nomination at Chicago was $42. 

Prop. Charles W. Childs, for many years head of the 
State Normal School at San Jose, has been deposed and his 
post given to Prof. A. H. Randall. Gov. Budd has all along 
been unfriendly to Childs, and the change is due to his in- 

In former years an "advisory committee," composed of lead- 
ing party men from all parts of the country, has been a feat- 
ure of the Republican campaign organization, but there will 
be no such committee this year. Mr. Hanna thinks the 
national committee quite able to attend to the work without 

Speaker Reed has decided to remain in public life and will 
be a candidate for re-election to Congress. His plan, so it is 
said, will be to again seek the speakership and to oppose ex- 
treme tariff legislation in the event of McKinley's election. 
Mr. Reed proposes to take an active part in the'presidential 

There is great indignation in San Francisco respecting the 
course of seven members of the Board of Supervisors which 
seem to be dictated by the grossest corruption. A public 
meeting has denounced them as traitors and their misdeeds 
are being considered by the Grand Jury with reference to a 
criminal prosecution. 

David Douglass, sheriff of Nevada county, was killed on 
Monday by a highwayman who he was attempting to arrest. 
He was a native Califoruian, aged 38, and leaves a wife and 
child. The bandit who killed Douglass — and who was himself 
killed— turns out to be C. Myers, a stepson of Theodore Win- 
ters. Although given every opportunity by Mr. Winters, he 
preferred to lead a wild life. 

It is not likely that Justice Field will ever return to his 
duties in the Supreme Court, but it is said that he is deter- 
mined to hold his place until the appointment of his successor 
shall devolve upon a President other than Mr. Cleveland. 
The story is that Cleveland once put a slight upon the aged 
judge and the latter does not wish him to have the satisfac- 
tion of naming his successor. 

The platform adopted by the Populist convention at St. 
Louis demands the free coinage of silver at the ratio of 16 to 
1, denounces the recent bond issue, denounces the special 
gold contract decision of the Supreme Court, calls for a 
graduated income tax and demands the establishment of 
postal savings banks. In the matter of transportation, it 
declares for public ownership of railways and telegraphs and 
denounces the Pacific Railroad refunding project. Its general 
propositions are for the "initiative" and referendum, the 
election of President by popular vote, the reduction of official 
salaries, declares sympathy with Cuba, etc., etc. 

Dr. Jameson, leader of the Transvaal raid of last fall, and 
a half-dozen of his aristocratic associates were on Tuesday 
convicted of violating the neutrality laws and sentenced to 
terms of imprisonment varying from seven to fifteen months, 
without labor. This was the least possible punishment which 
could be given and is intended as a merely nominal vindica- 
tion of the law. The convicted men have been and will con- 
tinue to be treated as national heroes. It is not England's 
policy to really punish those who attempt to advance her 
dominion, no matter how illegal or violent their methods may 
be. Having now disposed of the tools in this Transvaal out- 
rage, it remains for England to dispose of Mr. Cecil Rhodes. 
He was the instigator of the raid; it was his support that 
made it possible; the proofs against him have been sub- 
mitted to the English Government by the Transvaal Govern- 
ment with the request that he be dealt with according to his 

No definite steps have been taken by the anti-silver Demo- 
crats towards the setting up of an independent or gold ticket, 
and it is doubtful if it will be done. In the meantime it is 
very interesting to watch the course of the leading bolters. 
Mr. Cleveland has given no hint of what his position will be. 
Mr. Whitney has taken pains to say that he will not vote for 
Bryan. Secretary Olney has publicly made a similar state- 
ment. Secretary Carlisle, it is said, will swallow the lump 
in his throat and stand by the Chicago ticket. Secretary 
Hoke Smith will do the same thing. Secretary Lamont don't 
count, but he will wag whichever way Mr. Cleveland may 
wink. Secretary Morton is in positive opposition to the Chi- 
cago ticket, and it is believed that he would like to lead, in 
the character of Presidential nominee, the forlorn hope of the 
gold standard Democrats. Senator Hill of New York will, it 
is said, part company with the Tammany Society, that organi- 
zation having formally accepted Bryan and free silver. Most 
of the greater Democratic papers in the East have come out 
squarely for McKinley, and their course is a pretty fair index 
of the sentiment of those who read and support them. The 
chances are that as the free silver forces of the country have | 
combined in support of Bryan, so the advocates of gold will , 
unite on McKinley. 

The Populist National Convention at St. Louis last week 
did what it was fore-ordained to do, namely, it nominated 
Wm. J. Bryan of Nebraska for the Presidency ; but it was a 
result achieved amid a storm of controversy, and it is far 
from being satisfactory to the whole body of the party. The 
leaders, generally speaking, were for Bryan. Allen, Weaver, 
Llewellyn, Pfeffer, Butler, St. John, and others like them, of 
practical experience in political affairs, saw the opportunity 
to combine the silver forces of the country and were eager to 
take advantage of it, even though it might involve some sac- 
rifice of party claims and some damage to the party organiza- 
tion. But there were others — notably, Mr. Ignatius Don- 
nelly of Minnesota, Secretary Taubeneck of the National Com- 

mittee and a whole host of Southern men — who, holding party 
interests above every other consideration, contended for a 
straight-out Populist ticket, in entire disregard of the exist- 
ence of Mr. Bryan and of the Democratic stand for free silver 
coinage. The Bryan men were in the majority and easily 
made their leader, Senator Allen, the chairman; but the 
"middle-of-the-roaders" were nevertheless strong enough 
to be a very important factor in the proceedings. As a com- 
promise, they proposed to nominate a straight-out Populist 
for Vice-President and then to indorse Bryan for the first 
place. This was agreed to and the thing was done ; but at 
this juncture Bryan sent a message to the convention declin- 
ing to accept its favors, unless Mr. Sewall, his associate on 
the Democratic ticket, should be included in the indorsement. 
This was something of a stunner. For twenty-four hours the 
problem was wrangled over, and the outcome was Mr. Bryan's 
nomination over his own protest. So the matter stands : The 
Populist candidate for the Presidency is Wm. J. Bryan, who 
is also the Democratic nominee ; and the Populist candidate 
for the Vice-Presidency is Thos. L. Watson of Georgia. Thus 
Mr. Bryan is in the unique position of having two tails to his 
political kite. What he will do in this situation is not yet 
announced; but he will probably so manage it as to get the 
full Populist vote in those States where it will be of any 
practical value. No matter how this detail of the Vice-Presi- 
dency may be settled, the practical union of all the silver 
forces is now definitely assured. The Democratic party, the 
Populist party and the new Silver party are combined, in 
that they have all set up the same great issue and have 
named a single man as its champion. There is every reason to 
believe that in November Mr. Bryan will receive every silver 
vote in the country— that is, the vote of every man who be- 
ileves in free silver and who also believes that silver is a 
higher issue than Protection. 


A creamery agitation has been started at Nicolaus, Sutter 

The Yuba City cannery has made a large run on Washing- 
ton gage plums. 

Prunes give every promise of turning out a good crop in the 
Yuba City district. 

The daily shipment of berries last week from Pajaro was 
640 chests, or four carloads. 

The Fresno Dairy Association ships large quantities of cream 
to the Los Angeles market. 

The Napa County Supervisors are rapidly extending the 
facilities for road sprinkling. 

Several prune orchards in the vicinity of Visalia have 
dropped a large share of their fruit due to the yellow mite. 

Owing to the light fruit crop in the vicinity of Anderson the 
people of that place have abandoned the idea of holding a fair 
this Fall. 

The Knight's Landing creamery is turning out oue-pound 
rolls and finds ready sale sale for them, many buyers prefering 
small forms. 

On the Sturgis ranch, near the Pacheco road, in Contra 
Costa county, last week, three large stacks of grain were 
burned by an incendiary. 

The Australian ladybug has appeared in large numbers 
about Corralitos and in the northern part of the Pajaro valley 
and is rapidly clearing out the woolly aphis. 

"Grain-uuyers," says a Davisville correspondent, "are 
anxious, it would seem, from the number of agents visiting 
our town. The chief demand is for brewing barley. I hear of 
no offers for wheat." 

Lakeport Bee : "The management of Highland Springs be- 
lieves in doing things in a hurry. Monday they took two tons 
of new barley to the mill, had it crushed and commenced feed- 
ing it that evening. It is seldom that grain is threshed, 
ground and consumed in the same day." 

Oroville Mercury : " It is reported that between forty and 
fifty horses and mules have died from the excessive heat in 
the past ten days in and around Gridley, while being worked 
on combined harvesters. One man had nine mules die in one 
day on his machine. On Friday and Saturday the harvesters 
stopped work on account of heat." 

Dixon Tribune: "James Campbell last week harvested 
fifty acres of wheat, which averaged twenty sacks to the acre, 
weighing 145 pounds to the sack, or a trifle over 48 bushels per 
acre. This result is mainly due to the rest given the land by 
fruit culture. A year ago, the trees proving unprofitable, they 
were cut down and the land sown in grain." 

WatsonyiIiLE Pitfaronicbri: "Waters & Porter established 
a berry record in the showing we published last week — 28 
chests in one picking from less than an acre of ground — but 
that record has to go. That same patch of ground has turned 
off 38 chests of strawberries in one picking this week. Nearly 
two tons of berries from less than an acre of ground in one 
picking ! Can it be beaten 3" 

The farmers of Woodland who are experimenting in beet 
culture find the sending of beets to the Spreckels refinery 
very unsatisfactory. Their complaint is that the refinery 
managers are very negligent in attending to the matter and 
there is an annoying delay in learning the outcome of experi- 
ments. They will, therefore, engage a chemist to come to 
Woodland and make the tests on the ground where the beets 
are grown. 

Tulare Times: "The man who thinks people don't want to 
work, and wouldn't work if they had an opportunity, ought to 
have gone down to the cannery this afternoon about 1 o'clock. 
Several hundred of the brightest-looking women and girls in 
Tulare county were there ready to begin cutting fruit, and 
one could see by the expressions on their faces that it would 
have been a grievous disappointment if they had been denied 
an opportunity to work." 

The introduction of raisin-seeding machines, says the 
Fresno Expositor, is greatly increasing the consumption of 
raisins. Within the last few years there have been 10!) 
patents granted for raisin seeders, including hand and power 
machines. Every first-class grocery in the East now has 
some hind of seeder, and when a customer buys a supply of 
raisins he can have the seeds removed while he waits — same 
as he gets his coffee ground. 

The Livermore Herald grows eloquent in descanting upon 
the success of the new Livermore creamery : " The creamery 
raises the dignity of the cow and enhances her value. Al- 
ready the cow market of Livermore valley has taken a de- 
cided upward jump; good milch cows are salable to-day for 
almost twice the money that they would bring before the 
creamery started ; and does not this new enterprise, for that 
reason alone, deserve the encouragement of our farmers?" 

A contributor to the Dixon Trtbyne says : "The tendency 
of our grain fields to run into wild oats and other undesirable 
growths ought to be an incentive to our grain growers to 
raise sheep, goats and such animals that can subsist on scanty 
feed. Placed on summerfallowed land, a band of a few sheep 
would in a short time rid the ground entirely of growing oats, 
and going further would clean the ground of oats and othe>' 
seeds that hogs could not find. Scne of our farmers own 
small bands of sheep, and they, as a rule, have the cleanest 
grain to be found. The idea has always been prevalent that 

sheep trample the ground solid and cut it up into paths, but 
this is a mistaken idea, as no harm can result from a small 
band of sheep scattering over a field, as has been demon- 
strated here beyond a doubt." 

Says the San Jose Tree and Vine: "Dryers do not sea 
their way clear to offer very large prices for fresh prunes 
Some are willing to pay from $15 to $18 per ton. At these 
figures some who expected to sell their crop will now dry the 
fruit and take their chances. Every one now concedes that 
there will be a shortage in the crop; and if not too seriously 
depressed and injured by the old stock now in the hands o"f 
Eastern dealers, the market ought to improve beyond the 
present situation." 

Supt. Stewart of the Chino cannery has invented a ma- 
chine for cleaning syrups off the tops of fruit cans. The 
Enterprise thus describes it: "It consists of twelve caps, 
around which are circular openings. The caps fit down over 
the cans and steam is forced out through the openings. No 
water can get into the cans, and their tops are entirely 
cleaned from any substance that prevents the solder from 
taking thorough hold and making the cans airtight. The 
machine is a great success." 

Tulare Times: " A rodeo was made on the Harrell ranch 
yesterday, and it was discovered that the cattle are pestered 
with a new species of fly. It attacks an animal just over the 
weathers and works down the sides. In all his experience, 
Mr. Harrell says he never saw anything like them. They are 
small and quite long, and if they don't eat the cattle up 'they 
will be the means of starving them to death, for when they 
get on an animal he has no time to eat, as all his time is re- 
quired to get away with the pests." 

A solano correspondent sounds this timely note of warning : 
"Someday before long our farmers will awaken to the fact 
that they do not possess sufficient horses and mules to carry on 
their farming operations with, if such is not the case already. 
We see daily farmers piling their grain in the fields and wait- 
ing for the end of harvest to haul it for the simple reason that 
they have no extra teams. Horses and other like stock have 
been cheap so long that our farmers have neglected to raise 
them and now having no extra money to buy more must neces- 
sarily do without." 

Solano Republican ; "The fruit companies, by working up 
a trade in the smaller Eastern cities, thereby securing a 
wider distribution of fruit, have been purchasing large quan- 
tities of green fruits during the past three weeks. Provided 
reasonable prices can be obtained, growers prefer doing their 
business in this way, as cash f. o. b. is preferable to involving 
the risk in consigning their products to Eastern auction mar- 
kets. Sales of f. o. b. invariably net growers more money 
than consignments, and they receive cash for f. o. b. fruit as 
soon as it is shipped, which in itself is a great advantage." 

The San Jose Mercury boasts that Santa Clara county has 
the finest roads in the State, and that nearly every mile is 
sprinkled daily, whereupon the Lompoc Record says: "Santa 
Clara may have more miles of good road than any other 
county, but all who have traveled our Ocean avenue from 
town to the river say there is no other road in the State that 
equals it. There is not a single rut or defect in nine miles, 
and soon the entire length will be sprinkled twice per day. 
* * * One hundred dollars in sprinkling is estimated by 
those who have had years of experience and observation to be 
equal to $1000 expended in the old way of keeping roads in 
good condition for travel." 

San Jose Mercury. "According to the San Francisco 
Report, the milkmen of the State are about to organize so as 
to prevent the passage of a bill in the next Legislature com- 
pensating dairymen for cows that may be officially slaugh- 
tered on account of disease. Such a thing is preposterous. As 
well might the owner of a mad dog demand damages from the 
city because in the public interest the animal had been killed 
by a city official. We do not think the dairymen will enter 
any such combination. Their own interests require that their 
herds should be healthy, and they certainly should not object 
to the killing of animals which are diseased and capable of 
spreading the contagion to cows that are not affected." 

The Pajaronian comes forward early with this word of 
sound counsel to prune growers: "The time is fast approach- 
ing when our friends the prune growers, so anxious to test the 
law of gravitation, will rush at their trees, and, with neither 
sense nor reason, shake fifty cents from them, while, had they 
one to two weeks more patience, one dollar would drop of its 
own accord. If not literally so, the point is at least worth 
considering. All — almost all — will agree with me, and yet 
hardly one will practice it. It is an accepted axiom in prune 
culture that the fruit must be fully ripe before it is cured. 
Shake the trees, however gently, and you cannot prevent the 
unripe prunes from falling. The sheet arrangements, or any 
other device for encouraging this " shaking " is a curse to the 
industry. It is suicidal, this scrambling haste to get the 
prunes dried in the cheapest way, and the first to market. 
French treatises have been translated and published from 
time to time, urging upon this as the most essential part in 
the business — to let the prune hang on the tree until it is 
fully ripe, when it will drop naturally." 

Says the Healdsburg Enterprise: "There are too many 
free peaches for the clings produced, and the orchardist, when 
he sells his crop, wants to sell it all. Canners are in the 
market for all the cling peaches they can get at good prices. 
They say they can not get anywhere's near the quantity 
they will use in this locality. To every ton of clings produced 
here, there are four tons of frees, and so, since the canner's 
trade calls for four tons of clings to one of frees, he must look 
outside for his pack in this line. Taking a cue from our ob- 
servations this week, we believe the orchardist had best pre- 
pare to dry his Crawford peaches. * * * In pears the 
difficulty lies with quality. The crop is fairly good, but not of 
the best grade. Last year we had only a few Bartletts, but 
they were fine and brought good prices. Undoubtedly the 
greater portion of this fruit will be put in tin, although the 
grower will have to be satisfied with a low price or dry. * * 
Canners are not going to speculate this season. Times are 
too hard and money too scarce. They will pack up to or 
perhaps a little beyond their present orders, but not in any 
large way. Money is more valuable than canned goods these 

Says the Vacaville Reporter: "The experience of the Dixon 
ranchers turns out as usual. With some the growing of the 
sugar beet was a success; with others it was more or less of a 
failure. Some did not plow deep enough; others did not give 
the care and attention to the young plauts which was de- 
manded. It appears, however, from the result of the experi- 
ment, that the Dixon soil and climate are suitable for the fa- 
vorable growth of the sugar beet. That is the main thing. 
The best method of growing the crop is a matter of detail. It 
will doubtless be found that much of the failure is from the 
indisposition of men accustomed to growing grain on a largo 
acreage, to bother with so petty a thing as a sugar beet. It 
took years for some of the fruit growers of this locality to get 
accustomed to the attention to detail required by the opera- 
tion of an orchard or vineyard. The ranchers of Dixon will 
accustom themselves to a change and it will pay them. But 
the transition from grain growing to planting sugar beets is 
decided and marked, and it will take time to ax-ustom them- 
selves to it. It is the crop of the future for Dixon, however, 
and despite any obstacles the people of that section should go 
ahead on the lines of their necessity and interest, grow beets 
and secure a factory." 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

August 1, 1896. 

Weather and Crops. 

Hjnbpsll of the Report or State Weather ISureau for Week 
Ending .luiy 37th. 

Sacramento Valley Count leu. 

Tehama County (Ked Bluff). -The grain harvest is abput 
over Fruit has suffered somewhat from the extreme heat, 
and in some places prunes dropped badly. On the whole, the 
fruit crop will not average more than half a crop. (Gorningl— 
The hot weather and grasshoppers have discouraged a few 
young orchards. The wheat and barley crops are turning out 

W b!'tte Coomtt (Pentz).-Weather still very oppressive. 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 102° and 02 . 
Glenn County.— Highest temperature, 88 . 
Colusa Countt (Colusa).-Fruit crop will be large The 
wheal crop will not be as heavy as was expected. (Arbuckle) 
Grain output will be large. (Grimes)-Fruitcrop will scarcely 

pay lor the picking. 
Sutter County (Yuba City) 

-The yield of wheat in this 

county is only a fair one. 

Placer County.— The second crop of fags and grapes is a 
good one. Potatoes are rotting in the ground, and when they 
are dug in good condition they do not keep. (Newcastle)— 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 93° and 54°, with .04 of an 
inch of rain. , , 

You> County (Davisville).— The heated term seems to be 

^Solano County (Vacaville).— The fruit and vegetables on 
the hill ranches are all gathered and shipped, except grapes, 
which will make a very short crop this year. 

.Napa, Sonoma and Santa Clara Valleys. 

Napa County (Napa).— Highest and lowest temperatures, 
its and 51°. The hot spell has done no damage to fruit. 

Sonoma County (Peachland).— The crop of early peaches is 
very light and quality is only fair. Highest and lowest tem- 
peratures, 78° and 57°, with .07 of an inch of rain. 

Santa Clara County. - There never has been better 
weather for fruit drying than the present season, but the 
crop is small. The apricot crop is heavier than at first 
thought it would be. In some parts of the valley the prunes 
are dropping to a large extent. Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures at Santa Clara, 78° and 58°. (Campbell)— The crop of 
prunes, peaches and apricots is turning out to be a good aver- 
age, and some orchardists report an extra large crop. (Los 
Gatos)— The windy weather has blown off some fruit from the 
trees. Pears and prunes are doing well and the crop will be 
a good one. Grapes will be a good crop. 

San Benito County (Hollister).— The crop of wheat and 
barley is a good oue, and the hay crop is an unusually large 
one. There will be a large crop of Bartlett pears. Highest 
and lowest temperatures, 7ti° and ">0°. The flax crop is a 
good one. 

San Joaquin Valley. 

San Joaouin County (Lodi).— Wheat is spotted, turning 
out all the way from four to fourteen sacks to the acre. Corn, 
melons and pumpkins are all doing well. Highest and lowest 
temperatures, and 58°. 

Stanislaus County.— Rainfall here was .85 of an inch, while 
two miles from town there was 1.50 inches, which will be 
liable to injure dry feed and straw. Highest and lowest tem- 
peratures, 100° and 65°. 

Fuesno County (Huron).— During the week ending July 
isth the temperature ranged from 90° to 120°. The grain 
which was harvested on the west side has been of good qual- 
ity and well filled. (Fresno)— Highest and lowest tempera- 
tures. 107° and 64°, with .00 of an inch of rain. (Easton)— 
Highest and lowest temperatures, 107° and 75. with a trace 
of rain. 

Tulake County (Poplar).— The thermometer ranged from 
110° to 117° Harvesting about completed and crops are rang- 
ing from two to three sacks per acre of good grain. (Visalia)— 
The dried fruit was slightly damaged by the few light show- 
ers which fell on the 22nd. (Tulare) — Upon the heaviest 
loaded prune trees the fruit is sunburning to some extent. 
iGoshen)— The thunder shower of the 24th produced a rainfall 
of hail half an inch, which spoilt some hay. The grain yield 
is good. 

Kern County (Bakersfield).— A heavy shower of rain fell on 
the morning of the 22nd. 

Southern California. 

Ventuka County. — The past week has been very unfavor- 
able for the bean crop and the chances are that the crop will 
bo a light one. Highest and lowest temperatures, 80° and 
55°. (Ventura) — There was .20 of an inch of raiu on the 
night of the 2lst. No such rain has fallen here before since 
July, 1872. Out in the valley it was like heavy fog. It did 
the bean crop great good. 

Los County (Burbank).— Crops are looking fine. 
Apricots and early peaches are about all gone. Apples and 
pears are looking well. 

San Bernardino County (Chino). — Next week the beet 
harvest will begin. The entire crop here aud at Anaheim will 
aggregate 80,000 tons. The Anaheim crop will be a very 
light one. 

Han Dieoo County 'El Cajon).— Crops are doing well and 
raisin grapes are beginning to ripen. The peach crop is a 
short one. 

Coast Counties. 

Hi mkoldt County.— Fruit crop light, but of good quality. 

Santa Cruz County (Pajaro).— Beans will make about the 
poorest crop of any in this valley for this season. 

Monterey County (Salinas).— The hot weather has hast- 
ened the ripening of the sugar beets in this valley and will 
slightly lessen the tonnage, but the crop is a big one and will 
go to the factory earlier than usual. 

the risk of deterioration while in transit is much 
greater than with pears. 

The English orange market is almost wholly sup- 
plied from convenient Mediterranean ports, but 
there is some demand for large American oranges, 
especially in autumn, when the Mediterranean crop 
is exhausted. Two years ago, before the Florida 
orange crop and most of the orange trees in that 
State were destroyed by severe storms and frosts, 
we sent to England between 6000 and 7000 boxes of 
extra large and choice Blond as, which were sold at 
satisfactory prices. We are not exporting any Cali- 
fornia fruit this summer, but we shall probably ship 
some winter pears when they come along, and also 
some California navel oranges, as no navels are 
grown in Europe, and they are a novelty abroad. 

Whether or not the shipping of California fruit to 
England will ever be done with uniform success is 
yet an unsolved problem. Certainly it can't be done 
unless we send the choicest fruit and can count on it 
being landed in good marketable condition. The 
English people will take no trash. They want only 
the best fruit. Americans have the same ideas. 
Poor fruit can be sold here only at a great sacrifice, 
while for choice fruit there is always an active de- 
mand right here in the United States. We often 
receive here in this city at the height of the season 
as many as 100 carloads of California fruit in a single 
week. The enormous product of the Pacific slope is 
increasing so rapidly, however, that an outlet must 
be found for it abroad, and for the man who can 
devise some reliable means for its speedy and safe 
transportation to transatlantic ports there awaits 
not only fame and fortune, but the everlasting grati- 
tude of the fruit growers of the Golden State. 

Points for California Fruit Shippers. 

(New York Tribunf, 26th inst.) 

American apples, in season, are always in good 
demand in the English market, but they must be 
choice and of bright color, the British preferences 
being for red apples. Our apples are superior to 
those grown in transatlantic countries, and there- 
fore not seriously affected by competition with the 
foreign product. Pears, peaches, plums, grapes, 
oranges, etc., come into direct competition with the 
prolific crops of Europe, which are so near the Eng- 
lish market that they can always be delivered in 
sound condition. 

Bartlett pears, if large, choice and sound, can 
usually be sold for profitable prices in England. In 
order, as far as possible, to assure their arrival in 
good order, they must be picked and forwarded 
while they are green ; but even then there is no cer- 
tainty that they will be in marketable condition when 
landed. Peaches and plums are so perishable that 

Ferrets for Squirrels. 

To the Editor : — With reference to your paragraph on the 
squirrel question, may I be permitted to ask through your 
columns if any of your readers have tried ferrets as a cure; 

These animals are much used in England for bolting rab- 
bits, rats, etc., from their holes, and I think would be very 
effective in ridding our orchards from the pest. 

I have tried to get them from several animal dealers in San 
Francisco, but have not been able to do so, though one dealer 
told me he would be able to supply them soon at $10 per pair. 

For the benefit of your readers who do not know how to use 
them I may say that the modus operandi is as follows: Put 
your ferret in at one hole, and at all other outlets for same 
hole have a man with a sack held over it tightly, so that 
when the squirrel bolts he will run into the sack. The ferret, 
I feel confident, would bolt a squirrel as easily as it would a 
rabbit or a rat, and in a very short time every squirrel on the 
place would be captured. 

If effective, it would not only be doing much good, but would 
furnish capital sport. H. G. Ronting. 


Ferrets have been talked about for this service in 
years gone by. and if we are not mistaken have also 
been tried. Why they are not used we are not quite 
sure, but we apprehend that the trouble is that it 
would take more man's work to kill squirrels with 
ferrets than by any other means, except perhaps by 
shooting. In day's work it would often cost more 
than the land would be worth to ferret the squirrels 
out of it. Squirrels' burrows do not usually have 
several exits. The burrow runs to a pocket-like 
nest, and that is the end of it. The squirrels must, 
therefore, come out by the way the ferret goes in. 
One man could, therefore, operate with a ferret and 
a club if he could trust himself not to get nervous 
and club the life out of a $5 ferret instead of a squir- 
rel. But if no such mistake were made, it would 
still take too much time to handle the squirrel prob- 
lem that way. Any method which involves personal 
attention to each individual squirrel is too expen- 
sive ; if it were not so, trapping would do. Scatter- 
ing poisoned wheat or injecting bisulphide of carbon, 
which kills at one dose every living thing in the bur- 
row and pocket, come as near being cheap as any 
method of squirrel treatment that has thus far been 
suggested. The reason why squirrels are not re- 
duced is because people cannot find time or money 
to apply even the cheapest treatment to the vast 
unoccupied areas, which are breeding grounds. 
Ordinances, bounties, threats and promises have not 
yet satisfactorily settled the great unreached squir- 
rel of the neglected areas. 


Approved Small Fruits. 

To the Editor: — I send you herewith descriptive 
notes of two small fruits of much interest. 

Tlic Dollar Strawberry. — This is the most beautiful 
and best shipping strawberry that we grow. It is 
not so great a yielder as the Mexican strawberry, 
but where choice fruit is wanted, to ship any dis- 
tance, we believe that the Dollar strawberry will be 
the best to grow. The fruit of the Dollar straw- 
berry is quite large, oblong in shape, and of a clear, 
shining red color, dotted with golden seeds. It is a 
tall-growing plant, with large dark-green leaves, 
blossom perfect. A strange peculiarity of this plant 
is that the young plants yield a crop of fruit before 
they are rooted. The Dollar strawberry readily sells 
for a larger price than all other varieties, on ac- 
count of its beautiful appearance. 

We grow about 300 varieties of strawberries, and 

have a good chance to observe which is the best, and 
for beauty and a first-class shipper the Dollar stands 
at the head. For large berries and a great and 
enormous yield of fruit the Mexican is far ahead of 
anything ; but the fruit is soft and it is a poor ship- 
per. It is a splendid berry for home use, however, 
and sells well in all home markets. 

The Strausbtrry-Ratpberry. — This is as yet a com- 
paratively new fruit. It attains a height of from 
3 to 5 feet. With us it dies down every winter, but 
throws up a luxuriant growth early in the spring. 
The young plants when only 4 inches high commence 
fruiting and continue until Christmas, or until the 
heavy frosts set in. The fruit is as large as a good- 
sized Lawton or Kittitany blackberry, of a lustrous, 
shining red color, and looks like a large strawberry ; 
it possesses a strange, delightful flavor, and it can 
be used for every purpose that the strawberry is 
put to. Ripening, as it does, from July until Christ- 
mas, it is destined to be a great market berry ; it is 
more showy and beautiful than any strawberry, and 
will surely bring a big price in the market. It is a 
natural peculiarity of the plant to die down every 
winter ; all the fruit is produced on wood of one 
spring and summer's growth ; one plant will yield a 
tremendous lot of fruit. These plants are propa- 
gated by suckers, and after a person has one plant 
it is not long before they have 100. The strawberry- 
raspberry will flourish anywhere that the raspberry 
will grow. S. L. Watkins. 

Gizzly Flats, Cal. 

[We are aware that the Dollar strawberry has 
very good poiuts and it has been grown in the foot- 
hills in a small way for some years. The strawberry- 
raspberry we know nothing of beyond Mr. Watkins' 
description. — Ed.] 

The Crater Blight of Pear. 

To the Editok: — Allow me to reply to Prof. 
Hedrick's remarks in regard to the crater blight of 
pear, which appeared in the issue of the Rural 
Press of July 25th. He believes the disease to be 
identical with what he calls apple canker, and de- 
plores the creation of a new name. 

I am not certain that I know the disease he calls 
canker and which he describes as being produced by 
a fungus. The disease I have described as crater 
blight, however, is not a fungus disease at all, but 
appears to be a true blight allied to the "real pear 
blight." It even attacks the foliage as well as the 
stem, but differs from the Eastern pear blight in 
many particulars, especially in its very slow rate of 
progress and most strikingly by the breaking of the 
bark, forming a sharp line of demarkation between 
the diseased spot and the healthy portions of the 
stem, and, when the spot is small, making the crater- 
like pit which suggested the name. 

We have made some progress in the study of the 
disease, in that we are very uniformly able to obtain 
pure cultures of a peculiar bacillus. Innoculation 
experiments have so far given only negative results. 
The disease occurs on many varieties of pears and 
on a few appies. There are a number of diseases 
known to me occurring on apples and agreeing more 
or less with Prof. Hedrick's description of the apple 
canker, but none that 1 know can be mistaken for 
the crater blight. Indeed, the crater-like appear- 
ance of this blight on the apple is very pronounced 
on account of the small size of the spots. 

The crater blight certainly occurs in Oregon. I 
have had very typical examples from there and ob- 
tained the usual bacterial cultures from it, and that 
it is widespread I have no reason to doubt. Eco- 
nomically the crater blight in most localities is un- 
important, but in some places this year it has done 
an immense amount of injury. 


University of California, Berkeley, July 27th. 

Top Souring. 

To the Editor:— In the article given on sour sap I note it 
reads, "To their remedy for sap souring," while it should 
read, "To their remedy for 'top souring.'" It is understood 
no roots will, for a length of time, stand a sour, stagnant soil. 

Dove, San Luis Obispo Co. T. C. Asmcs. 

This note refers to Mr. Asmus' interesting letter 
to the Rural of July 11th, in which he advocates 
late peach seedling as stock for the French prune 
instead of myrobolan, because by later starting it 
escapes some troubles occasioned by too early 

Beeswax and Honey. 

According to the " Yearbook of the United States 
Department of Agriculture for 1895," for the year 
ending June 30, 1895, there were 90,875 pounds of 
beeswax exported, and there were imported during 
the years ending June 30, 1891, to 1895, the following 
amounts of beeswax: 1891, 379,135 pounds; 1892, 
271,068; 1893, 238,000; 1894, 318,660; 1895, 288,001. 
There were exported during the year ending June 
30, 1895, $118,873 worth of hone v. and there were im- 
ported during the years ending .rune 30, 1891 to 1895, 
the following amounts of honev: 1891, 47,740 
gallons; 1892. 70,103; 1893, 176,147; 1894, 152,643; 
1895, 67,444. 

August 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 

a slight tap, as the shell is very smooth and thin. In 
form and size the nuts vary as much or more than 
the shag-bark hickory, and no doubt can be much im- 
proved by selection and cultivation; and as they can 
probably be grown wherever any walnut can be, 
they should be disseminated as soon as possible. The 
young trees grow rapidly and are not distinguish- 
able in the nursery rows from ./. sieboldiana." 

Juglans mandshurica. — This species, from eastern 
Asia, as previously noted, bears a close resemblance 
to our butternut in habit of growth and foliage and 
in the form and appearance of its nuts. Trees 
grown from seed received from Pekin, China, some 
years ago and planted at Arnold Arboretum are 
hardy there and have borne fruit for several years. 
For pomological purposes this seems to be the least 
promising of the three kinds, owing to the rough, 
thick shell of its nut. 


The use of both the California walnut [Juglans Cali- 
fornica) and the Eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra) 
as occasional trees in the Persian walnut orchards of 
California, for the purpose of supplying pollen to fer- 
tilize the blossoms and insure crops, has led to con- 
siderable inquiry as to the possible or probable re- 
sults to be obtained by crossing one species of Jug- 
lam with another. 

The Vilmorin walnut, supposed to have originated 
near Paris early in the present century, gives evi- 
dence of being a hybrid between Juglans regia and 
Juglans nigra. Felix Gillet, who grew the specimen 
from which the illustration was prepared, says of it: 
" I keep it simply as a curiosity. The nut has the 
shape of a European walnut, but the hard and rugged 
shell of the Eastern black walnut. I do not see any 
direct benefit derived from the crossing of the two 
species, for it certainly does not improve the Euro- 
pean walnut aud improves the black walnut but very 
little. I have several grafted trees of the Vilmorin 
in bearing. Of these, two trees produced several 
nuts last year that matured, though the trees pro- 
duced no male catkins, the nuts having [probably] 
been fertilized by the catkins of Chaberte trees close 
by. The pistillate bloom on the tips of the nutlets 
of the Vilmorin is pink colored, while that of other 
walnuts is white. My trees were covered with those 
nutlets this spring [1891]. Though there were no 
catkins nor staminate flowers on those trees, I ex- 
pect that many of the nuts will have been fertilized 
from the catkins of one or more varieties of regia 
that grow in the neighborhood and which were in 
bloom at the same time. The foliage of the Vilmorin 
is of a much lighter green than that of any variety 
of J. regia, and the edges of the leaves have small 
teeth, but not so closely set as those of the Eastern 
black walnuts." 

In 1877 Luther Burbank crossed Juglans regia on 
pistillate flowers of Juglans Calif" mica. The result- 
ant nuts were planted in 1878, and in ten years the 
tree from one made the remarkable growth of twelve 
inches diameter at two feet from the ground. It 
was then accidentally destroyed. Buds that had 
previously been secured and set on other stocks show 
the same luxuriant growth of wood and foliage. 
Trees of these, four years from bud, transplanted to 
a hard sidewalk, were in 1891 said to be as large as, 
and taller than, eighteen-year-old regias on cultivated 
ground near by. They are as large as (Jalifornica 
trees ten years of age; the leaves have a very strong 
delightful fragrance of new apples, uulike any other 
tree. The bark is light colored, thin and very 
smooth. Specimen leaves nearly a yard in length 
and a photograph of the budded tree, sent to the 
Division of Pomology in 1892, indicate that the tree 
is a shapely, symmetrical grower that furnishes abun- 
dant shade. Mr. Burbank says: "No other tree 
that I have seen, except eucalyptus, will equal this 
in growth." He has some crosses of ./. nigra and 
J. Calij "ornica, of which one is six years old and ex- 
ceedingly handsome. 

the frontispiece. This will no doubt be highly ac 
ceptable to the legion of friends and admirers of Mr . 
A. S. Fuller, as it is the first portrait of him that has 
ever been published. It forms an appropriate ac- 
companiment to this work, which its author has al- 
ways considered as the most valuable one he has ever 
written, believing that it will develop a new and im- 
portant industry for the benefit of American farmers 
and the prosperity of our country. We will send 
copies of the "Nut Culturist" for $1.50 each, post- 


California Privet as a Hedge Plant. 

It is gratifying to find a California plant winning 
so many encomiums abroad as is our privet. It is 
popular in Europe as well as at the East. There 
was recently a paper read by A. V. Clubs of Pensa- 
cola before the Florida State Horticultural Society, 
in which he gives an outline of his practical experi- 
ence with ornamental hedge plants, and speaks espe- 
cially of the Ligustrum California! , described by 
Henderson as "a species of recent introduction," as 
a shrub remarkable for the beauty of its foliage. 
The leaf is considerably larger than that of the com- 
mon privet, of very dark, waxy green on the upper 
surface, and the under surface pea green. The plant 
is of rapid growth. Singly upon the lawn it is of 
great beauty, while its adaptation for a hedge is 
perfect. There are so many plants that are a suc- 
cess in the North, and prove failures in the South, 
that it gives Mr. Clubs real pleasure in saying that 
eighteen years' cultivation of this plant more than 
justifies the above description by Henderson. 

/how to Grow a Hedge. — Commencing with a single 
plant, from its cuttings I soon had plants by the 
thousand and beautiful hedges by the hundred yards. 
Grown singly and slightly trimmed annually to any 
desired form, it has abundance of white bloom in 
early spring, which is beautiful and fragrant and a 
choice food for the honey bee in its season. Closely 
trimmed, in a solid hedge, it rarely shows any bloom, 
but always presents a beautiful appearance with its 
evergreen foliage. On rare occasions the foliage is 
injured by exceptional frosts. The plant itself is 
never hurt by frost or insects, nor is it subject to 
dying out in spots, like some otherwise valuable 
hedge plants. 

In preparing to plant a hedge with this plant the 
soil should be well broken up with the plow, and a 
liberal quantity of well-rotted stable manure thor- 
oughly worked into the soil. Cuttings of the last 
season's growth, 12 inches long, may be planted in 
double rows, 1 foot apart each way. The cuttings 
should be of medium thickness, planted about 8 
inches in the ground, and planted before the spring 
growth commences. It would be well to plant some 
spare cuttings, that may be rooted at the same 
time, to take the place of any that should fail to 
grow. It is best to trim very closely for the first 
two years to cause the plants to branch near the 
ground. The plant being strictly ornamental, with 
no thorns, it must be protected from cattle, horses 
and goats. When grown singly it should be thor- 
oughly fertilized when planted, and annually trimmed 
to any shape or form desired. This trimming should 
be done when growth is checked by dry weather, 
about midsummer, so as not to destroy the bloom 
buds, which will mature later in the fall for spring 
blooming. To keep up a thrifty growth some sur- 
face application of fertilizer should be applied as 
needed, from year to year, and with reasonable care 
we may be sure of satisfactory results in all sections 
of Florida, and the South generally. 

The Farmer's Garden. 


American Nut Growing. 


Japanese Walnuts {Juglans sieboldiana Maxim.; J. 
cordiformis Maxim.; mandshurica Maxim.). — These 
nuts, the two former of which are natives of Japan 
and the latter of eastern Asia, have been planted for 
some years in California and other States with a 
good prospect of becoming useful, economic trees. 
They are certainly worthy of widespread trial where 
our native walnuts thrive. They are very closely 
allied botanically, and no distinct characters seem to 
have been noted except in regard to the form, size 
and smoothness of the nuts, the varying thickness of 
shell and the quantity and quality of the meat. Of 
the three the nut of J. mandshurica bears a close re- 
semblance to our butternut, J. cinerea, while that of 
J. sieboldiana, more resembles an elongated form of 
Persian walnut, and ./. cordiformis a small, thin- 
shelled, heart-shaped form of the same species. Of 
the similarity of wood, foliage and manner of growth 
of the different species of Japanese walnuts, Luther 
Burbank says: " Among the many thousand seed- 
lings which I have raised from J. sieboldiana and 
from the Tower House trees, I have watched in vain 
for the least variation in foliage or growth. Even 
J. mandshurica and all the various forms which are 
obtained from Japan and Korea are so much alike in 
foliage and growth that no one has been able to ob- 
serve any difference in young trees." 

While it seems probable that the tree now known 
as ./. cordiformis will eventually be considered a 
botanical variety of ./. sieboldiana, the differences in 
the nut characters seem of sufficient importance 
from a pomological standpoint to warrant their dis- 
cussion here as three distinct species. 

Juglans Sieboldiana.— This seems to have been the 
first of the Japanese walnuts introduced. The oldest 
tree now known to be growing in the United States 
has been grown from seed planted about 18(10 by a 
Mr. Tower in Shasta county, Cal. The beauty of 
the tree and the desirability of the nut attracted at- 
tention; its identity was unknown until determined 
in 1881 by G. P. Rixford, to whom the matter was 
referred by the California Horticultural Society. 

It is now widely distributed, being mentioned by 
correspondents in 1891 as grown in California, 
Florida, Michigan, New Jersey and Texas, though 
there was no record at that time of its having fruited 
outside of Shasta, Sonoma and Butte counties, Cal. 
The nut is ovate in form, with a sharpened point and 
smooth shell, which is thicker than that of the Per- 
sian walnut, but thinner than that of the American 
black walnut; the kernel has the flavor of the Ameri- 
can butternut, but is less oily. Its quality is su- 
perior. The nuts are borne in clusters of twelve or 
fifteen each at the tips of the previous season's 
branches. The clusters of pistillate blossoms stand 
at an angle of 45° to the branchlets; and later, as the 
nutlets increase in size, the long, slender stem grad- 
ually curves until the cluster becomes pendant. The 
tree is described by Luther Burbank as follows: 
"This species is found growing wild in the mountains 
of northern Japan, and is, without doubt, as hardy 
as an oak. The leaves are of immense size and a 
charming shade of green. The trees grow with great 
vigor, assume a very handsome form, need no prun- 
ing, mature early, bear young and are more regular 
and productive than the English [Persian] walnut. 
The tree makes a more rapid growth than the shell- 
bark hickory, the pecan, the Eastern black walnut 
or the Persian walnut, but does not grow as fast as 
the native black walnut of northern California." 

Concerning its propagation, Mr. Burbank states: 
" It is easily grafted on our common walnut (./. Cali- 
fornia*), and its trunk retains the same dimensions 
as the stock; but it is by seed that it should be mul- 
tiplied. It reproduces itself perfectly true, and if 
the younger plants remain bushy during the first 
year, the tree shoots afterwards, and, thanks to its 
rapid growth, promptly assumes large dimensions." 

Juglans Cordiformis. — This nut, which is said to be 
indigenous to the island of Yezo, the most northern 
portion of the Japanese Empire, was but recently in- 
troduced. It has not fruited in California, but is re- 
ported as making a satisfactory growth in Sonoma 

Mrs. H. H. Berger says, probably concerning its 
behavior in Japau: "Its Japanese name, Hemi- 
Kurumi, is derived from its distinctly heart-shaped, 
sharp-pointed fruit. The tree, which is of fine ap- 
pearance, bears at four years from the seed and is 
said to attain a great age. As a dessert nut, its 
fruit equals the Persian walnut in flavor, and the 
peculiar heart-shaped form of its kernels, which can 
be extracted whole by boiling the nuts for about five 
minutes and cracking while still hot, gives it a pe- 
culiar value for table use. The meat is very sweet 
and is much used in the form of candied nuts. The 
species is of easy culture, and accommodates itself 
to any soil where the English walnut will grow." 

Mr. Burbank says: "I am thoroughly convinced 
that some of the best varieties of ./. cordiformis will 
prove to be of inestimable value. The meat, which is 
large and of best quality, is removed entire with but 

A New Book on Nut Growing. 

The late A. S. Fuller, the well known Eastern 
horticulturist, before his death finished a book en- 
titled the " Nut Culturist," which will be interesting 
to many Californians. The author of this book has 
for many years made a careful study of the entire 
subject and has given in this volume the results of 
his experiences and investigations. In successive 
chapters he treats upon the almond, beechnut, 
castanopsis, chestnut, filbert, hickory and walnut, 
giving a condensed account of their history, descrip- 
tion of all the species and varieties, together with 
their propagation by seed or otherwise ; modes of 
grafting and budding, transplanting, pruning, gath- 
ering and marketing ; insect and fungus enemies and 
the best means of preventing their ravages ; and all 
the important details in regard to the methods and 
practices for the successful and profitable raising of 
nuts. The closing chapter is devoted to the descrip- 
tion of the fruits which are known in commerce as 
nuts, and to foreign kinds of nuts which are not 
grown successfully in the United States. Over 100 
j original illustrations embellish che volume, and an 
! excellent portrait of the author is presented in 

We find an address recently delivered at a 
Farmer's Institute in the State of Washington, by 
E. G. Grindrod which is very suggestive in the line 
of farmers' gardens. The difference of climate be- 
tween California and our northern coast region 
makes it necessary to read Mr. Grindrod's advice as 
to times of doing things with some reservations but 
his ways will be helpful to many. 

Location. — The spot for the farm garden chould be 
selected from the very best soil on the ranch, within 
a reasonable distance from the kitchen door if such 
soil can be found there. A southeastern slope is 
desirable for earliness, but this is not so important 
as convenience to the house, but wherever located 
the chickens must be kept out by other means than 
shooing or chasing by the dog. An acre, if potatoes 
are grown elsewhere, is about the right size for an 
average family garden, and it should be oblong in 
shape, say 10x16 rods. The longer way should be 
with the slope of the land for convenience in irrigat- 
ing where practiced, as of course the rows must be 
the longest way. 

It is not supposed that everyone shall be able to 
find an ideal location, but he should use common 
sense and combine as many of the desirable qualities 


The Pacific Rural Press. 

August 1, 1896. 

as possible. The location decided upon, it should, 
if possible, be plowed in the late fall, the later the 
better, as this destroys many troublesome insects 
and mice and exposes the soil better to the amelio- 
rating influence of the snows and freezing and thaw- 
\jng of the winter. After plowing it should be 
covered with well-rotted manure or compost at the 
rate of forty large loads to the acre. In spring, just 
as soon as the ground is dry enough to work well, 
the manure should be thoroughly incorporated with 
the disc harrow, followed by the dray harrow. It is 
now ready for plowing, which should be done the 
long way, just as needed for planting. I do not like 
to sow garden seed except upon freshly plowed 
ground. This is more important in dry regions than 
where rains are likely to occur before germination. 
[In California an early fall plowing, the earlier the 
better, should be substituted for the above advice 
for the North. The double working and covering of 
fertilizers should also be done early in the winter, 
for much planting can then be done. The chief mis- 
take in California farm gardens is in beginning too 
late and not securing an early beginning and a long 
growing season. Of course tender vegetables must 
usually be sown later. — En ] 

The plowing should be immediately followed by the 
harrow and clod masher alternately, repeated several 
times until the soil is just as fine and smooth as in 
mother's garden, where the work was all done by 
hand. In fact, I think I prepare my garden soil a 
great deal better now than I ever did in my boy- 
hood days, and with less than a tenth of the labor. 
1 find that horse power is much cheaper and more 
efficient than man power, wherever in can be made 
available, and especially is this true in preparing 
garden soil for the reception of the seed. 

Tools. — I do not know that it is advisable, or at all 
desirable, that every farmer own a full kit of imple- 
ments and tools as the market gardener's business 
requires, but there a few tools which will be found 
indispensable in every farm garden. Every farmer 
is supposed to have plows, harrows, roller, clod- 
masher and a horse-cultivator, which are also neces- 
sary garden tools. In addition to these, a garden 
line, rakes, flat hoes, pointed hoes, garden trowels, 
a seed drill, and wheel hoe, are absolutely indispen- 
sable for the thorough and satisfactory cultivation of 
the garden, and none but thorough cultivation can 
be satisfactory. With the ground thus thoroughly 
prepared as above described, and seed sown in long, 
straight rows, if not exceedingly weedy, the cultiva- 
tion, by the timely and continuous use of the wheel 
hoe, will be found to be but a light and pleasant 

Culture. — As soon as the plants are up large 
enough so the rows can be easily seen and followed, 
cultivation should be at once commenced and the 
operation repeated at least once or twice a week 
during the season, or until the plants are too large 
to be hoed without injury. In garden culture the 
old adage: "A slitch in time saves nine," is especi- 
ally applicable. But few weeds should be allowed to 
see the light. 

Keep the soil stirred so frequently and thorough 
that the weeds never get a chance to put their heads 
through the surface, and you will serve the double 
purpose of keeping the weeds in subjection and also 
furnishing a fine earth mulch, which not only keeps 
the soil in splendid mechanical condition, but also 
prevents the evaporation of the moisture. 

Garden Plant. — The arrangement might be some- 
thing on this plan: Commence at one side with a 
row each of currants (both white and red), goose- 
berries, blackberries and raspberries. The rows of 
these should be 8 feet apart. Then follow with as- 
paragus, rhubarb, strawberries and tomatoes, which 
should have the rows 4 feet apart. Should a whole 
row of any one thing not be required, plant so much 
as needed and complete the rows with something 
else, but the rows should be continuous through the 
whole length for convenience in cultivation with the 
horse cultivator. Everything, the rows of which 
are over 24 inches apart, caD be cultivated much more 
economically with horse labor than by hand. All of 
tb( sc. including corn, beans, peas, cabbage, cauli- 
flower, etc., should always be planted in rows, run- 
ning clear through the garden. 

The other vegetables, such as onions, turnips, 
spinach, lettuce, radishes, carrots, beets, parsnips, 
etc., should be sown in rows 12 to 16 inches apart 
and cultivated with the wheel hoe and, of course, 
\. ith these it is not necessary to extend the rows of 
each through the entire length of the garden, but 
it might be more convenient to arrange them in 
plots, having several rows of each variety together. 

Transplanting Maiden-Hair Ferns. 

T. R. Hopkins, a Seattle florist, gives the North- 
west Horticulturist some hints for those who wish to 
bring native ferns from their summer outings for 
growth in their homes. He notes that replanting 
ferns has proved so disappointing as a general thing 
that he does not wonder that many are deterred 
from attempting it on account of the lack of success 
of those that have tried it on previous seasons. Still, 
it is possible for the average person to succeed. 

Take up only plants that are growing in the most 

exposed places, with such roots as it is practicable 
to obtain. Cut off the fronds so as to leave only a 
few for the plant to support until it gets new roots. 
Pack damp moss or earth around the roots, and 
keep damp until the opportunity comes to place in 
pots or permanent quarters. 

The potting soil should be rough pieces of sod, 
charcoal, old plaster (if easily obtained), or cinders 
that have been exposed to the rain for some time. 

, This should be all broken up in pieces the size of a 

j walnut and smaller. 

It is not of so much importance to have just these 

j things, but get some rough soil; ferns delight in a 
coarse, fibrous soil. Try and obtain it, then place a 

I few of the largest pieces in the bottom of the pot for 
drainage and put the fern in place. Fll the pot up 
around the roots to within an inch of the top of the 
pot. Place in the shade until they are established. 
There wi.l be but little growth that season. The ob- 
ject is to secure a well-rooted plant for the ensuing 
spring, and such will be obtained by the course out- 
lined. When the fall comes the fronds will die down, 
then cover up the pots with a mulch of leaves and 
let them alone until early spring time; again take 
them up, examine the dead plants, bring into any 
moist room, such as the kitchen, and by keeping well 
watered your plants should in eight weeks be in 
splendid condition. Don't throw away your plants 
in the fall because they iook dead. They are getting 
in condition to reward your patience in the spring 
with a splendid growth. There are indeed few of 
the cultivated ferns that are more worthy of care 
than our native maiden hair. 


Rational Feeding of Poultry. 

An address by Prof. M. E. Jaffa of the State University at a 
meeting of the Poultry Keepers' Association at Petaluma. 

{Continued from Inst issue.) 

Having now our standards, let us try and make up 
some rations with the aid of the accompanying table, 
showing the analyses of the different foods. We will 
first make a brief study of the table, so as to be 
familiar with the foods named therein. 



Percentage Composition. 

j Fuel Value 1 lb. 1 
Calories. | 







(Ireen Fodder*. 

1. Corn Fodder 







Sll « 



16 18 



3. Alfalfa 




13 84 




4 40 










1 in 

92 40 









2 70 




1. 10 



1 00 


9. Potatoes 




17 90 

1 00 


10. Beets 







11. Skim Milk 


3 40 





12. Fresh Meat 


20 53 




Dry Fodders. 

13. Harley Grain 

10 90 

12 40 


72 50 

2.40 1425 

10 60 



72 60 






71 60 

1 .63 1430 



2 08 

73 52 

1 74 


17. Wheat Middlings. . . 



4 58 

63 64 

3 57 1246 

18. Wheat Shorts 

10 95 






1». Wheat Bran 

12 42 



64 93 



20. Peas 

10 80 

24. 10 


61 50 

2.5(1 1640 

21. Beans 



1 80 

59 10 


15!" 1 

22 Linseed Oilcake 



5 33 


4 40 1674 

23. Cocoanut Oilcake. . . 


19 16 


51 36 

4 27 1290 

24. Cottonseed Oilcake. 


47 25 

12 21 I 




Two Classes of Foods. — We notice that they are 
naturally divided into two main classes: (1) Foods 
having a high percentage of water and, therefore, 
low contents of water-free substances — these are 
generally termed " green fodders." (2) This class 
comprises those which are rich in water-free mate- 
rial, and hence contain but little water; they appear 
to be dry at the ordinary temperatures and only lose 
the water which they hold when exposed to higher 

These two main classes can be subdivided into 
nitrogenous or those which contain considerable 
flesh-forming material compared with the fat form- 
ers and heat producers, and starchy or carbonaceous 
foods whose composition includes, in the water-free 
portion, a high percentage of carbohydrates and a 
low percentage, comparatively, of flesh formers. As 
examples of the former we have corn, barley, wheat, 
etc., and of the latter class peas, beans, oil cake 
meals and fresh meat. The richest food as regards 
protein is cottonseed meal, with 47 per cent of this 
ingredient. Fresh meat and peas and beans contain 
about the same percentages, but the animal food has 
the advantage, in that its protein is more completely 
digested than that of the vegetable products. 

A Fattening Ration. — Let us now return to the 
question of rations. For an example, suppose we 
have 1000 pounds of laying hens of 6 pounds average 
weight; that would mean about 166 hens. According 
to our standard we require about 50 pounds total 
food, which for our experiment shall be made up from 

wheat, barley, shorts, middlings, corn, cabbage, corn 
fodder and skim milk in the proportions given below. 

Pounds of 












10 Wheat 

8 86 

1 .'11 


7 35 


& Barley 






10 Middlings 




6 36 


10 Shorts 




6 95 


10 Corn Fodder 




1 72 


10 Cabbage 






5 Skim Milk 






60 Total 

.35 27 

5 48 


26 76 

1 18 

This ration fulfills the requirements of total weight 
and water-free matter, but is deficient in protein and 
fat and is excessive in its content of carbohydrates. 
The continued use of such a ration would tend to fat- 
ten the fowl, a condition the poultrvman does not de- 
sire for a laying hen. Fattening tends to make the 
birds lazy, and a lazy hen is not as a rule a laying 

A Balanced Ration for Laying Bens. — To remedy 
the above ration we omit the shorts and substitute 
fresh meat, which is rich in protein and contains 
practically no carbohydrates, and cottonseed meal, 
another nitrogenous food. The modified ration will 
then be — 

Pounds of 











10 Wheat 




7 35 


5 Barlev, Grain 

4 45 



3 62 


10 Middlings 


1 64 




2 Cottonseed Meal 

1 80 










5 Cabbage 


. 11 




5 Skim Milk 







2 40 

1 09 


59 Total 



2 23 



The ration as it now stands is a fairly good one. 
The amounts of the nutrients are all higher than that 
called for by our standard; but then it must be re- 
membered that the figures there given are for di- 
gestible matter, while the table shows only the 
amounts of the crude nutrients. 

Making the necessary allowances for digestibility, 
we will have about the right quantities of the differ- 
ent nutrients requisite for a balanced ration. The 
ration previously quoted would be termed an unbal- 
anced ration — that is, one in which the nutrients do 
not exist in the proper proportions. 

If the flesh formers are in excess, the ration is 
nitrogenous; when the fat and heat producers are 
present in too great a quantity, the ration is car- 

Mineral Matter for tin Hen. — We have said that the 
ration just given conlains the proper amounts of or- 
ganic nutrients. Let us now examine it with refer- 
ence to the mineral matter which it contains. We 
find that in the 59 pounds of food there is only 1 
pound of mineral matter, which, even if this mineral 
matter were to consist entirely of carbonate of lime, 
would be insufficient for the number of eggs which 
the hens consuming this amount of food would lay. 
It has been shown by the analysis of the egg that 
more than 10 per cent of the entire egg consists of 
carbonate of lime. Now, estimating that the hens 
would produce 12 to 15 pounds of eggs per day when 
fed on the ration in question, there would be required 
from 1.2 to 1.5 pound of carbonate of lime, which 
amount could not, iu accordance with what has just 
been said, be obtained from the food. 

Wastes of the Hen.— It might be mentioned at this 
point that the mineral matter of the food eaten is not 
entirely assimilated by the body. And the composi- 
tion of the hen manure, given below, proves that this 
is likewise true of all the nutrients. 


Water 56.00 

Organic Matter 25.50 

Nitrogen 1.60 

Phosphoric Acid 1.75 

Potash 85 

Lime 2.25 

Magnesia 75 

Insoluble Residue, etc 11.30 

Total 100.00 

The unassimiiated fat and carbohydrates are in- 
cluded in the '"organic matter," and the undigested 
protein is represented by the "nitrogen." 

The Lime Supply. — One of the best materials that 
a poultryman can use for supplying the requisite 
lime is oyster shells, or any other variety of shells. 
An experiment in this direction was made at the 
New York Experiment Station and the result was 
such that the use of oyster shells during the laying 
season, where they can be cheaply obtained, was 
strongly recommended. It was found there that one 
pound of oyster shells contained sufficient lime for 
the shells of about seven dozen eggs. 

Shells are not the only source for the lime neces- 
sary for egg shells. Bones also contain a large per- 
centage of lime, as is seen from the following analy- 
sis of clean, dry bones of oxen and sheep: 

Carbonate of Lime 6 to 7 per cent. 

Phosphate of Lime 58 to 63 per cent. 

Phosphate of Magnesia 1 to 2 per cent. 

Fluoride of Calcium 3 per cent. 

Organic Matter 25 to 30 per cent. 

Fresh green bones also contain, besides the lime 
compounds, some protein or flesh formers, which 

August 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press 


adds to their value as a poultry food. The best way 
to render the bones available is to have them broken 
by means of the bone cutter. One pound of the 
green bones is generally considered sufficient for six- 
teen hens. Besides the cut bones or oyster shells, 
the hens must have a generous supply of some kind 
of grit — very coarse sand or broken crockery. 

This grit serves as teeth for the hens and when 
they are unable to obtain it, indigestion and other 
ailments are sure to follow. 

The foregoing remarks about oyster shells, bones, 
etc., while having been made with reference to the 
heavier hens, apply equally to the lighter ones. The 
main ration, however, in the latter case must be 
somewhat changed. 

Another Ration. — For 1000 pounds live weight of 
small hens, a good ration, made up from the foods 
named in Table II, would consist of — 













Egyptian Corn 



























Green Barley 


2 00 





Cottonseed Meal 



2 36 




Fresh Meat 












An examination of the two rations given proves 
that in order to have the proper proportions of the 
different ingredients, or to balance the ration, we 
must have a variety of foods at our command. 

It would be almost impossible to make a balanced 
ration solely from the grain feedstuffs. If the nec- 
essary amount of flesh formers is obtained by the 
use of grain, then the fat and heat producers in the 
ration will be greatly in excess; on the other hand, 
if the carbohydrates or fattening ingredients are 
made the standard, then, when the proper propor- 
tion of this part of the food is supplied b}' the grain, 
the flesh formers will be lacking to a considerable 

We have to depend on the peas, beans, different 
oil-cake meals and fresh meat or meat meal for the 
main sources of the flesh formers. 

By fresh meat is meant lean meat with the mini- 
mum amount of fat. Buyers should be careful in re- 
gard to this point, as a large per cent of fat would 
be worse than useless for the purpose of the feeder. 

It will be noticed that corn fodder and green bar- 
ley are the only green foods used in making up the 
rations quoted. But in regions where alfalfa or 
clover can be successfully and economically grown 
they would be much more suitable for supplying this 
part of the ration, as they are considerably richer in 
flesh formers. 

The examples given are merely illustrations of the 
method employed in the making up of rations and 
can be varied according to the materials at the com- 
mand of the feeder. 

The great necessity of water for the hen is shown 
by the high content of this element in the body and 
also in the egg. In one dozen eggs there is almost 
one pint of water. About four gallons of good clean 
water are required per day for 100 hens. The more 
"green" food the fowls have the less will be the 
quantity of water needed. 

When the hens are not laying they only require a 
subsistence diet, which is not as rich a one as that 
for hens during the laying period, either in flesh- 
formers or fat-formers and heat-producers ; neither 
is there any necessity for the oyster shells or substi- 

Foods for Growing Fowls. — The amcunt of food re- 
quired for growing chicks and pullets is larger than 
that for full-grown fowls. According to Prof. 
Wheeler of New York, the quantities of water-free 
food requisite for every 100 pounds live weight fed is: 
10.6 pounds at about one pound average weight ; at 
two pounds, 7.5 pounds ; at three pounds, 6.4 pounds; 
at four pounds, 5.5 pounds ; at five pounds, 5.3 
pounds ; at six pounds, 4.9 pounds ; at seven pounds, 
4.7 pounds ; at eight pounds, 4 pounds ; at nine 
pounds, 3.3 pounds ; at ten pounds average weight, 
3.2 pounds. 

The amount of green or fresh food equivalent to 
the above different weights would be correspondingly 
increased. Prof. Wheeler further states that these 
are the amounts taken by the growing fowls, which 
normally attain to the higher weights given, and 
which are still immature and growing rapidly when 
at five and six pounds average weight. 

The nutritive ratio of the ration, or the ratio be- 
tween the flesh formers and fat and heat producers, 
will vary according to the maturity of the hen and 
the period of feeding. The nutritive ratio in the case 
of growing chicks should be narrower, that is, there 
should be in the ration a larger proportion of flesh 
formers than when the hen is mature or when she is 
being fattened for the market. For the latter pur- 
purpose the flesh formers would be small compared 
to the fat and heat producers and the ration would be 
wide or carbonaceous. 

Nitrogenous and Carbonaceous Rations Compared. — 
Investigations in this line were made at the Cornell 
Station by Mr. J. E. Rice. Two lots of hens and 
chicks were selected. Lot No. 1 were fed on a nitrog- 

enous ration consisting of one-third wheat bran, 
one-third wheat shorts and one-third cottonseed 
meal. This mixture was fed in connection with skim 
milk in the proportion of one of the mixture to two 
of skim milk. Lot 2 had a carbonaceous ration made 
up of cracked maize and maize dough. Both lots had 
a small amount of green clover as long as it lasted 
and then cabbage. The duration of the experiment 
was 125 days. The conclusions were : So far as it 
is warrantable to draw any from a single experiment 
of this kind, it would seem that: 

Chickens fed on an exclusive corn diet will not 
make a satisfactory development, particularly of 

The bones of chickens fed upon a nitrogenous 
ration are 50 per cent stronger than those fed upon 
a carbonaceous ration. 

Hens fed on a nitrogenous ration lay many more 
eggs but of smaller and of poorer quality than those 
fed on corn. 

Hens fed on corn, while not suffering in general 
become sluggish, deposit large masses of fat on the 
internal organs and lay but few eggs, though of large 
size and of excellent quality. 

The flesh of the nitrogenous-fed fowls contains 
more albuminoids and less fat than those fed on a 
carbonaceous ration, and is darker colored, juicier 
and more tender. 

Animal Versus Vegetable Foods. — At the Hatch Ex- 
periment Station an experiment was made with a 
view of ascertaining which was the better for egg 
production, animal or vegetable foods. The results 
were decisive against the vegetable food and in favor 
of the animal, in so far as effect upon egg production 
is concerned. The fowls receiving animal food were, 
moreover, in much better condition at the close of 
this experiment than the others. 

Meat Meal Versus Cut Fresh Bone. — Another exper- 
iment was undertaken at the same station compar- 
ing dried animal, or meat meal, with cut fresh bone. 
A variety of foods supplied, artificial grit and oyster 
shells, were given ad lib. 

The results are undecisive and the experiment will 
be repeated, but the indications are that meat meal 
is a safer feed than the bone. It is also a much 
cheaper one, and if it will give practically as many 
eggs, it is to be preferred. 


Different Honey Bees Contrasted. 

No doubt many of our beekeeping readers will be 
interested in reading an up-to-date discussion of the 
distinguishing characters and qualities of the sev- 
eral species of honey bees which are grown in this 
country. We find such an account in the Govern- 
ment pamphlet by Frank Benton, which was pub- 
lished in such small numbers that but few beekeep- 
ers can get a copy of it. For this reason Mr. Ben- 
ton's writing, as the latest in the line, will be wel- 

Varieties of the Common Hive or Honey i?e<\— Be- 
sides the common brown or German bee imported 
from Europe to this country some time in the Seven- 
teenth century and now widely spread from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific, several other races have been 
brought here — the Italian in 1860, and later the 
Egyptian, the Cyprian, the Syrian, the Palestine, the 
Carniolan and the Tunisian. Of these the brown or 
German, the Italian, and, in a few apiaries, the 
Carniolan bees are probably the only races existing 
pure in the United States, the others having become 
more or less hybridized with the brown race or 
among themselves or their cultivation having been 
discontinued. It should also be remarked that so 
few have kept their Carniolans pure, that purchasers 
who wish this race should use caution in their selec- 
tion or else import their own breedingqueens. There 
are many breeders of Italians from whom good stock 
can be obtained. Eyptian bees were tried some 
thirty years ago, but only to a very limited extent, 
and, as has been the case with Syrians and Pales- 
tines imported in 1880, and whose test was more pro- 
longed and general, they were condemned as inferior 
in temper and wintering qualities to the races of 
bees already here, it not being thought that these 
points of inferiority were sufficiently balanced by 
their greater prolificness and their greater energy in 
honey collecting. 

The Tunisians, for similar reasons, and also be- 
cause they are great collectors of propolis, never be- 
came popular, although a persistent attempt was 
made a few years since to create sale for them under 
the new name of "Punic bees," the undesirable 
qualities of the race having previously been made 
known, under the original name, by the author, who 
had tested them carefully for several years — a part 
of the time in Tunis. 

Cyprians. — Bees of the race native to the island of 
Cyprus have produced the largest yield of honey on 
record from a single colony in this country — 1000 
pounds in one season. Everyone who has fairly 
tested them admits their wonderful honey- gathering 
powers and their persevering courage in their la- 

bors even when the flowers are secreting honey but 
scantily. They winter well and defend their hiv>>s 
against robber bees and other enemies with greater 
energy than any other known race. When storing 
honey Cyprians fill the cells quite full before sealing, 
and thus the capping rests against the honey, pre- 
senting a semi-transparent or "watery" appear- 
ance, which is undesirable. They are extremely sen- 
sitive, hence easily angered by rough or bungling 
manipulators, and, when once thoroughly aroused, 
are very energetic in the use of their stings. These 
faults have caused a very general rejection of Cypri- 
ans, especially by those who produce comb honey. 
Even the producers of extracted honey do not seem 
to have learned how to manipulate Cyprians easily 
and without the use of much smoke, nor how much 
more rapidly they could free their extracting combs 
from Cyprian bees than from Italians. Nor have 
they seemed to count as of much importance the fact 
that Cyprians, unlike Italians and German or common 
bees, do not volunteer an attack when undisturbed ; 
that they will, in fact, let one pass and repass their 
hives quite unmolested and even under such circum- 
stances as would call forth a vigorous and very disa- 
greeable protest from the other races just men- 
tioned. It is to be regretted that there has been such 
a widespread rejection of a race having such im- 
portant and well-established excellent qualities. It 
would be easier by selection in breeding to reduce the 
faults of this race than to bring any other cultivated 
race to their equal in the other desirable points. 

Cyprians are smaller-bodied and more slender than 
bees of European races. The abdomen is also more 
pointed and shows, when the bees are purely bred, 
three light orange bands on the three segments near- 
est the thorax. The under side of the abdomen is 
even lighter orange colored nearly or quite to the 
tip. The postcutellum — -the small lunule-like promi- 
nence on the thorax between the bases of the wings 
— is likewise orange colored, instead of dull, as in 
European races. The rest of the thorax is covered 
with a russet-brown pubescence. Cyprians are the 
yellowest of the original races, and their bright col- 
ors and symmetrical forms render them attractive 

Italians. — Through the agency of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, bees of this race were 
introduced direct from Italy in 1860. There had pre- 
viously been repeated individual efforts to secure 
Italians bred in Germany, where the race had been 
introduced some years earlier, and a small number 
of queens had been landed here alive in the autumn 
of 1859, but most of these died the following winter, 
and the few remaining alive seem not to have multi- 
plied as rapidly as those obtained in Italy by a pur- 
chasing agent of the Department of Agriculture and 
landed here early in 1860. Their good qualities were 
soon appreciated, and they had become well estab- 
lished and widely spread long before the Cyprians, 
imported twenty years later. For this reason, to- 
gether with the fact that they cap their surplus 
combs whiter than some other races and because less 
skill is required in subduing and handling Italians, 
they have retained their popularity over bees which, 
though better honey gatherers, are more nervous 
under manipulation. Their golden-yellow color has 
also proved so attractive to many that the good 
qualities of more somber-hued races — gentler, better 
winterers and better comb builders — have not re- 
ceived due consideration. Italians, are however, cer- 
tainly preferable to the common brown or black 
bees, for they show greater energy in gathering 
honey and in the defense of their hives against moth 
larva 1 and robber bees, while at the same time they are 
gentler under manipulation than the blacks, though 
they do not winter as well in severe climates. 

Italian workers are nearly Carniolans in size, and 
show across the abdomen when the latter is distended 
with honey not less than three yellow bands, which 
approach more or less a reddish or dark leathery 
color. By selection in some instances, and in others 
by the introduction of Cyprian blood, Italians and 
Italian hybrids have recently been bred which show 
four or five yellow bands or which are even yellow to 
the tip of the abdomen. They are certainly pleasing 
to the eye, and in case due heed has been given to the 
vigor and working qualities of the stock selected 
when establishing the strain, no valid objection can 
be brought against them, except the tendency they 
have to revert to the original type of Italians. This 
is due to the comparatively short time they have 
been bred, and with each season's selection will of 
course grow less. 

Carniolans. — These, the gray bees from the elevated 
Alpine province of Carniola, Austria, are the gen- 
tlest of all races, and as, besides their other good 
qualities, they winter the best of any, it is not sur- 
prising to see that they have steadily grown in favor. 
Their sealed combs are exceedingly white, as they 
do not fill the cells so full that the honey touches the 
capping, and they gather little propolis, qualities 
highly appreciated by the producer of comb honey. 
They are quite prolific, and, if kept in small hives, 
such as have been popularized of late in the United 
States, are somewhat more inclined to swarm than 
the other races introduced here. This .tendency be- 
comes more pronounced when they are taken into a 
country whose summers are hot, like ours, and their 
hives are not well shaded, as they have been bred for 


August I, 18<)»). 

centuries, with ouly slight, introduction of outside 
blood, in a climate where the summers are short and 
cool. Moreover, the practice in Carniola is to place 
the long, shallow hives used almost exclusively there 
in beehouses and side by side, one above the other, 
with intervening air spaces, so that at most only the 
front ends are exposed to the sun. This management 
long continued has doubtless tended to develop and 
fix more or less permanently in this race certain 
characteristics which should be taken into account in 
their management elsewhere. With these precau- 
tions, they do well in all parts of the United States. 

The Carniolan worker is readily recognized by its 
large form, less pointed abdomen, and general ashy 
gray coat, the abdominal segments especially pre- 
senting a ringed appearance on account of silvery 
white hairs which cover the posterior half of each of 
these segments. By crossing Carniolans with Ital- 
ians or with Cyprians a yellow type with silvery 
rings is produced, and by continued selection in 
breeding the gentle disposition of the Carniolans can 
be secured with the greater honey-gathering powers 
of Cyprians, should these be employed in forming the 
new strain. 

(/irmuii, Common Black, or Broun Bees. — These 
bees are found commonly throughout our country 
from ocean to ocean, both wild and domesticated. 
Exactly when they were introduced from Europe is 
not known, but considerable evidence exists which 
shows that there were no hive bees {dpi* nullified) in 
this country for some time after the first colonies 
were established ; also, it was not until near the close 
of the last century that they reached the Mississippi 
and less than half a century has passed since the first 
were succassfully landed on the Pacific coast. 

Many beekeepers, having more attractively col- 
ored and frequently better bees, are inclined to con- 
sider this race as possessing hardly any redeeming 
qualities, or at least to underrate these because ac- 
companied by undesirable traits. While it is true 
that' they have some serious faults, the latter are not 
so great as those of some other races. They have 
become thoroughly acclimated since their first im- 
portation, over two centuries ago, and besides pos- 
sessing good wintering and comb-building qualities, 
they will, when the flow of honey is quite abundant, 
generally equal Italians in gathering. But the dis- 
position which bees of this race have of flying toward 
one who approaches the apiary and stinging him, 
even though the hives have not been molested, their ! 
way of running excitedly over the combs and drop- | 
ping in bunches when they are handled, besides j 
stinging the backs of the operator's hands, unless | 
the whole colony has first been thoroughly subdued j 
and the bees induced to gorge themselves with 
honey, or are constantly deluged with smoke, are j 
very annoying to the novice who undertakes to per- 
form necessary manipulations with them, and may j 
even so discourage and daunt him as to cause the 
neglect of work of great importance to the welfare 
of the colony. The easy discouragement of bees of j 
this race when a sudden check in the flow of honey 
oooura is also a peculiarity which does not commend 
them. These things, tending to reduce profits, often 
dampen the beginner's enthusiasm before he has ac- 
quired the knowledge and skill necessary to make the 
work genuinely successful. He had, therefore, bet- 
ter choose Italians or Carniolans, and use as breed- 
era only queens that are known to have mated 

The common race shows considerable variation in 
its markings and qualities. The workers have a dull, 
rusty brown color, especially about the thorax. 
Some strains are, however, much darker than others 
and in general the drones are darker than the work- 

ers. In size workers, drones and queens of this race 
are intermediate between the other European races 
and those from the Orient. The same care and skill 
applied in the selection of breeding stock would re- 
sult in as great improvement in this as in any of the 
more attractive yellow races. 

Value of Bees to Apricot Growers. 

Dr. E. Gallup of Santa Ana writes to the Bee 
Journal a strong plea for bees in the orchard. This 
season has been a very peculiar one for California. 
Our apricots usually bear full crops every other year, 
and this should have been the bearing year; but ow- 
ing to the unusually cool, dry weather while they 
were in bloom, the crop is extremely light in many 
places, and in some localities almost a failure. Now 
this could have been remedied. How ? Why, by 
having bees to fertilize the bloom. 

This article is suggested by the complaint of a 
friend. He had a large colony of bees take possession 
of the roof of his tank-house some time in April, and 
now he is in a sweat as to how to get rid of them, as 
he says they are a terrible nuisance on the apricots 
while drying, etc. That they do work on apricots 
while drying, especially over-ripe ones, is a fact 
which I am not going to deny. Now this friend has 
a very light crop of apricots, and is very anxious to 
make the most of them, and I want to whisper in his 
ear a trifle: 

Friend S., providing you had four or six colonies of 
bees to fertilize your apricots while in bloom, you 
would have had a heavy crop; and knowing that the 
bees were the cause of the heavy crop, could you 
have begrudged them the small quantity of juice tbey 
would have taken while they were drying ? You dis- 
cover the bees on the drying trays, and do you not 
imagine that they are doing a great sight more harm 
than they really are ? You are a pretty close ob- 
server in most cases; please look into this matter 

Now for facts: At the time the trees were in 
bloom, it was so cool that bees could fly but a short 
distance from their hives, and only a few hours in the 
day. I notice some twenty trees on First street 
literally loaded with nice fruit, while a short distance 
from them the trees are almost bare of fruit. There 
is a cause for this, and what is that cause ? Why, 
there are two large colonies of bees in the cornice of 
a house adjoining the lots where those trees are. 

I met a friend three days ago; he was makiug 
preparations for apricot drying. " Well, how is 
your crop ? " I asked. " I never had a heavier crop, 
or a finer one; and as my neighbors have only very 
light crops, and some of them almost none at all, I 
expect to get a good price for mine." 

So you see this friend was in extra good spirits. 
Why does he have such a fine crop ? There must be 
a cause, and what Is It? Why, a widow has some 
eight colonies of bees iu box-hives just across the 
street, only a few rods from friend H.'s apricot trees. 
Now, in all probability, this same man will find fault 
with the widow's bees for taking a trifle of the juice 
while his fruit is drying ! Let the bees have a trifle 
for their labor ! The laborer is worth of his hire; 
muzzle not the ox that treadeth out the corn. 

the harvest is now on the market, setting in a small 
way at the prices given in our market quotations." 

The American Bee Journal says this is the judg- 
ment of the oldest and most extensive honey dealer 
' in Chicago— a man who, though very quiet, keeps in 
j touch with the honey producers all over the country. 
! In view of the above Eastern producers are urged to 
j exercise great care not to flood any one market with 
j honey, and thus break down prices. Neither should 
they neglect nearby markets and ship to a distance. 
The home demand should be carefully met first. The 
Eastern producers will have much less trouble from 
California competition this year. 

Father Langstroth's Twelve Axioms. 

The Eastern Honey Crop. 

Messrs. R. A. Burnett & Co., of Chicago, had this 
to say about the present honey crop: 

" The prospects are that the largest flow of honey 
ever secured east of the Rocky mountains to the 
Alantic coast will be obtained this season. Some of 

Perfect familiarity with the following "first prin- 
ciples" of bee-keeping, as laid down by the veteran 
apiarist, the late L. L. Langstroth, will save begin- 
ners many a worry, and prevent some of the com- 
moner mistakes: 

1. Bees gorged with honey never volunteer an at- 
tack. Thus, bees that come back loaded from the 
field, or bees that have gorged themselves for swarm- 
ing, are not dangerous. 

2. The bees that are to be feared are those that 
have joined a swarm without fully gorging them- 
selves. In the hive, the guardians and the old bees 

| that are ready to depart for the field are the most 

3. During a good honey harvest the bees are 
nearly all filled with honey, and there is but little 
danger from stinging. 

4. Those races of bees that cannot be compelled, 
by smoke, to fill themselves with honey are the most 
dangerous to handle. 

5. Bees dislike any quick movements about their 
hives, especially auy motion that jars their combs. 

6. The beekeeper will ordinarily derive all his 
profits from colonies, strong and healthy iu early 

7. In districts where forage is abundant only for 
a short period, the largest yield of honey will be 
secured by a very moderate increase of colonies. 

8. A moderate increase of colonies in anyone sea- 
son will, in the long run, prove to be the easiest, 
safest and cheapest mode of managing bees. 

9. Queenless colonies, unless supplied with a 
queen, will inevitably dwindle away or be destroyed 
by the bee moth or by robber bees. 

10. It must be obvious to every intelligent bee- 
keeper that the perfect control of the combs of the 
hive is the soul of a system of practical management, 
which may be modified to suit the wants of all who 
cultivate bees. 

11. A man who knows " all about bees " and does 
not believe that anything more can be gained by 
reading bee journals, new bee books, etc., will soon 
be far beyond the age. Yet, as what is written in 
the journals and books, ours included, is not always 
perfectly correct, every beekeeper should try to 
sift the grain from the chaff. 

12. The formation of new colonies should ordina- 
rily be confined to the season when bees are accumu- 
lating honey; and if this or any other operation must 
be performed when forage is scarce, the greatest 
precautions should be used to prevent robbing. 

The essence of all profitable beekeeping is con- 
tained in (Ettl's golden rule: " Keep Your Colonies 

Fruit Driers' and Packers' Supplies. 




F* r u n e Machine. 


For Illustrated Catalogue of General Orchard Supplies, Address 


338 and 340 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cah 



The Fruit at one Operation. 
Different Sizes and Prices; with or without Grader. Hand and Power Machines. 

Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. 

J. B. BURRELL, 447-449 West Santa Clara Street, San Jose, Cal. 

KBLBPHONE HI \< K 1208. 

August 1, 1896. 

The Pacific Rural Press. 


% The 43rd Great State Fair of California ** 

THREE WEEKS, September 1st to lQth, 


The Soil Products of this great agricultural State will be a leading feature 

The Mechanical Display will be as attractive as unual, and made up of live exhibits of machin- 
ery and neat designs of goods. 

The Live Stock will form a most important division of this season s exhibit; competitive tests 
will be held among the various dairy and beef breeds of cattle. 

The Poultry Exhibit will form one of the most interesting features of the fair 

The Racing Programme will be of unusual excellence, inviting contests between the highest 
class of horses. . . _ , .... 

The Exposition Building will be a blaze of electricity , affording every advantage for the exhibi- 
tion of all kinds of articles. 

EDVTVy I IN F\ SMITH, Secretary. 

Electric Motive Power generated at Folsom, twenty-two miles distant, will turn every wheel and 
furnish brilliant lights for the entire exhibition. Space, power and light furnished free to all exhibitors. 

Athletic Sports, Bicycle Races, Ladies' Tournaments, and other entertainments will occupy 
the mornings at the park. . 

Cassasa's Great Exposition Band will give high-class concerts at the pavilion each evening. 

The Manufactures of California can meet the consumers to a better advantage at the State 
Fair, by reason of its varied attractions, than at any other public gathering in the State. Exhibit 
your goods and let the people know what is made at home. 

Free transportation for exhibits, and reduced rates of fare will be given on all railroads. 

Address the Secretary for information of any character. Premium lists now ready. 

C. M. CHASE, President. 

> No Bloaters, Better Pruit and More of It. 

It Saves You Time, Fuel, Lye and $s. 

WHEW VHTT RTIV The "ACME" Perforator and Grader, 

YY iXCll X VfU DU i. , FOR PRUNES AND PLUMS. (Patented February 5, 1895.) 


ad H.H.H." ak 

Horse Medicine! 

D. D T ., I O O B . 

Will Remove All Callous Lamps, Spavins, j 
Wind Galls, Ring Bone, Pole Evil, and Will I 
Cure Sweeney, Scratches, Sore Shoulders, Dis- | 
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All Blemishes on the Horse. 


Do not be deceived by anyone who says he has as 
good or better liniment than the H.H.H., for he is 
an impostor and you will surely waste your money 
if you buy it. Insist on having the H.H.H. and no 
other. Examine uvcry bottle to see if the name of 
Henry H. Moore is on label pasted on bottle, and 
the firm name is on outside cover of wrapper, be- 
fore you buy it. 

Manufactured by 

Cor. Sutter St. and Miner Ave., 



Prepares Prunes and Plums for the dry ground with more absolute certainty and less labor 
than the dipper. Repeated tests have shown that the fruit cures heavier — from 4 to 6 per cent — 
and has a better flavor; in other words, it carries more sugar. The capacity of these machines 
varies from 12 to 100 tons per day. 

Send for Descriptive Circular. 

H. n. BARNGROVER, Prop., 340 West Santa Clara St., San Jose, Cal. 


Manufacturing Co. 

Successors to 
The S. F. Tool Co. 

Builders of all kinds 
of Pumping Machinery 
for Irrigation and 
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Triple - Acting Pumps, Deep Well Pumps, 
Windmills, Tanks for Water and Wine, Link 
Belt Elevators and Conveyors, Link Chain and 
Sprocket Wheels, Wine Presses (hydraulic or 
screw), Orape Crushers and Stemmers, Pipe 
and Fittings. 


51 Beale and 9 to \7 Stevenson, 

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All worthy inventions patented through Dew- 
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Standard | 

Write to 

Stanton, Thomson & Co. 

Sacramento, Cal., 

For Catalogue 
and Prices. 


Hay Rake. \ 

STANDARD of the 

World— the 
Model for others to 



A user in Hollister says: We bought a High 
Grade belt of you last season, 160 ft. long, 8 ins. 
wide, 4-ply, lacing it with Kerr's Wire Lacing, and 
it run on our machine without interruption during 
the season, without stretching or breaking, and 
apparently it is good for another season's run. 

Genuine Dodge Wood Split Pulleys; 
Grant Corundum and Detroit Emery Wheels. 

! Simonds Saws. Simonds Genuine Babbitt. 

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Monarch — Junior Monarch 

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patentee, Jacob Price. 


(Two Sizes.) 


WM. H. GRAY General Agent. 






A substitute for Oil Paint and Whitewash. 
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Coast, 23 Davis St., Room 11, San Francisco, Cal. 



Owing to old age and Inability to work. I would 
now Bell a half Interest In two or three Navel 
Orange Groves, near town, at much less than 
t In ir vame and on very easy terms to the right 
kind of a younger man, to work and manage them. 
An unequaled opportunity for an industrious man 
to Becure a competence without risk. Address 

To Lease on Shares or for Cash, 320 acres 
level land, fenced, all been in grain. House and 
barn. Situate two miles from railroad station in 
Butte county, California. 

To Lease on Shares or for Cash. 240 acres 
level land, fenced, all been in grain. House and 
I barn. Railroad runs through the land. Situate 
1 about three miles from railroad station in Butte 
! county, California. 

To Lease on Shares or for Cash, 4500-acre 
improved farm, fenced. House, barns, blacksmith 
j shop on the premises. About 1000 acres summer- 
] fallowed. Horses and implements can go with the 
farm Situate in Colusa and Glenn counties. 
! Railroad station adjoins the land. First-class 
j opportunity. For further particulars, apply to 


GEN. J. H. FOUNTAIN, Riverside, Cal. 508 California Street. . , San Francisco. 


The Pacific Rural Press 

August 1, 1890 

Here and Now. 

Here in the heart of this world, 

Here in the noise of the din ; 
Here where our spirits were hurled 

To battle with sorrow and sin— 
This is the place and the spot 

For knowledge of infinite things; 
This is the kingdom where Thought 

Can conquer the prowess of kings. 

Wait for no heavenly life, 

Seek for no temple alone : 
Here in the midst of the strife 

Know what the sages have known. 
See what the Perfect One saw, 

God in the depths of each soul ; 
God as the Light and the Law, 

God as beginning and goal. 

Earth is one chamber of heaven, 

Death is no grander than birth ; 
Jov in the life that is given, 

Strive for perfection on earth. 
Here in the turmoil and roar, 

Show what it is to be calm; 
Show how the spirit can soar, 

And bring back its healing and balm. 

Stand not aloof or apart, 

Plunge in the thick of the fight; 
There in the street and the mart, 

That is the place to do right. 
Not in some cloister or cave, 

Not in some kingdom above; 
Here on this side of the grave. 

Here should we labor and love. 

—Ella Wheeler Wilcox. 

Some Day of Days. 

Some day, some day of days, treading the 

With idle, heedless pace, 
Unlooking for such grace, 
I shall behold your face. 
Some day, some day of days, thus may we 

Perchance the suu may shine from skies of 

Or winter's icy chill 
Touch lightly vale and hill; 
What matter; I shall thrill 
Through every vein with summer on that 

Once more life's perfect youth will all come 

And for a moment there 
I shall stand fresh and fair, 
And drop the garment care; 
Once more my perfect youth shall nothing 

I shut my eyes now, think how 'twill be, 

How, face to face, each soul 

Will slip its long control, 

Forget the dismal dole 
Of dreary fate's dark separating sea. 

And glance to glance, and hand to hand in 

The past with all its fears, 

In silence and its tears, 

Its lonely, yearning years, 
Shall vanish in the moment of that meeting. 

— Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. 

Rosine's Romance. 

When Miss Magnolia carefully with- 
drew the dress from the great cedar 
trunk, unpinned the old damask table- 
cloth which enveloped it, and spread 
out its shining folds for the admiration 
of her niece, Rosine, that young lady 
clasped her hands and quoted Keats: 

"'A thing of beauty is a joy for- 
ever,' " she said. 

Miss Magnolia nodded and smiled. 
She was small and round and brown as 
a maiden lady of a decidedly certain 
age could be. But her heart, which 
had been full of sentiment once, was a 
warm and sensitive organ still. And 
she took a deal of interest in Rosine's 

"Yes, my dear, it is a thing of beauty. 
And to think I never wore it but twice ! 
Dear, dear ! " 

" You had a lover then, auntie ? " 
asked Rosine. 

" Yes, pet. This was one of the 
dresses I got for my marriage. But 
he went away on — business, he said — 
and never came back. It is just the 
gown for your fancy-dress ball," hurried 
on Miss Magnolia. " A trifle short, of 
course, but there is quite a piece turned 
in at the top that you could let down. 
You shall go as a lady of long ago." 

"Not so very long ago." protested 
Rosine, with a laugh. " But really, 
auntie, I don't like to take it; it is too 

"Not for a raiment of war? Re- 
member, you are going to conquer the 
dragon ! " 

"That is so. And the master should 
have written, ' Thrice is she armed 
who wears a pretty dress.' " 

The foe agaiust whom Miss Rosine 

Wilde purposed arraying herself was 
the obdurate uncle of her handsome 
lover. He had promply and perversely 
opposed the marriage of his nephew. 
The young fellow would have ignored 
the refusal of his relative were it not 
that the old gentleman had always been 
very kind to him; had, indeed, taken 
the place of his dead father. So he 
had decided that Rosine should meet 
his uncle, and put his prejudice to rout. 

" He is coming to visit an old friend 
I of his," Cyril has said — "Judge Char- 
treau. You know the Chartreau family. 
Of course, you have heard they are 
going to give a fancy-dress ball next 
month in honor of the coming of their 
daughter Lisette. You will receive a 
card. You will attend. You will meet 
Uncle Albert, and you will take his 
heart by storm ! 

Hopefully he had planned his scheme; 
enthusiastically had he explained it. 
But Rosine protested. It was to be a 
yrand ball, and she had nothing to 
wear. Besides, she did not like the 
idea of plotting to make a person like 
her. And — 

"Bless you!" cried Cyril, "he 
doesn't dislike you. I don't believe he 
even knows your name. His resent- 
ment is general, not particular. As 
soon as I told him I was in love with a 
southern girl, he — he (I have to drop 
into slang, Rosine) — he sat square down 
on me. It seems a southern girl jilted 
him when he was young, and he is bound 
to save me from a like awful fate. But 
when he once sees you he is bound to 
capitulate. He is a regular old brick — 
Uncle Albert I " 

" But I have nothing to wear. And 
what is more, I cannot buy a dress for 
the Chartreau ball. We— Aunt Magnolia 
and I — are as poor as the proverbial 
church mice." 

But just then Miss Magnolia came to 
Rosine's relief, like a regular little 
fairy god-mother. 

" The very thing ! " she cried — " my 
primrose satin." 

Rosine regarded her dubiously, de- 
lightedly. She knew her auut had 
always guarded jealously her trunk of 
treasures, her jewels, her laces, her 
rich, stiff, glistening old brocades. 

" Do you mean it, auntie ? " 

Miss Magnolia's bright old eyes 
winked very rapidly indeed. 

"I do, my dear. I was young once 

And that was how Rosine Wilde came 
to be the belle of Mme. Chartreau's 
fancy-dress ball. The proposed festiv- 
ity had been the talk of New Orleans 
for several weeks. The night long an- 
ticipated was cool, crisp, sweet and 
pearly. The broad-balconied old resi- 
dence of St. Charles street was bril- 
liantly lighted up. Many a carriage 
rolled up, rolled off. When Rosine de- 
scended from the barouche of her chap- 
eron, she felt somewhat nervous, though 
conscious she was looking remarkably 
well — as, indeed, she was. Quite a 
picture was the pretty young figure in 
the clinging gown of pale yellowish 
satin, picturesquely puffed and quaintly 
fashioned. The corsage, cut roundly, 
revealed the firm, full throat. Dainty 
mouseskin swathed the arms, which, if 
slender, were also exquisitely rounded; 
and the small, olive-tinted face was lit 
to loveliness by pansy black eyes. A 
flash of adoration succeeded the serene 
nonchalance of Cyril Rodney's counte- 
nance as he caught sight of her. He 
made his way to her side. 

"Queen Rosine!" he murmured. 
" You're by far the prettiest girl here 
to-night. Poor uncle Albert ! How 
complete will be his surrender ! " 

She swept him a mocking courtesy. 

" Ah ! " she said, smilingly, " if that 
conviction were but mine — 

The sentence ended in a long, soft 

Si te pas gagne," he began. " Con- 
found it, I never can get my tongue 
aroung your creoleisms ! The saying 
is, however, that if there were uo sigh- 
ing in the world the world would stifle. 
Now prepare to face the music ! 

And off he went. He soon returned. 
By his side was a sturdy old gentleman. 

Rosine's heart beat more rapidly. 

" The dragon 1 " she said. 

Silvery hair had the dragon. A dark 
mustache had the dragon. A florid 

complexion had the dragon. And a 
manner that was grave, dignified, 

" Uncle Albert," explained Cyril, 
with boyish eagerness, "this is Miss 
Rosine Wilde." 

"Wilde ! " The old gentleman started 
perceptibly. He looked at the blush- 
ing girl, at the yellowish gown. He 

" And," avowed young Rodney, send- 
ing his sweetheart a swi